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Pollution and diabet

Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Hui-Chen Cheng, Ren-Hao Pan, Huan-Jui Yeh, K Robert Lai, May-Yung Yen, Chien-Lung Chan, An-Guor Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate whether daily changes in ambient air pollution were associated with an increased risk of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). DESIGN: Retrospective population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: We identified patients newly diagnosed with CRAO between 2001 and 2013 in a representative database of 1 000 000 patients that were randomly selected from all registered beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan...
October 13, 2016: Ophthalmology
Mei-Chun Lu, Panchalli Wang, Tsun-Jen Cheng, Chun-Pai Yang, Yuan-Horng Yan
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the indicators of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 3589 non-diabetic pregnant women who underwent a 3-h 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were enrolled from a tertiary teaching hospital in Chiayi City, Taiwan between 2006 and 2014. Fasting, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h glucose levels after an OGTT were used as indicators of glucose homeostasis. PM2.5 and other air pollution data were obtained from one fixed-site monitoring station (Chiayi City station) operated by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA)...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Research
Marina Vafeiadi, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of diverse substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides that are resistant to biodegradation and ubiquitously present in our environment. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as POPs has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic disturbances in epidemiological and animal studies, but little is known about POPs exposure during pregnancy and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
October 12, 2016: Environment International
Ubiratan Paula Santos, Maria Lúcia Siqueira Bueno Garcia, Alfésio Luís Ferreira Braga, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Chin An Lin, Paulo Afonso de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva de André, Julio da Motta Singer, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva
BACKGROUND: The effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function in adults are still controversial. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of exposure to different levels of traffic-generated PM2.5 on workers' lung functions in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: To cover a wide range of exposures, 101 non-smoking workers from three occupations (taxi drivers, traffic controllers, and forest rangers) were selected for the study. After clinical evaluation, the participants were scheduled to attend four consecutive weekly visits in which they received a 24-hour personal PM2...
2016: PloS One
Min Soo Jung, Jae Yoon Kim, Hyun Seung Lee, Chul Gab Lee, Han Soo Song
BACKGROUND: To identify adverse renal effects due to air pollution derived from a cement plant in Korea. Urinary n-acetyl-B-glucosaminidase (U-NAG) levels in residents living near a cement plant were compared to those in a group who lived farther away from the plant. METHODS: From June to August 2013 and from August to November 2014, laboratory tests for U-NAG and heavy metal were conducted on 547 study participants. Based on the level of air pollution exposure, subjects were divided into the "less exposed group," (LEG) which consisted of 66 persons who lived more than 5 km away from the cement plant, the "more exposed group from the rural area" (MEG-R), which consisted of 272 persons, and the "more exposed group from downtown area" (MEG-D), which consisted of 209 persons who lived within a 1 km radius of the cement plant...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Małgorzata Kowalska, Krzysztof Kocot
Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
David K Cundiff, Paul S Agutter
BACKGROUND: Nutrition researchers recently recognized that deficiency of vitamin K2 (menaquinone: MK-4-MK-13) is widespread and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The deficiency of vitamin K2 or vitamin K inhibition with warfarin leads to calcium deposition in the arterial blood vessels. METHODS: Using publicly available sources, we collected food commodity availability data and derived nutrient profiles including vitamin K2 for people from 168 countries...
August 24, 2016: Curēus
Mutlay Sayan, Brooke T Mossman
The concept of the inflammasome, a macromolecular complex sensing cell stress or danger signals and initiating inflammation, was first introduced approximately a decade ago. Priming and activation of these intracellular protein platforms trigger the maturation of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, most notably, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, to promulgate innate immune defenses. Although classically studied in models of gout, Type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis, the importance and mechanisms of action of inflammasome priming and activation have recently been elucidated in cells of the respiratory tract where they modulate the responses to a number of inhaled pathogenic particles and fibres...
2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Bita Eslami, Kazem Naddafi, Noushin Rastkari, Batool Hossein Rashidi, Abolghasem Djazayeri, Hossein Malekafzali
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may play an important role in increasing the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 10 congeners) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, 8 congeners) and GDM in primiparous women with no family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives during the third trimester of pregnancy...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Research
M Songini, C Mannu, C Targhetta, G Bruno
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from an autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells that requires lifelong insulin treatment. While significant advances have been achieved in treatment, prevention of complications and quality of life in diabetic people, the identification of environmental triggers of the disease is far more complex. The island of Sardinia has the second highest incidence of T1D in the world (45/100,000), right after Finland (64.2/100,000). The genetic background as well as the environment of the island's inhabitants makes it an ideal region for investigating environmental, immunological and genetic factors related to the etiopathogenesis of T1D...
September 17, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Kathrin Wolf, Anita Popp, Alexandra Schneider, Susanne Breitner, Regina Hampel, Wolfgang Rathmann, Christian Herder, Michael Roden, Wolfgang Koenig, Christa Meisinger, Annette Peters
Insulin resistance (IR) is present long before the onset of type 2 diabetes and results not only from inherited and lifestyle factors but likely also from environmental conditions. We investigated the association between modelled long-term exposure to air pollution at residence and biomarkers related to IR, subclinical inflammation and adipokines.Data was based on 2,944 participants of the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region Augsburg) F4 study conducted in southern Germany (2006-2008). We analysed associations between individual air pollution concentration estimated by land use regression and HOMA-IR, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, leptin, and hs-CRP from fasting samples using multivariable linear regression models...
September 7, 2016: Diabetes
Jordan Kuiper, Michelle Moran, Marina Cetkovic-Cvrlje
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence has been steadily rising across the globe. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) has been implied as one potential cause of increased T1D occurrence. Since data regarding the role of POP polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) in autoimmune T1D development in experimental animal models are lacking, this study sought to evaluate the effect of PCB-153 exposure on T1D development in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. As T1D is an autoimmune, T-cell-dependent disease, PCB-153 effects on T-cells were studied as well...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Jouko Tuomisto, Riikka Airaksinen, Hannu Kiviranta, Erkki Tukiainen, Juha Pekkanen, Jouni T Tuomisto
A number of studies have found an association between the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and type 2 diabetes. Causality has remained uncertain. This study describes the pharmacokinetic behavior of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) both in a theoretical model based on elimination rate constants, and in a group of 409 adult surgical patients with known PCDD/F concentrations and dietary information. A model assuming 10% annual decrease in past PCDD/F intake, predicted the measured profile of TEQ (toxic equivalents) in the patient population fairly well...
November 2, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Adriana González-Villalva, Laura Colín-Barenque, Patricia Bizarro-Nevares, Marcela Rojas-Lemus, Vianey Rodríguez-Lara, Isabel García-Pelaez, Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Nelly López-Valdez, Juan Carlos Albarrán-Alonso, Teresa I Fortoul
There are evidences of environmental pollution and health effects. Metals are pollutants implicated in systemic toxicity. One of the least studied effects, but which is currently becoming more important, is the effect of metals on glycemic control. Metals have been implicated as causes of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress and are associated to obesity, hyperglycemia and even diabetes. Arsenic, iron, mercury, lead, cadmium and nickel have been studied as a risk factor for hyperglycemia and diabetes. There is another group of metals that causes hypoglycemia such as vanadium, chromium, zinc and magnesium by different mechanisms...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sonia Butalia, Gilaad G Kaplan, Bushra Khokhar, Doreen M Rabi
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that results from the destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. The excess morbidity and mortality resulting from its complications, coupled with its increasing incidence, emphasize the importance of better understanding the causes of this condition. Over the past several decades, a substantive amount of work has been done and, although many advances have occurred in identifying disease-susceptibility genes, there has been a lag in understanding the environmental triggers...
August 18, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Charlee Mulligan, Sandeep Kondakala, Eun-Ju Yang, John V Stokes, James A Stewart, Barbara L F Kaplan, George E Howell
Hepatic steatosis is recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. While obesity and type 2 diabetes are well-established risk factors in the development of hepatic steatosis, recent studies have revealed exposure to mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which are environmental contaminants in various fatty foods, can promote steatosis. Thus, the present study was designed to determine if exposure to a defined mixture of prevalent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides or their metabolites promote hepatic steatosis in a genetically induced model of type 2 diabetes, the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse...
August 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
M Di Pilla, R M Bruno, L Ghiadoni, F Stea, L Massetti, I Bertolozzi, S Taddei, P A Modesti
OBJECTIVE: The effects of seasonality on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular events are well established. However, the influence of seasonality and other environmental factors such as air pollutants on arterial stiffness, a key parameter for cardiovascular risk stratification in hypertensive patients, has never been analyzed. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating whether seasonality (daily number of hours of light) and acute variations in outdoor temperature and air pollutants may affect carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mark S Link, Michel Haïssaguerre, Andrea Natale
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered by cardiologists and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for AF include age, male sex, genetic predisposition, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, obesity, excessive alcohol, smoking, hyperthyroidism, pulmonary disease, air pollution, heart failure, and possibly excessive exercise. The management of AF involves decisions about rate versus rhythm control. Asymptomatic patients are generally managed with rate control and anticoagulation...
July 26, 2016: Circulation
Thomas Münzel, Mette Sørensen, Tommaso Gori, Frank P Schmidt, Xiaoquan Rao, Jeffrey Brook, Lung Chi Chen, Robert D Brook, Sanjay Rajagopalan
Traffic noise and air pollution together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes...
July 26, 2016: European Heart Journal
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