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Azadeh Askari, Reza Nosratabadi, Mehdi Khaleghinia, Nahid Zainodini, Derek Kennedy, Ziba Shabani, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Nucleotide-binding domain leucine repeats (NLRs) are required for the recognition of various molecules that are expressed within microbes and are able to actuate appropriate immune responses via activation of cytokines. The current study evaluates the expression levels of NLRP1 and NLRC4, which are components of inflammasomes, in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus-infected patients. This study recruited two series of CHB patients (each contained 60 patients) and 60 healthy controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to evaluate mRNA expression levels of NLRP1, NLRP3, and NLRC4 as well as hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA copy number...
October 17, 2016: Viral Immunology
Ennio Polilli, Federica Sozio, Paola Di Stefano, Antonina Sciacca, Tamara Ursini, Maurizio Paoloni, Jacopo Vecchiet, Dante Di Giammartino, Maria Pina Sciotti, Alessandro Grimaldi, Valerio Cortesi, Paolo Fazii, Elena Ricci, Claudio D'Amario, Giuseppe Ippolito, Lucio Pippa, Giustino Parruti
Undiagnosed cases of HIV infection in developed countries are estimated at 20-30% of individuals living with HIV. Web-based strategies may represent a new approach to easier, wider, and unrestricted access to early testing. The Abruzzo Region, Italy, developed a Web-based tool to recruit persons at high risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). At the Website , browsers found information on STIs (HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis), a structured questionnaire called "risk calculator" to assess one's own risk behaviors and direct booking of their test at one of six sites throughout the region...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Foram Maulin Patel, Parijath N Goswami
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is well known to induce a spectrum of acute and chronic liver diseases. There has been global decline in the prevalence of hepatitis D infection. The aim of the present study was to know the presence of acute HDV infection among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 5043 samples were subjected for routine testing of HBV, HIV and HCV by ELISA method...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Vijay K Karra, Soumya J Chowdhury, Rajesh Ruttala, Sunil K Polipalli, Premashis Kar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Quantification of serum hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) is an important test that marks active infection with hepatitis B and helps in the prediction of the clinical outcome and management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Correlation with HBV DNA quantitative levels may help in developing strategies for antiviral treatment. This study is aimed to evaluate HBsAg titres in various phase of HBV infection in HBsAg positive patients, and its correlation with HBV DNA viral load levels...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Charles Béguelin, Darius Moradpour, Roland Sahli, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Alexander Lüthi, Matthias Cavassini, Huldrych F Günthard, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra Calmy, Dominique Braun, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of HDV infection in the nationwide Swiss HIV Cohort Study and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with a positive HBsAg test were considered and tested for anti-HDV antibodies. HDV amplification and sequencing were performed in anti-HDV-positive patients...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Yuchen Xia, Arnaud Carpentier, Xiaoming Cheng, Peter Daniel Block, Yao Zhao, Zhensheng Zhang, Ulrike Protzer, T Jake Liang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: One major obstacle of hepatitis B virus (HBV) research is the lack of efficient cell culture system permissive for viral infection and replication. The aim of our study was to establish a robust HBV infection model by using hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells. METHODS: HLCs were differentiated from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Maturation of hepatocyte functions was determined...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Shu-Chi Wang, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Jeng-Fu Yang, Ko Chang, Wei-Ru Lin, Chun-Yu Lin, Tun-Chieh Chen, Jee-Fu Huang, Chia-Yen Dai, Jih-Jin Tsai, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
In Taiwan, injecting drug use has been the main route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission since 2005, with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) also having similar transmission routes. This has now become an important public health issue. The aim of this study is to explore the conditions of HDV infections between injecting drug users (IDUs) with and without HIV infection in Southern Taiwan. In this study, 87 IDUs were enrolled, including 27 anti-HDV seronegative IDUs and 60 anti-HDV seropositive IDUs, and the results of their liver function tests, CD4 cell counts, and anti-HIV and HIV RNA levels were analyzed...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Alberto Zanetto, Alberto Ferrarese, Ilaria Bortoluzzi, Patrizia Burra, Francesco Paolo Russo
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects more than 260 million people globally, with increasing incidence, especially in developing countries. Despite antiviral therapies, HBV-related end-stage liver disease remains one of the most important indications for liver transplantation worldwide. Although new available treatments have improved the outcome of patients with both compensated and decompensated liver disease in some specific clinical settings as acute-on-chronic liver failure mortality is still high. Moreover, the incidence of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) seems to be increasing and represents a major challenge for the transplant team...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Li-Bo Yan, Hui-Ying Rao, Yuan-Ji Ma, Lang Bai, En-Qiang Chen, Ling-Yao Du, Rui-Feng Yang, Lai Wei, Hong Tang
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in China. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral interactions and host genotypes of HBV/HCV dual infection compared with HCV monoinfection. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: China. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: 997 patients with HCV from 28 university-affiliated hospitals in China were enrolled in this research...
October 12, 2016: BMJ Open
Han Ah Lee, Yeon Seok Seo, Seung Woon Park, Sang Jung Park, Tae Hyung Kim, Sang Jun Suh, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Hyunggin An, Hyung Joon Yim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun, Soon Ho Um
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clear indicators for stopping antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are not yet available. Since the level of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is correlated with covalently closed circular DNA, the HBsAg titer might be a good indicator of the off-treatment response. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the HBsAg titer and the entecavir (ETV) off-treatment response. METHODS: This study analyzed 44 consecutive CHB patients (age, 44...
September 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
John D Campbell
The development of aluminum salts (alum) as vaccine adjuvants was an empirical process with little understanding of the mechanism of action and, with decades of use, it has become clear that there is a need for alternatives where alum-based adjuvants are suboptimal. Oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG sequences represent one alternative as they are potent stimulators of the vertebrate innate immune system through activation of Toll-like receptor-9. This chapter outlines the methods used by Dynavax Technologies to progress a CpG-containing oligonucleotide sequence termed 1018 through preclinical and clinical testing as an adjuvant for immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hamid Kalantari, Faezeh Ferdowsi, Majid Yaran
BACKGROUND: The absence of a detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) or hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) in the presence of hepatitis B virus-DNA (HBV-DNA) is defined as occult HBV infection. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) in Isfahan, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross sectional study was done on 400 patients without acute or chronic HBV infection with end-stage renal disease undergoing regular HD...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Rajneesh Kumar, Barbara Testoni, Judith Fresquet, Tony Kiat Hon Lim, Ying Hao, Hui Hui Tan, Wan Cheng Chow, Fabien Zoulim
: Hepatitis B is leading cause of liver related morbidity in Asia with predominant genotypes B and C in East-asia. Data on Serum, intrahepatic viral-markers and long-term follow-up of prevalent genotypes (GT) B and C in patients with biopsy proven advanced fibrosis is sparse. AIMS: To compare serum, intrahepatic viral-markers and development of Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) in GT-B and C in patients with advanced fibrosis (Ishak≥4) METHOD: 63 treatment-naïve patients identified with advanced fibrosis on liver-biopsy performed between 1998-2000 at Singapore-General-Hospital...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Ömer Karadağ, Timuçin Kaşifoğlu, Birol Özer, Sabahattin Kaymakoğlu, Yeşim Kuş, Murat İnanç, Gökhan Keser, Sedat Kiraz
Biological drugs (tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, rituximab, tocilizumab, abatacept, and tofacitinib) are important treatment alternatives in rheumatology, particularly for resistant patients. However, they may cause hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) reactivation; for instance, HBV reactivation may occur in a patient who is an inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier or who has resolved HBV infection. Therefore, the screening of patients before biological treatment and the application of a prophylactic treatment, particularly with respect to latent HBV infections, are recommended when necessary...
March 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Umut Kalyoncu, Hakan Emmungil, Ahmet Mesut Onat, Sedat Yılmaz, Timuçin Kaşifoglu, Servet Akar, Nevsun İnanç, Fatih Yıldız, Orhan Küçükşahin, Ömer Karadağ, Rıdvan Mercan, Cemal Bes, Veli Yazısız, Barış Yılmazer, Mustafa Özmen, Şükran Erten, Soner Şenel, Ayten Yazıcı, Koray Taşçılar, Melike Kalfa, Sedat Kiraz, Bünyamin Kısacık, Yavuz Pehlivan, Levent Kılıç, İsmail Şimşek, Ayşe Çefle, Nurullah Akkoç, Haner Direskeneli, Eren Erken, Murat Turgay, Mehmet Akif Öztürk, Mehmet Soy, Kenan Aksu, Ayhan Dinç, İhsan Ertenli
OBJECTIVE: The reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well-known event in hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg)-positive patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the antiviral practice and course of HBV infection in inflammatory arthritis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen rheumatology centers participated in this retrospective study. HbsAg-positive patients who were taking disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and who were being tested for HBV viral load at a minimum of two different time points were included...
December 2015: Eur J Rheumatol
Martin Feuchtenberger, Arne Schäfer, Axel Philipp Nigg, Michael Rupert Kraus
BACKGROUND: Only limited data are available on the prevalence of hepatitis B in patients with proven rheumatic diseases and thus the risk of reactivation under immunosuppressive therapy. OBJECTIVE: To analyse hepatitis B serology in patients with rheumatic diseases prior to therapy. METHOD: In total, 1,338 patient records were analysed for HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb in a cross-sectional, single-centre study between 2011 and 2015 at first presentation...
2016: Open Rheumatology Journal
Zhou Jun, Chen Zhen, Zhang QuiuLi, An YuanQi, Verónica Vocero Casado, Yuan Fan
Currently, conventional enzyme immunoassays which use manual gold, and colloidal tests (GICT) are used as a screening tool to detect Treponema pallidum (syphilis), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV 1/2) in patients undergoing surgery. The present observational, cross-sectional study compared the sensitivity, specificity and workflow characteristics of the conventional algorithm using manual GICT with a newly proposed algorithm that uses automated BIO-FLASH® technology as a screening tool in patients undergoing gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Adrià Ramírez-Mena, Tracy R Glass, Annja Winter, Namvua Kimera, Alex Ntamatungiro, Christoph Hatz, Marcel Tanner, Manuel Battegay, Hansjakob Furrer, Gilles Wandeler, Emilio Letang
Background.  We evaluated the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals enrolled in a rural Tanzanian prospective cohort and assessed hepatic fibrosis progression 12-24 months after antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Methods.  All ART-naive HIV-infected adults ≥15-year-old enrolled in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort who started ART between 2005 and 2015 were included. Pre-ART factors associated with significant liver fibrosis (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index [APRI] >1...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Therese Högfeldt, Crystal Jaing, Kevin Mc Loughlin, James Thissen, Shea Gardner, Abeer A Bahnassy, Baback Gharizadeh, Joachim Lundahl, Anders Österborg, Anna Porwit, Abdel-Rahman N Zekri, Hussein M Khaled, Håkan Mellstedt, Ali Moshfegh
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in adults, accounts for approximately 30-40% of newly diagnosed lymphomas worldwide. Environmental factors, such as viruses and bacteria, may contribute to cancer development through chronic inflammation and the integration of oncogenes, and have previously been indicated in cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer and lymphoproliferative disorders. In the present study, the presence of microbial agents was analyzed in the lymphoma tissue of patients with activated B-cell like (ABC) DLBCL...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Jing Tan, Shiyao Huang, Guolin He, Li Tang, Yan Ren, Jinghuan Zheng, Xinghui Liu, Xin Sun
Objective To explore the impact of maternal hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier status on neonatal outcomes. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from medical records database of six hospitals in China. Information on maternal characteristics and selected neonatal outcomes was retrieved for all women who delivered singleton infants between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2010.Results A total of 21,947 singleton newborns and their mothers were included. The prevalence of maternal HBsAg positivity was 4...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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