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Enviromental pollution

Zhilin Yang, Junxian Chen, Yang Zhou, Hui Huang, Dingguo Xu, Chaoyang Zhang
The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a highly toxic pollutant. Biodegradation is inevitably one of the most cost-effective and enviromentally friendly means of removing TNT pollution. However, the aromatic derivatives from the reduction of nitro groups by several classic enzymes are still toxic. Besides the reduction of nitro groups, pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase (PETNR) offers a potential route to ring fission and complete degradation of TNT through the pathway of the Meisenheimer complex...
May 3, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Derya Çamur, Çağatay Güler, Songül Acar Vaizoğlu, Betül Özdilek
An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul...
July 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Zhang Chen, Huidong Li, Lin Chu, Chenbin Liu, Shenglian Luo
A simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for Pb2+ detection has been reported using glutathione protected silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by salt amplification. The naked AgNPs aggregate under the influence of salt. Glutathione (GSH) can bind to AgNPs via Ag-S bond, helping AgNPs to against salt-induced aggregation. However, GSH binding to AgNPs can be compromised by the interaction between Pb2+ and GSH. As a result, Pb2+-mediated aggregation of AgNPs under the influence of salt is reflected by the UV-Visible spectrum, and the qualitative and quantitative detection for Pb2+ is accomplished, with the detection range 0...
February 2015: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Francesco Donato, Elena Raffetti
A case-study regarding the results of the SENTIERI project on the Brescia-Caffaro NPCS (National Priority Contaminated Site) is reported. This area has been polluted mainly by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which have been classified recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as human carcinogens (group 1), with sufficient evidence for melanoma and limited for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and breast cancer. The 3rd report of the SENTIERI project (2014) has shown an excess of cancer incidence with respect to the expected, on the basis of the incidence rates from the pool of Centre-North Italy cancer registries, but a mortality similar to that expected according to the regional rates, for melanoma, NHL and breast cancer...
November 2014: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Agnieszka Gielar, Edeltrauda Helios-Rybicka
The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions...
July 2013: Waste Management & Research
Ozlem Yildirim
Behçet's disease is a chronic, recurrent, multisystemic, inflammatory disorder affecting mainly the oral and urogenital mucosa and the uveal tract. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of Behçet's disease are unknown, numerous etiologies have been proposed, including environmental, infectious, and immunological factors; an autoimmune basis, characterized by circulating immune complexes and complement activation, has gained increasing acceptance. To test and understand immunopathogenesis of Behçet's disease, animal models were developed based on enviromental pollutants, bacterial and human heat shock protein derived peptides, and virus injections...
2012: Pathology Research International
E C Rada, M Ragazzi, D Zardi, L Laiti, A Ferrari
The present work indentifies some environmental and health impacts of a municipal solid waste bio-drying plant taking into account the PCDD/F release into the atmosphere, its concentration at ground level and its deposition. Four scenarios are presented for the process air treatment and management: biofilter or regenerative thermal oxidation treatment, at two different heights. A Gaussian dispersion model, AERMOD, was used in order to model the dispersion and deposition of the PCDD/F emissions into the atmosphere...
June 2011: Chemosphere
Damián Pérez-Quintanilla, Alfredo Sánchez, Isabel del Hierro, Mariano Fajardo, Isabel Sierra
Submicron particles of mesoporous MSU-2 silica have been obtained by using Tergitol NP-9 as nonionic surfactant and TEOS as silica precursor. The material has been chemically modified with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, TEM, SEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, 29Si-NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The enviromental application of such material (denoted MTTZ-MSU-2b) in the treatment of heavy metal-contaminated waters has been demonstrated...
August 2009: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Etesh K Janghel, J K Rai, S Khan, M K Rai, V K Gupta
Organophosphorus insecticides, monocrotophos and dichlrovos are increasingly being used in agriculture to control insects on a wide range of crops. Their ready access has resulted in misuse in many instances of homicidal and suicidal poisoning cases. This paper describes about a chromogenic spray reagent for the detection/determination of monocrophos and dichlrovos in environmental and biological samples by TLC and spectrophotometric method. Monocrotophos and dichlorvos on alkaline hydrolysis yield N-methyl acetoacetamide and dichlroacetaldehyde respectively, which in turn react with diazotized p-amino acetophenone to give red-violet and red coloured compounds...
April 2007: Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering
Ioannis S Arvanitoyannis, Theodoros H Varzakas
Vegetable industries have been considered responsible for a great amount of pollution; hence, there has been a strong need for the optimization of vegetable waste treatment systems. The currently employed systems are numerous and fall in the following large categories; thermal processes, evaporation, membrance processes, anaerobic digestion, anaerobic co-digestion, biodiesel spraying, combustion, transesterification, coagulation, and composting. Respective methodologies in conjunction with waste treatment methods were presented per waste treatment method...
March 2008: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Ioannis S Arvanitoyannis, Aikaterini Kassaveti, Stelios Stefanatos
Since olive oil industries were considered responsible for a great amount of pollution there has been a strong need for optimization of olive oil waste treatment systems. The currently employed systems are numerous and fall in the following large categories; bioremediation (ex-situ, in-situ), thermal processes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification), evaporation, membrance processes, electrolysis, ozonation, digestion, coagulation/flocculation/precipitation, and distillation. Both advantages and disadvantages in conjunction with respective methodology and explicit flow diagrams were presented per waste treatment method...
2007: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
E E Oruç, B Koçyiğit-Kaymakçioğlu, F Yilmaz-Demircan, Y Gürbüz, S Kalaça, S G Küçkgüzel, M Ulgen, S Rollas
Tobacco smoke exposure is an important and preventable cause of morbidity among children. Enviromental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases respiratory symptoms and disease and also decreases lung function in children who live in a household with at least one smoker. We have developed a simple and reliable HPLC method with diode array dedection to determine the urine concentrations of cotinine in children aged 3 to 6 years, exposed to ETS. The assay involved a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. The HPLC method utilized a Chromasil C18 column (150 mm x 4...
October 2006: Die Pharmazie
S Ghittori, M Ferrari, L Maestri, S Negri, P Zadra, C Gremita, M Imbriani
The chemical risk in service stations may be due to toxic compounds present in fuel (particularly benzene and additives) and to the emission of exhausts and fine particulate from vehicles. Owing to the elimination of lead (Pb) from fuel and to the necessity of lowering CO emission, several oxygenated additives have been added to fuel, in particular methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), whose toxic properties are at present under investigation. The introduction of reformulated gasoline (RFG) and the use of catalytic converters (with possible release of platinum (Pt) in the environment) may have modified the risks for workers employed in service stations...
April 2005: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
J C Sáez-Vergara, I M G Thompson, E Funck, C E Andersen, S Neumaier, L Bøtter-Jensen
As part of the European Research Council's Fourth Framework Programme, the EURADOS Action Group on Monitoring of External Exposures held an intercomparison of national network systems. This took place during May/June 1999 at the Risø Natural Enviromental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications...
2003: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
John J Stegeman, Andrew R Solow, Thomas J Goehl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2002: Environmental Health Perspectives
A Mayani, S Barel, S Soback, M Almagor
The concentrations of the enviromental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were measured in the blood of 44 infertile women with endometriosis (study group), and in 35 age-matched women with tubal infertility (control group). Eight women with endometriosis (18%) were dioxin positive as compared to one woman (3%) in the controls (P = 0.04). Although the concentrations of dioxin did not seem to be directly correlated with the severity of endometriosis, these observations contribute to the accumulating data linking dioxin to endometriosis in humans...
February 1997: Human Reproduction
R Cooke, I Toogood
The authors examined 47 lungs obtained at post mortem in Papua New Gunea. These were inflated with formalin, fixed under pressure, sliced and examined for emphysema using a "point-counting" method. There was no emphysema before the age of 30 years. The pathological types encountered were similar to those in the United Kingdom. In patients over 50 years of age there appeared to be little difference between the amount of emphysema present in Paua New Guinea and in the United Kingdom. Enviromental air pollution seemed to be relatively unimportant in the pathogenesis...
April 1975: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine
G Zamfir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1978: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
E L Matos, E S de Lustig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1978: Medicina
E Stranden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1977: Health Physics
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