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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803199/use-of-partial-order-in-environmental-pollution-studies-demonstrated-by-urban-btex-air-pollution-in-20-major-cities-worldwide
#1
Lars Carlsen, Rainer Bruggemann, Bulat Kenessov
Urban air pollution with benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) is a common phenomenon in major cities where the pollution mainly originates from traffic as well as from residential heating. An attempt to rank cities according to their BTEX air pollution is not necessarily straight forward as we are faced with several individual pollutants simultaneously. A typical procedure is based on aggregation of data for the single compounds, a process that not only hides important information but is also subject to compensation effects...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802208/acute-effects-of-visits-to-urban-green-environments-on-cardiovascular-physiology-in-women-a-field-experiment
#2
Timo Lanki, Taina Siponen, Ann Ojala, Kalevi Korpela, Arto Pennanen, Pekka Tiittanen, Yuko Tsunetsugu, Takahide Kagawa, Liisa Tyrväinen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between the amount of green space in the living environment and mental and cardiovascular human health. In a search for effect mechanisms, field studies have found short-term visits to green environments to be associated with psychological stress relief. Less evidence is available on the effect of visits on cardiovascular physiology. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether visits to urban green environments, in comparison to visits to a built-up environment, lead to beneficial short-term changes in indicators of cardiovascular health...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778040/health-impacts-related-to-urban-and-transport-planning-a-burden-of-disease-assessment
#3
Natalie Mueller, David Rojas-Rueda, Xavier Basagaña, Marta Cirach, Tom Cole-Hunter, Payam Dadvand, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Maria Foraster, Mireia Gascon, David Martinez, Cathryn Tonne, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Antònia Valentín, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
INTRODUCTION: Until now, estimates of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) have mainly been produced on national or regional levels. These general estimates, however, are less useful for city governments who have to take decisions on local scales. To address this gap, we focused on the city-level burden of disease (BD) due to exposures affected by urban and transport planning. We conducted a BD assessment using the Urban and Transport Planning Health Impact Assessment (UTOPHIA) tool to estimate annual preventable morbidity and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) under compliance with international exposure recommendations for physical activity (PA), exposure to air pollution, noise, heat, and access to green spaces in Barcelona, Spain...
October 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774119/effects-of-perforation-on-rigid-pu-foam-plates-acoustic-and-mechanical-properties
#4
Jia-Horng Lin, Yu-Chun Chuang, Ting-Ting Li, Chen-Hung Huang, Chien-Lin Huang, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Ching-Wen Lou
Factories today are equipped with diverse mechanical equipment in response to rapid technological and industrial developments. Industrial areas located near residential neighborhoods cause massive environmental problems. In particular, noise pollution results in physical and psychological discomfort, and is a seen as invisible and inevitable problem. Thus, noise reduction is a critical and urgent matter. In this study, rigid polyurethane (PU) foam plates undergo perforation using a tapping machine. The mechanical and acoustic properties of these perforated plates as related to perforation rate and perforation depth are evaluated in terms of compression strength, drop-weight impact strength, and sound absorption coefficient...
December 9, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773829/identification-of-material-parameters-for-the-simulation-of-acoustic-absorption-of-fouled-sintered-fiber-felts
#5
Nicolas Lippitz, Christopher Blech, Sabine Langer, Joachim Rösler
As a reaction to the increasing noise pollution, caused by the expansion of airports close to residential areas, porous trailing edges are investigated to reduce the aeroacoustic noise produced by flow around the airframe. Besides mechanical and acoustical investigations of porous materials, the fouling behavior of promising materials is an important aspect to estimate the performance in long-term use. For this study, two sintered fiber felts were selected for a long-term fouling experiment where the development of the flow resistivity and accumulation of dirt was observed...
August 22, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763732/exposure-to-air-pollution-and-noise-from-road-traffic-and-risk-of-congenital-anomalies-in-the-danish-national-birth-cohort
#6
Marie Pedersen, Ester Garne, Nete Hansen-Nord, Dorrit Hjortebjerg, Matthias Ketzel, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Mette Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with certain congenital anomalies, but few studies rely on assessment of fine-scale variation in air quality and associations with noise from road traffic are unexplored. METHODS: Among 84,218 liveborn singletons (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete covariate data and residential address history from conception until birth, we identified major congenital anomalies in 4018 children. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and noise from road traffic (Lden) burden during fetal life was modeled...
July 29, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754013/interference-effects-redress-over-power-efficient-wireless-friendly-mesh-networks-for-ubiquitous-sensor-communications-across-smart-cities
#7
Jose Santana, Domingo Marrero, Elsa Macías, Vicente Mena, Álvaro Suárez
Ubiquitous sensing allows smart cities to take control of many parameters (e.g., road traffic, air or noise pollution levels, etc.). An inexpensive Wireless Mesh Network can be used as an efficient way to transport sensed data. When that mesh is autonomously powered (e.g., solar powered), it constitutes an ideal portable network system which can be deployed when needed. Nevertheless, its power consumption must be restrained to extend its operational cycle and for preserving the environment. To this end, our strategy fosters wireless interface deactivation among nodes which do not participate in any route...
July 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751031/natural-and-anthropogenic-events-influence-the-soundscapes-of-four-bays-on-hawaii-island
#8
Heather L Heenehan, Sofie M Van Parijs, Lars Bejder, Julian A Tyne, Brandon L Southall, Hugh Southall, David W Johnston
The soundscapes of four bays along the Kona Coast of Hawaii Island were monitored between January 2011 and March 2013. Equivalent, unweighted sound pressure levels within standard 1/3rd-octave bands (dB re: 1μPa) were calculated for each recording. Sound levels increased at night and were lowest during the daytime when spinner dolphins use the bays to rest. A tsunami provided an opportunity to monitor the soundscape with little anthropogenic component. We detected a decrease in sound levels and variability in one of the busiest bays...
July 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749369/race-ethnicity-socioeconomic-status-residential-segregation-and-spatial-variation-in-noise-exposure-in-the-contiguous-united-states
#9
Joan A Casey, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Daniel J Mennitt, Kurt Fristrup, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Peter James
BACKGROUND: Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. METHODS: We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group-level median () nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile () daytime noise exposure...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748613/a-rapid-method-for-the-determination-of-brominated-flame-retardant-concentrations-in-plastics-and-textiles-entering-the-waste-stream
#10
Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Daniel S Drage, Martin Sharkey, Harald Berresheim, Stuart Harrad
Due to new European legislation, products going to waste are subject to "low persistent organic pollutant concentration limits". Concentrations of restricted brominated flame retardants in waste products must be determined. A rapid extraction and clean-up method was developed for determination of brominated flame retardants in various plastics and textiles. The optimised method used vortexing and ultrasonication in dichloromethane followed by sulfuric acid clean-up to determine target compounds. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and hexabromocyclododecane by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735150/inverse-relationship-between-urban-green-space-and-childhood-autism-in-california-elementary-school-districts
#11
Jianyong Wu, Laura Jackson
Green space has a variety of health benefits. However, little is known about its impact on autism, the fastest-growing neurodevelopmental disorder in children. This study examined the relationship between green space and childhood autism prevalence. Autism count data in 2010 were obtained for 543 of ~560 public elementary school districts in California. Multiple types of green space were measured in each school district, including percentages of forest, grassland, and average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy...
July 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722632/pilot-intervention-study-of-household-ventilation-and-fine-particulate-matter-concentrations-in-a-low-income-urban-area-dhaka-bangladesh
#12
Anne M Weaver, Shahana Parveen, Doli Goswami, Christina Crabtree-Ide, Carole Rudra, Jihnhee Yu, Lina Mu, Alicia M Fry, Iffat Sharmin, Stephen P Luby, Pavani K Ram
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for pneumonia; ventilation may be protective. We tested behavioral and structural ventilation interventions on indoor PM2.5 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We recruited 59 good ventilation (window or door in ≥ 3 walls) and 29 poor ventilation (no window, one door) homes. We monitored baseline indoor and outdoor PM2.5 for 48 hours. We asked all participants to increase ventilation behavior, including opening windows and doors, and operating fans. Where permitted, we installed windows in nine poor ventilation homes, then repeated PM2...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705631/assessment-and-monitoring-of-water-quality-of-the-gulf-of-morbihan-a-littoral-ecosystem-under-high-anthropic-pressure
#13
A Le Grand, V Maxime, M Kedzierski, H Duval, P Douzenel, O Sire, V Le Tilly
This field study is intended to propose a global methodology to assess and monitor the water quality of the gulf of Morbihan, a littoral ecosystem under increasing anthropic pressure. To this end, the Locmariaquer site, where Crassostrea gigas is extensively cultivated, was selected to perform a one-year follow-up of tissular glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase specific activities in this filter feeder organism. Calculation of an integrated index, corresponding to the ratio of the two enzymes activities, allowed to discriminate from the environmental noise, several clusters which could be representative environmental stress, potentially latent pollution...
July 10, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690815/how-weather-instead-of-urbanity-measures-affects-song-trait-variability-in-three-european-passerine-bird-species
#14
Julia E Schäfer, Marcel M Janocha, Sebastian Klaus, Dieter Thomas Tietze
Previous studies detected an influence of urban characteristics on song traits in passerine birds, that is, song adjustments to ambient noise in urban areas. Several studies already described the effect of weather conditions on the behavior of birds, but not the effect on song traits. We investigate, if song trait variability changes along a continuous urbanity gradient in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. We examined, for the first time on a larger scale, the influence of weather on song parameters. We made song recordings of three common passerine species: the blue and great tit (Cyanistes caeruleus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Parus major Linnaeus, 1758) and the European blackbird (Turdus merula Linnaeus, 1758)...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689697/an-innovative-parameter-estimation-for-fractional-order-systems-with-impulse-noise
#15
Rongzhi Cui, Yiheng Wei, Songsong Cheng, Yong Wang
This paper investigates the problem of parameter estimation for fractional order linear systems when the output signal is polluted by impulse noise. The conventional least square error objective function is replaced by a new approximate least absolute error (ALAE) function to restrain the influence of impulse noise. Then a novel parameter estimation approach is designed based on the stochastic gradient method, the fractional order parameter update law and the ALAE criterion, which improves estimation accuracy and enhances robustness at the same time...
July 6, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677924/-does-pollution-have-an-impact-on-blood-pressure
#16
Fatma Megdiche, Edward Pivin, Grégoire Wuerzner, Michel Burnier
Several important public health issues such as cardiovascular events are resulting from the actual levels of pollution. There are many sources of pollution ; the most common are loud noise, ambient temperature changes and air pollution. In this article, we try to bring out the impact of these factors on blood pressure, which is probably one of the mechanisms implicated in the upsurge of cardiovascular diseases and mortality.
September 14, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672128/exploring-pathways-linking-greenspace-to-health-theoretical-and-methodological-guidance
#17
REVIEW
Iana Markevych, Julia Schoierer, Terry Hartig, Alexandra Chudnovsky, Perry Hystad, Angel M Dzhambov, Sjerp de Vries, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Michael Brauer, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Gerd Lupp, Elizabeth A Richardson, Thomas Astell-Burt, Donka Dimitrova, Xiaoqi Feng, Maya Sadeh, Marie Standl, Joachim Heinrich, Elaine Fuertes
BACKGROUND: In a rapidly urbanizing world, many people have little contact with natural environments, which may affect health and well-being. Existing reviews generally conclude that residential greenspace is beneficial to health. However, the processes generating these benefits and how they can be best promoted remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: During an Expert Workshop held in September 2016, the evidence linking greenspace and health was reviewed from a transdisciplinary standpoint, with a particular focus on potential underlying biopsychosocial pathways and how these can be explored and organized to support policy-relevant population health research...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662977/anthropogenic-noise-compromises-the-anti-predator-behaviour-of-the-european-seabass-dicentrarchus-labrax-l
#18
Ilaria Spiga, Nicholas Aldred, Gary S Caldwell
Anthropogenic noise is a significant pollutant of the world's oceans, affecting behavioural and physiological traits in a range of species, including anti-predator behaviours. Using the open field test, we investigated the effects of recordings of piling and drilling noise on the anti-predator behaviour of captive juvenile European seabass in response to a visual stimulus (a predatory mimic). The impulsive nature of piling noise triggered a reflexive startle response, which contrasted the behaviour elicited by the continuous drilling noise...
June 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640685/understanding-and-improving-arterial-roads-to-support-public-health-and-transportation-goals
#19
Carolyn McAndrews, Keshia M Pollack, David Berrigan, Andrew L Dannenberg, Ed J Christopher
Arterials are types of roads designed to carry high volumes of motorized traffic. They are an integral part of transportation systems worldwide and exposure to them is ubiquitous, especially in urban areas. Arterials provide access to diverse commercial and cultural resources, which can positively influence community health by supporting social cohesion as well as economic and cultural opportunities. They can negatively influence health via safety issues, noise, air pollution, and lack of economic development...
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632198/community-response-to-multiple-sound-sources-integrating-acoustic-and-contextual-approaches-in-the-analysis
#20
Peter Lercher, Bert De Coensel, Luc Dekonink, Dick Botteldooren
Sufficient data refer to the relevant prevalence of sound exposure by mixed traffic sources in many nations. Furthermore, consideration of the potential effects of combined sound exposure is required in legal procedures such as environmental health impact assessments. Nevertheless, current practice still uses single exposure response functions. It is silently assumed that those standard exposure-response curves accommodate also for mixed exposures-although some evidence from experimental and field studies casts doubt on this practice...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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