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Clinical electrophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233290/-in-vitro-models-for-seizure-liability-testing-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Alastair I Grainger, Marianne C King, David A Nagel, H Rheinallt Parri, Michael D Coleman, Eric J Hill
The brain is the most complex organ in the body, controlling our highest functions, as well as regulating myriad processes which incorporate the entire physiological system. The effects of prospective therapeutic entities on the brain and central nervous system (CNS) may potentially cause significant injury, hence, CNS toxicity testing forms part of the "core battery" of safety pharmacology studies. Drug-induced seizure is a major reason for compound attrition during drug development. Currently, the rat ex vivo hippocampal slice assay is the standard option for seizure-liability studies, followed by primary rodent cultures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232686/novel-approach-to-discriminate-left-bundle-branch-block-from-nonspecific-intraventricular-conduction-delay-using-pacing-induced-functional-left-bundle-branch-block
#2
Eberhard P Scholz, Patrick Fischer, Patrick Lugenbiel, Panagiotis Xynogalos, Patrick A Schweizer, Daniel Scherer, Dierk Thomas, Hugo A Katus, Edgar Zitron
PURPOSE: Left bundle branch block (LBBB) has a predictive value for response to cardiac resynchronization therapy as reported by Zareba et al. (Circulation 123(10):1061-1072, 2011). However, based on ECG criteria, the discrimination between complete LBBB and nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay is challenging. We tested the hypothesis that discrimination can be performed using standard electrophysiological catheters and a simple stimulation protocol. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients were analyzed retrospectively...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231625/sensory-processing-phenotypes-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Maham Rais, Devin K Binder, Khaleel A Razak, Iryna M Ethell
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes intellectual disability. It is a leading known genetic cause of autism. In addition to cognitive, social, and communication deficits, humans with FXS demonstrate abnormal sensory processing including sensory hypersensitivity. Sensory hypersensitivity commonly manifests as auditory, tactile, or visual defensiveness or avoidance. Clinical, behavioral, and electrophysiological studies consistently show auditory hypersensitivity, impaired habituation to repeated sounds, and reduced auditory attention in humans with FXS...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231129/twenty-five-years-since-the-identification-of-the-first-sca-gene-history-clinical-features-and-perspectives-for-sca1
#4
Carlos Roberto Martins Junior, Fabrício Castro de Borba, Alberto Rolim Muro Martinez, Thiago Junqueira Ribeiro de Rezende, Iscia Lopes Cendes, José Luiz Pedroso, Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini, Marcondes Cavalcante França Júnior
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of monogenic diseases that share ataxia and autosomal dominant inheritance as the core features. An important proportion of SCAs are caused by CAG trinucleotide repeat expansions in the coding region of different genes. In addition to genetic heterogeneity, clinical features transcend motor symptoms, including cognitive, electrophysiological and imaging aspects. Despite all the progress in the past 25 years, the mechanisms that determine how neuronal death is mediated by these unstable expansions are still unclear...
August 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228119/conductively-coupled-flexible-silicon-electronic-systems-for-chronic-neural-electrophysiology
#5
Jinghua Li, Enming Song, Chia-Han Chiang, Ki Jun Yu, Jahyun Koo, Haina Du, Yishan Zhong, Mackenna Hill, Charles Wang, Jize Zhang, Yisong Chen, Limei Tian, Yiding Zhong, Guanhua Fang, Jonathan Viventi, John A Rogers
Materials and structures that enable long-term, intimate coupling of flexible electronic devices to biological systems are critically important to the development of advanced biomedical implants for biological research and for clinical medicine. By comparison with simple interfaces based on arrays of passive electrodes, the active electronics in such systems provide powerful and sometimes essential levels of functionality; they also demand long-lived, perfect biofluid barriers to prevent corrosive degradation of the active materials and electrical damage to the adjacent tissues...
September 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227349/sudomotor-dysfunction-is-frequent-and-correlates-with-disability-in-friedreich-ataxia
#6
Karen A G Takazaki, Thiago Junqueira R Rezende, Alberto R M Martinez, Carelis Gonzalez-Salazar, Anamarli Nucci, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Marcondes C França
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate autonomic symptoms and function in Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA). METHODS: Twenty-eight FRDA patients and 24 controls underwent clinical/electrophysiological testing. We employed the Friedreich's Ataxia Rating Scale (FARS) and the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease: Autonomic Questionnaire-SCOPA-AUT to estimate the intensity of ataxia and autonomic complaints, respectively. Cardiovagal tests and the quantitative sudomotor axonal reflex, Q-SART, were then assessed in both groups...
August 31, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226128/prolonged-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-following-cardiac-device-procedures-increases-preventable-harm-insights-from-the-va-cart-program
#7
Archana Asundi, Maggie Stanislawski, Payal Mehta, Anna E Barón, Howard Gold, Hillary Mull, P Michael Ho, Kalpana Gupta, Westyn Branch-Elliman
BACKGROUND: The rate of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection is increasing coincident with an increase in the number of device procedures. Preprocedural antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces CIED infections; however, there is no evidence that prolonged postprocedural antimicrobials additionally reduce risk. Thus, we sought to quantify the harms associated with this approach. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), acute kidney injury (AKI) and receipt of prolonged postprocedural antimicrobials...
September 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225985/efficacy-of-botulinum-toxin-a-for-treating-cramps-in-diabetic-neuropathy
#8
Domenico A Restivo, Antonino Casabona, Lucia Frittitta, Antonino Belfiore, Rosario Le Moli, Damiano Gullo, Riccardo Vigneri
OBJECTIVE: Muscle cramps occur in over 50% of diabetic patients and reduce the quality of life. No effective treatment is available. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of botulin toxin A (BTX-A) injections for treating cramps in diabetic patients with neuropathy. METHODS: This single-center, double-blind. placebo-controlled perspective study investigated the efficacy and safety of BTX-A intramuscular injection for treating calf or foot cramps refractory to common pharmacological drugs...
September 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224863/electrophysiological-subtypes-and-prognostic-factors-of-childhood-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#9
Bahadır Konuşkan, Çetin Okuyaz, Bahar Taşdelen, Semra Hiz Kurul, Banu Anlar
Introduction: We assessed the clinical, epidemiologic, electrophysiological and prognostic characteristics of childhood Guillain-Barré Syndrome admitted to 13 pediatric neurology centers in Turkey. Method: Using a standard data recording form age, sex, duration of symptoms, distribution of weakness at onset, cranial nerve involvement, cerebrospinal fluid findings, electrophysiological findings, duration of hospitalization, requirement of ventilation, treatment and clinical evaluation scale at onset, discharge and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge were recorded...
September 2018: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223706/neural-activity-reveals-effects-of-aging-on-inhibitory-processes-during-word-retrieval
#10
Ranjini Mohan, Christine Weber
Word retrieval difficulties are one of the most frustrating problems for older adults. Poorer access to phonological representation of the target word has been postulated as the underlying deficit, supported by findings of improved word retrieval after phonological priming. To better understand aging effects in the underlying neurophysiology associated with word retrieval, this study examined electrophysiological correlates of phonological priming and word retrieval in adults. Young, middle-aged, and older adults viewed pictures that were preceded by pseudo-word primes that either shared initial phonemes with or were unrelated to the picture's name...
September 18, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223381/ultrasonographic-imaging-of-the-effects-of-continuous-pulsed-or-sham-ultrasound-treatments-on-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-study
#11
Necdet Çatalbaş, Nuray Akkaya, Nilgun Simsir Atalay, Fusun Sahin
BACKGROUND: Clinical and electrophysiological effects of therapeutic ultrasound (US) were researched in many studies on patients with CTS with conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of continuous and pulsed US treatments by ultrasonographic imaging in addition to clinical and electrophysilogical parameters in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHOD: Fifty-four patients with idiopathic CTS were randomly divided into three groups...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222303/from-rbd-to-parkinson-s-disease-possible-predictive-markers-of-conversion
#12
Liche Zhou, Lin Zhu, Jun Liu
Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) manifests as unpleasant dreams and dream-enacting behaviors during REM sleep. iRBD is currently recognized as a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD), and the majority of iRBD patients will develop PD. However, there is an approximately 10-year interval between iRBD onset and established PD, which provides neurologists a window for intervention prior to irreversible neuron damage in prodromal PD patients. In this review, we summarized possible predictive markers of PD in iRBD on clinical assessment, heredity, neuroimaging and electrophysiology...
September 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221493/a-novel-real-time-computational-framework-for-detecting-catheters-and-rigid-guidewires-in-cardiac-catheterization-procedures
#13
YingLiang Ma, Mazen Alhrishy, Srinivas Ananth Narayan, Peter Mountney, Kawal S Rhode
PURPOSE: Catheters and guidewires are used extensively in cardiac catheterization procedures such as heart arrhythmia treatment (ablation), angioplasty and congenital heart disease treatment. Detecting their positions in fluoroscopic X-ray images is important for several clinical applications, for example, motion compensation, co-registration between 2D and 3D imaging modalities and 3D object reconstruction. METHODS: For the generalized framework, a multiscale vessel enhancement filter is first used to enhance the visibility of wire-like structures in the X-ray images...
September 16, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219899/the-4q25-variant-rs13143308t-links-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-to-defective-calcium-homeostasis
#14
Adela Herraiz-Martínez, Anna Llach, Carmen Tarifa, Jorge Gandía, Verónica Jiménez-Sabado, Estefanía Lozano-Velasco, Selma A Serra, Alexander Vallmitjana, Eduardo Vázquez Ruiz de Castroviejo, Raúl Benítez, Amelia Aranega, Christian Muñoz-Guijosa, Diego Franco, Juan Cinca, Leif Hove-Madsen
Aims: Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 4q25 have been associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) but the exiguous knowledge of the mechanistic links between these risk variants and underlying electrophysiological alterations hampers their clinical utility. Here, we here tested the hypothesis that 4q25 risk variants cause alterations in the intracellular calcium homeostasis that predispose to spontaneous electrical activity. Methods and results: Western blotting, confocal calcium imaging, and patch-clamp techniques were used to identify mechanisms linking the 4q25 risk variants rs2200733T and rs13143308T to defects in the calcium homeostasis in human atrial myocytes...
August 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219789/inhibitory-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-voltage-dependent-sodium-currents
#15
Mohammad-Reza Ghovanloo, Noah Gregory Shuart, Janette Mezeyova, Richard A Dean, Peter C Ruben, Samuel J Goodchild
Cannabis sativa contains many related compounds known as phytocannabinoids. The main psychoactive and non-psychoactive compounds are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), respectively. Much of the evidence for clinical efficacy of CBD-mediated anti-epileptic effects has been from case reports or smaller surveys. The mechanisms for CBD's anticonvulsant effects are unclear and likely involve non-cannabinoid receptor pathways. CBD is reported to modulate several ion channels, including sodium channels (Nav)...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218769/systematic-comparison-between-a-wireless-eeg-system-with-dry-electrodes-and-a-wired-eeg-system-with-wet-electrodes
#16
Julia W Y Kam, Sandon Griffin, Alan Shen, Shawn Patel, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Leon Y Deouell, Robert T Knight
Recent advances in dry electrodes technology have facilitated the recording of EEG in situations not previously possible, thanks to the relatively swift electrode preparation and avoidance of applying gel to subject's hair. However, to become a true alternative, these systems should be compared to state-of-the-art wet EEG systems commonly used in clinical or research applications. In our study, we conducted a systematic comparison of electrodes application speed, subject comfort, and most critically electrophysiological signal quality between the conventional and wired Biosemi EEG system using wet active electrodes and the compact and wireless F1 EEG system consisting of dry passive electrodes...
September 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218484/electroretinogram-abnormalities-in-nonanterior-childhood-uveitis
#17
Anna H Brouwer, Maria M van Genderen, Gerard C de Wit, Joke H de Boer
PURPOSE: A major point of concern in uveitis is the development of irreversible retinal changes after inflammation. In this study, we assess how nonanterior childhood uveitis affects retinal function using full-field electroretinography (ERG). METHODS: Cross-sectional study. ERGs of 63 uveitis eyes (33 children) were measured according to extended International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) protocols. ERG abnormalities were investigated in relation to the following clinical parameters: demographics, uveitis characteristics, including severity of inflammation, treatment, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), cystoid macular oedema (CME) on optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography score...
September 14, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216552/atrioventricular-accessory-pathways-in-89-dogs-clinical-features-and-outcome-after-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation
#18
Kathy N Wright, Chad E Connor, Holly M Irvin, Timothy K Knilans, Dawn Webber, Philip H Kass
BACKGROUND: Atrioventricular accessory pathways (APs) in dogs have been reported rarely. Data regarding clinical presentation and long-term outcome after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) are limited. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To study clinical features, electrophysiologic characteristics, and outcome of RFCA in dogs with APs. ANIMALS: Eighty-nine dogs presented consecutively for RFCA of APs. METHODS: Case series...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215110/mapping-of-atrial-fibrillation-strategies-to-understand-an-enigmatic-arrhythmia
#19
REVIEW
Isabel Deisenhofer
The three-dimensional (3D) mapping of cardiac arrhythmias has evolved in recent years to an important and extremely useful tool, providing important insights into arrhythmia mechanisms and thus improving ablation success rates, especially in complex arrhythmias. In atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common but also one of the most complex cardiac arrhythmias, progress in mapping technology has been focusing on several aspects according to the type of AF.In paroxysmal AF, important progress in the exact anatomic reconstruction of the main ablation target, i...
September 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215018/holmes-or-functional-tremor
#20
Tommaso Bocci, Gianluca Ardolino, Laura Parenti, Davide Barloscio, Anna De Rosa, Alberto Priori, Ferdinando Sartucci
Objective: Holmes tremor is a rare kind of hyperkinetic movement disorder, clinically characterized by irregular, monolateral, high-amplitude jerks, sharing a quite similar frequency with those observed in Parkinson's disease; its generation likely relies on a combined involvement of cerebello-thalamic and nigrostriatal pathways. Methods: We report the case of a man with a combined resting-postural-kinetic tremor. Neuroimaging revealed an intracranial dermoid cyst at the right pontocerebellar angle with brainstem dislocation...
2018: Clinical Neurophysiology Practice
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