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Pollution and microRNA

Lixin Yang, Xiang-Yu Hou, Yongjie Wei, Phong Thai, Fahe Chai
Epidemiologic evidence supports the positive association of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, and lung cancer risk with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been proposed to be the major causal factors involved in mediating PM effects on both cardiovascular and pulmonary health outcomes. However, the mechanism whereby PM causes the health effects is not fully elucidated. To evaluate and investigate human exposure to PM, it is essential to have a specific, sensitive and robust characterization of individual exposure to PM...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Wenzhen Yuan, Ning Yang, Xiangkai Li
With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage...
2016: BioMed Research International
Mario Alberto Burgos-Aceves, Amit Cohen, Yoav Smith, Caterina Faggio
Elucidating the mechanisms of estrogens-induced immunomodulation in teleost fish is of great importance due to the observed worldwide continuing decrease in pristine environments. However, little is know about the immunotoxicological consequences of exposure to these chemicals in fish, or of the mechanisms through which these effects are mediated. In this review, we summarize the results showing estrogens (natural or synthetic) acting through estrogen receptors and regulating specific target genes, also through microRNAs (miRNAs), leading to modulation of the immune functioning...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Miguel Angel Brieño-Enríquez, Eduardo Larriba, Jesús Del Mazo
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmental pollutants that may change the homeostasis of the endocrine system, altering the differentiation of germ cells with consequences for reproduction. In mammals, germ cell differentiation begins with primordial germ cells (PGCs) during embryogenesis. Primordial germ cell development and gametogenesis are genetically regulated processes, in which the posttranscriptional gene regulation could be mediated by small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs)...
September 15, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Sneha Yogindran, Manchikatla Venkat Rajam
The insect pests are real threat to farmers as they affect the crop yield to a great extent. The use of chemical pesticides for insect pest control has always been a matter of concern as they pollute the environment and are also harmful for human health. Bt (Bacillus thuringensis) technology helped the farmers to get rid of the insect pests, but experienced a major drawback due to the evolution of insects gaining resistance towards these toxins. Hence, alternative strategies are high on demand to control insect pests...
October 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jinglou Chen, Lifen Du, Jingjing Li, Hongping Song
Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious environmental problem. Kidney is a main target organ of Cd toxicity. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against chronic renal injury and fibrosis induced by CdCl2. Rat model was induced by exposing to 250 mg/L CdCl2 through drinking water. The renal function was evaluated by detecting the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCR). The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and renal enzymatic antioxidant status...
October 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xiaobo Li, Yang Lv, Jihong Hao, Hao Sun, Na Gao, Chengcheng Zhang, Runze Lu, Shizhi Wang, Lihong Yin, Yuepu Pu, Rui Chen
Metals are vital toxic components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Cellular responses to exposure to PM2.5 or PM metal components remain unknown. Post-transcriptional profiling and subsequent cell- and individual-based assays implied that the metal ion-binding miR-4516/RPL37/autophagy pathway could play a critical role in cellular responses to PM2.5 and PM metal stresses. miR-4516 was up-regulated in A549 cells exposed to PM2.5 and in the serum of individuals living in a city with moderate air pollution...
June 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Banrida Wahlang, Michael C Petriello, Jordan T Perkins, Shu Shen, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is correlated with multiple vascular complications including endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PCB-induced activation of the vasculature subsequently leads to oxidative stress and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion proteins. Gene expression of these cytokines/proteins is known to be regulated by small, endogenous oligonucleotides known as microRNAs that interact with messenger RNA. MicroRNAs are an acknowledged component of the epigenome, but the role of environmentally-driven epigenetic changes such as toxicant-induced changes in microRNA profiles is currently understudied...
September 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Christopher F Rider, Masatsugu Yamamoto, Oliver P Günther, Jeremy A Hirota, Amrit Singh, Scott J Tebbutt, Chris Carlsten
BACKGROUND: Air pollution's association with asthma may be due to its augmentation of allergenic effects, but the role of microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression in this synergy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether exposure to allergen, exposure to diesel exhaust (DE), or coexposures modulate miRNA, gene expression, or inflammatory pathways and whether these measurements are correlated. METHODS: Fifteen participants with atopy completed this controlled study of 2 hours of filtered air or DE (300 μg PM2...
April 24, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Luigina Micolucci, Most Mauluda Akhtar, Fabiola Olivieri, Maria Rita Rippo, Antonio Domenico Procopio
BACKGROUND: Asbestos is a harmful and exceptionally persistent natural material. Malignant mesothelioma (MM), an asbestos-related disease, is an insidious, lethal cancer that is poorly responsive to current treatments. Minimally invasive, specific, and sensitive biomarkers providing early and effective diagnosis in high-risk patients are urgently needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs with established diagnostic value in cancer and pollution exposure. A systematic review and a qualitative meta-analysis were conducted to identify high-confidence miRNAs that can serve as biomarkers of asbestos exposure and MM...
June 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Lihong Li, Meizhao Xue, Huilan Yi
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major air pollutant and has significant impacts on plants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of gene expression regulators that play important roles in response to environmental stresses. In this study, deep sequencing was used for genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profiles in response to SO2 stress in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots. A total of 27 conserved miRNAs and 5 novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed under SO2 stress. qRT-PCR analysis showed mostly negative correlation between miRNA accumulation and target gene mRNA abundance, suggesting regulatory roles of these miRNAs during SO2 exposure...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ann Cuypers, Sophie Hendrix, Rafaela Amaral Dos Reis, Stefanie De Smet, Jana Deckers, Heidi Gielen, Marijke Jozefczak, Christophe Loix, Hanne Vercampt, Jaco Vangronsveld, Els Keunen
Plants exposed to excess metals are challenged by an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). The mechanisms underlying this oxidative challenge are often dependent on metal-specific properties and might play a role in stress perception, signaling and acclimation. Although ROS were initially considered as toxic compounds causing damage to various cellular structures, their role as signaling molecules became a topic of intense research over the last decade...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaobo Li, Yang Lv, Na Gao, Hao Sun, Runze Lu, Hongbao Yang, Chengcheng Zhang, Qingtao Meng, Shenshen Wu, Ai-Qun Li, Yankai Xia, Rui Chen
Recent studies have linked ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to increased lung cancer mortality and morbidity. However, the underlying mechanism causing the adverse effects of PM2.5 is less clear. In the present study, post-transcriptional profiling was used to explore biological pathways involved in PM2.5-induced pulmonary disorders. The carcinogenesis and metastasis of PM2.5 exposure were evaluated by long-term PM2.5 exposure tests. We observed dysregulation of actin in A549 cells line and dysplasia in the lungs of mice exposed to PM2...
June 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Maria Tsamou, Karen Vrijens, Narjes Madhloum, Wouter Lefebvre, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Tim S Nawrot
Particulate matter (PM) exposure during in utero life may entail adverse health outcomes in later-life. Air pollution's adverse effects are known to alter gene expression profiles, which can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We investigate the potential influence of air pollution exposure in prenatal life on placental miRNA expression. Within the framework of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, we measured the expression of six candidate miRNAs in placental tissue from 210 mother-newborn pairs by qRT-PCR. Trimester-specific PM2...
April 22, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Xiangsheng Hong, Jianhui Qin, Rui Chen, Lilai Yuan, Jinmiao Zha, Zijian Wang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which comprise a large family of endogenous small non-coding RNA molecules, play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in various biological processes. The Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) is a Chinese native fish species and is used extensively as an experimental fish in China; however, relevant biological data, especially miRNA transcriptome data, have not been well documented. To discover conserved and potential novel miRNAs in Chinese rare minnows, a pool of equal amounts of RNA obtained from 6 different adult rare minnow tissues (brain, eye, gill, liver, muscle and heart) was sequenced using illumina deep sequencing technology...
2016: BMC Genomics
Rodosthenis S Rodosthenous, Brent A Coull, Quan Lu, Pantel S Vokonas, Joel D Schwartz, Andrea A Baccarelli
BACKGROUND: Air pollution from particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however the underlying biological mechanisms remain to be uncovered. Gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) that are transferred between cells by extracellular vesicles (EVs) may play an important role in PM-induced cardiovascular risk. This study sought to determine if ambient PM2.5 levels are associated with expression of EV-encapsulated miRNAs (evmiRNAs), and to investigate the participation of such evmiRNAs in pathways related to cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Concettina Fenga, Silvia Gangemi, Chiara Costa
Benzene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon solvent and is known as one of the predominant air pollutants in the environment. Chronic exposure to benzene is known to cause aplastic anemia and increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia in humans. Although the mechanisms by which benzene causes toxicity remain to be fully elucidated, it is widely accepted that its metabolism is crucial to its toxicity, with involvement of one or more reactive metabolites. Novel approaches aimed at evaluating different mechanisms by which benzene can impact on human health by altering gene regulation have been developed...
April 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Rui Xiao, Alexandra Noël, Zakia Perveen, Arthur L Penn
Exposures to environmental pollutants contribute to dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles, which have been implicated in various diseases. Previously, we reported aggravated asthmatic responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged adult mice that had been exposed in utero to second-hand smoke (SHS). Whether in utero SHS exposure dysregulates miRNA expression patterns in the adult asthma model has not been investigated. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed (days 6-19 of pregnancy) to SHS (10 mg/m(3)) or HEPA-filtered air...
April 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Tijs Louwies, Caroline Vuegen, Luc Int Panis, Bianca Cox, Karen Vrijens, Tim S Nawrot, Patrick De Boever
INTRODUCTION: Air pollution, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, can exert its effects through the microcirculation. Retinal blood vessel width is considered a marker for microvascular health and is associated with short-term PM10 exposure. microRNAs are key regulators of complex biological processes in cardiovascular health and disease and miRNA expression can be affected by air pollution exposure. Studies investigating the effect of ambient air pollution exposure on miRNA expression in combination with an assessment of the microvasculature do not exist...
May 2016: Environmental Research
Seung-Chan Jeong, Mi-Kyung Song, Yoon Cho, Eunil Lee, Jae-Chun Ryu
MicroRNA (miRNA) is now attracting attention as a powerful negative regulator of messenger RNA(mRNA) levels, and is implicated in the modulation of important mRNA networks involved in toxicity. In this study, we assessed the effects of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ), one of the most significant air pollutants, on miRNA and target gene expression. We exposed human alveolar epithelial cell (A549) to two types of PM2.5 [water (W-PM2.5 ) and organic (O-PM2.5 ) soluble extracts] and performed miRNA microarray analysis...
January 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
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