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Particulate matter and fertility

Andrey Massarsky, Audrey J Bone, Wu Dong, David E Hinton, G L Prasad, Richard T Di Giulio
The zebrafish embryo has been proposed as a 'bridge model' to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. Previous studies showed that exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) led to adverse effects in developing zebrafish, and suggested that the antioxidant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathways play important roles. This study investigated the roles of these two pathways in mediating TPM toxicity. The study consisted of four experiments. In experiment I, zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6h post fertilization (hpf) until 96hpf to TPM0...
October 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
J Marvin Herndon
BACKGROUND: U.S. military perception of nuclear warfare led to countless unethical nuclear experiments performed on unsuspecting individuals without their informed consent. As evidenced here, subsequent perception of weather warfare has led to exposing millions of unsuspecting individuals to toxic coal fly ash with no public disclosure, no informed consent, and no health warnings. METHODS: Three methods were used: (1) comparison of eight elements analyzed in rainwater samples, thought to have leached from aerosolized coal fly ash, with corresponding coal fly ash laboratory leachate; (2) comparison of 14 elements analyzed in air filter dust with corresponding elements in coal fly ash; and (3) comparison of 23 elements analyzed in fibrous mesh found after snow melted with corresponding elements in coal fly ash...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Sven Sindern, Martin Tremöhlen, Larissa Dsikowitzky, Lars Gronen, Jan Schwarzbauer, Tuti Hartati Siregar, Farida Ariyani, Hari Eko Irianto
Sediment geochemistry of the Jakarta region, a densely populated tropical coast, is studied - with particular focus on rivers discharging to Jakarta Bay. Weathering volcanics in the river catchment area control the composition of major elements, As, Cr and in part Cu. In contrast, Zn, Ni, Pb and partly Cu are affected by anthropogenic sources, mainly in central Jakarta City. The data reflect a high variability of local emission sources, among which metal processing industries, fertilizers or untreated animal waste may be important...
September 30, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Bingzi Zhao, Jiabao Zhang, Yueyue Yu, Douglas L Karlen, Xiying Hao
Returning crop residue may result in nutrient reduction in soil in the first few years. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether this negative effect is alleviated by improved crop residue management (CRM). Nine treatments (3 CRM and 3 N fertilizer rates) were used. The CRM treatments were (1) R0: 100 % of the N using mineral fertilizer with no crop residues return; (2) R: crop residue plus mineral fertilizer as for the R0; and (3) Rc: crop residue plus 83 % of the N using mineral and 17 % manure fertilizer...
September 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jing Tian, Jingyuan Wang, Michaela Dippold, Yang Gao, Evgenia Blagodatskaya, Yakov Kuzyakov
The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment...
June 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ghida Nouhad Itani, Colin Andrew Smith
Dust rains may be particularly effective at delivering microorganisms, yet their biodiversities have been seldom examined. During 2011 and 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon, 16 of 21 collected rainfalls appeared dusty. Trajectory modelling of air mass origins was consistent with North African sources and at least one Southwest Asian source. As much as ~4 g particulate matter, ~20 μg DNA, and 50 million colony forming units were found deposited per square meter during rainfalls each lasting less than one day. Sequencing of 93 bacteria and 25 fungi cultured from rain samples revealed diverse bacterial phyla, both Gram positive and negative, and Ascomycota fungi...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chao Yan, Xi-ning Cao, Lian-ju Shen, Dong-yao Liu, Jin-pu Peng, Jin-jun Chen, Zhou Yue, Chun-lan Long, Tao Lin, Da-wei He, Xu-liang Li, Guang-hui Wei
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) from automobile exhaust on the reproductive function of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: Forty-five male SD rats, weighing 80 - 94 g and aged 28 days, were randomly assigned to receive intra-tracheal administration of 0.9% normal saline (control group, n = 15), PM2. 5 at 2 μg per 100 g body weight per day (low-dose PM2.5 group, n = 15), and PM2.5 at 16 μg per 100 g body weight per day (high-dose PM2...
February 2016: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Xiaolin Dou, Ping He, Ping Zhu, Wei Zhou
Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm), and three density fractions: free light fraction (LF), intra-aggregate particulate organic matter (iPOM), and mineral-associated organic matter (mSOM)...
2016: Scientific Reports
A A Markus, J R Parsons, E W M Roex, P de Voogt, R W P M Laane
As engineered nanoparticles of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and silver, are increasingly used in consumer products, they will most probably enter the natural environment via wastewater, atmospheric deposition and other routes. The aim of this study is to predict the concentrations of these nanoparticles via wastewater emissions in a typical river system by means of a numerical model. The calculations rely on estimates of the use of nanomaterials in consumer products and the removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants as well as model calculations of the fate and transport of nanoparticles in a riverine system...
March 15, 2016: Water Research
Joana D'Arc de Paula, Flávio Jesus Luizão, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade
Despite the strong representativeness of streams in the Amazon basin, their role in the accumulation of coarse particulate organic carbon (CPOC), fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in transport, an important energy source in these environments, is poorly known. It is known that the arboreal vegetation in the Amazon basin is influenced by soil fertility and rainfall gradients, but would these gradients promote local differences in organic matter in headwater streams? To answer this question, 14 low-order streams were selected within these gradients along the Amazon basin, with extensions that varied between 4 and 8 km...
June 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Laura Rix, Jasper M de Goeij, Christina E Mueller, Ulrich Struck, Jack J Middelburg, Fleur C van Duyl, Fuad A Al-Horani, Christian Wild, Malik S Naumann, Dick van Oevelen
Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges...
2016: Scientific Reports
S Mahalingaiah, J E Hart, F Laden, L V Farland, M M Hewlett, J Chavarro, A Aschengrau, S A Missmer
STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between air pollution exposures and incident infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Increased exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Exposures to air pollution have been associated with lower conception and fertility rates. However, the impact of pollution on infertility incidence is unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Prospective cohort study using data collected from 116 430 female nurses from September 1989 to December 2003 as part of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort...
March 2016: Human Reproduction
Yongjie Yang, Rui Zhou, Yan Yan, Yue Yu, Junqing Liu, Yi'an Di, Zhenyu Du, Dan Wu
Size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from July 2012 to September 2013 at Shigatse, high-altitude (3836 m above sea level) site on the south Tibetan Plateau (TP); objectives were to determine the characteristics and size distribution of water-soluble ions (WSIs). Eight major WSIs (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NH4(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NO3(-)) were detected by ion chromatography. The total concentrations of WSIs were 6370 ± 1916 ng m(-3) in dry season (October - December, January - April), and 5261 ± 769 ng/m(3) during wet phase (May - September)...
February 2016: Chemosphere
Rui Shu, Fei Dang, Huan Zhong
Differently-treated crops straw is being widely used to fertilize soil, while the potential impacts of straw amendment on the biogeochemistry and phytoavailability of mercury in contaminated soils are largely unknown. In the present study, differently-treated rice straw (dry straw, composted straw, straw biochar, and straw ash) was incorporated into mercury-contaminated soil at an environment relevant level (1/100, w/w), and mercury speciation, methylmercury (MeHg) phytoavailability (using ammonium thiosulfate extraction method, validated elsewhere) and bioaccumulation (in Indian mustard Brassica junceas) were quantified...
February 2016: Chemosphere
Adilson C Dalmora, Claudete G Ramos, Xavier Querol, Rubens M Kautzmann, Marcos L S Oliveira, Silvio R Taffarel, Teresa Moreno, Luis F O Silva
Ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been the subject of some concern recently around the world for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the mining district of Nova Prata in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS and granulometric distribution analysis...
February 2016: Chemosphere
Andrey Massarsky, Nishad Jayasundara, Jordan M Bailey, Anthony N Oliveri, Edward D Levin, G L Prasad, Richard T Di Giulio
Cigarette smoke has been associated with a number of pathologies; however, the mechanisms leading to developmental effects are yet to be fully understood. The zebrafish embryo is regarded as a 'bridge model'; however, not many studies examined its applicability to cigarette smoke toxicity. This study examined the effects of total particulate matter (TPM) from 3R4F reference cigarettes on the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to two concentrations of TPM (0.4 and 1...
September 2015: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Saïdou Nourou Sall, Ndèye Yacine Badiane Ndour, Siré Diédhiou-Sall, Richard Dick, Jean-Luc Chotte
Soil degradation and salinization caused by inappropriate cultivation practices and high levels of saltwater intrusion are having an adverse effect on agriculture in Central Senegal. The residues of Piliostigma reticulatum, a local shrub that coexists with crops, were recently shown to increase particulate organic matter and improve soil quality and may be a promising means of alleviating the effects of salinization. This study compared the effects of inorganic fertilizer and P. reticulatum residues on microbial properties and the ability of soil to withstand salinity stress...
September 15, 2015: Journal of Environmental Management
Zenah Bradford-Hartke, Joe Lane, Paul Lant, Gregory Leslie
The environmental benefits and burdens of phosphorus recovery in four centralized and two decentralized municipal wastewater systems were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). In centralized systems, phosphorus recovered as struvite from the solids dewatering liquid resulted in an environmental benefit except for the terrestrial ecotoxicity and freshwater eutrophication impact categories, with power and chemical use offset by operational savings and avoided fertilizer production. Chemical-based phosphorus recovery, however, generally required more resources than were offset by avoided fertilizers, resulting in a net environmental burden...
July 21, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Xi-Ning Cao, Chao Yan, Dong-Yao Liu, Jin-Pu Peng, Jin-Jun Chen, Yue Zhou, Chun-Lan Long, Da-Wei He, Tao Lin, Lian-Ju Shen, Guang-Hui Wei
Maintenance of male reproductive function depends on normal sperm generation during which process Sertoli cells play a vital role. Studies found that fine particulate matter (PM) causes decreased male sperm quality, mechanism of which unestablished. We aim to investigate the definite mechanism of PM impairment on male reproduction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily exposed to normal saline (NS) or PM2.5 with the doses of 9 mg/kg.b.w and 24 mg/kg.b.w. via intratracheal instillation for seven weeks. Reproductive function was tested by mating test and semen analysis after last exposure...
September 17, 2015: Toxicology Letters
John P Stegemeier, Fabienne Schwab, Benjamin P Colman, Samuel M Webb, Matthew Newville, Antonio Lanzirotti, Christopher Winkler, Mark R Wiesner, Gregory V Lowry
Terrestrial crops are directly exposed to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their environmentally transformed analog silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) when wastewater treatment biosolids are applied as fertilizer to agricultural soils. This leads to a need to understand their bioavailability to plants. In the present study, the mechanisms of uptake and distribution of silver in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were quantified and visualized upon hydroponic exposure to Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3 at 3 mg total Ag/L...
July 21, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
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