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Clinical electrophysiology

Johanna Bick, Erin N Palmwood, Lindsay Zajac, Robert Simons, Mary Dozier
BACKGROUND: Growing work points to the negative impact of early adverse experiences on the developing brain. An outstanding question concerns the extent to which early intervention can normalize trajectories of brain development in at-risk children. We tested this within the context of a randomized clinical trial of an early parenting program, the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), delivered to parents and infants monitored for maltreatment by Child Protective Services. METHODS: Families participated in the randomized clinical trial when children were 2...
October 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
I Mohamed Iqbal, R Morris, M Hersch
We report a case of serious neurologic injury due to inadvertent epidural injection of 8 ml of the antiseptic 2% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol during a procedure aimed to relieve the pain of labour. This resulted in immediate severe back pain, progressive tetraparesis and sphincter dysfunction caused by damage to the spinal cord and nerve roots. Subacute hydrocephalus necessitated drainage, but cranial nerve and cognitive function were spared. Magnetic resonance imaging documented marked abnormality of the spinal cord and surrounding leptomeninges...
November 2018: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Hiroshi Kubota, Hidehito Endo, Hikaru Ishii, Hiroshi Tsuchiya, Yusuke Inaba, Yu Takahashi, Katsunari Terakawa
BACKGROUND: It is still difficult to create a secure linear conduction block on a beating heart from the epicardial side. To overcome this drawback we developed an infrared coagulator equipped with a cuboid light-guiding quartz rod. This study was designed to electrophysiologically confirm the efficacy of a new ablation probe using infrared energy in a clinical case. METHODS: The infrared light from a lamp is focused into the newly developed cuboid quartz rod, which has a rectangular distal exit-plane that allows 30 mm × 10 mm linear photocoagulation...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
A-M Grapperon, M Berro, E Salort-Campana, A Verschueren, E Delmont, S Attarian
INTRODUCTION: A retrospective analysis was performed to document the clinical and electrophysiological features of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) subtypes using different diagnostic criteria. METHODS: One hundred GBS patients were included. Clinical and laboratory features were analyzed, and patients were classified according to four sets of diagnostic criteria. Electrodiagnostic criteria were also analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 69 patients met Asbury and Cornblath's criteria, 96 met Van der Meché's criteria, 99 met Wakerley's diagnostic classification and 86 met level 1 or 2 of the Brighton criteria...
November 12, 2018: Revue Neurologique
Damon E Hyde, Xavier Tomas-Fernandez, Scellig S Stone, Jurriaan Peters, Simon K Warfield
Invasive electrophysiological measurement of brain activity is commonly employed during epilepsy surgery to provide final validation of required resection regions. These data are critical to clinical decision making, but manual expert analysis of these data can be complicated by the need to relate individual electrode measurements to specific brain regions. To improve analysis of these data with source analysis, accurate bioelectric models are needed. Given the proximity of the measurement locations to the generating cortical sources, modeling of electrodetissue interactions is particularly important for invasive measurements...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Anthony Boyer, Hugues Duffau, Marion Vincent, Sofiane Ramdani, Emmanuel Mandonnet, David Guiraud, Francois Bonnetblanc
Direct electrical stimulation (DES) at 60 Hz is used clinically to perform real-time functional mapping of the brain and guide tumor resection during wide-awake neurosurgery. The electrophysiological effects of DES remain by far unknown, both locally and remotely. In this study, by lowering the DES frequency to 9 Hz and by using differential recording of electro-corticographic signals to improve the focality, we were able to observe that the amplitude of the initial P0 component of the direct cortical response increased when the inter-electrode distance was increased and the pulse width was decreased...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
David Ahmedt-Aristizabal, Clinton Fookes, Kien Nguyen, Sridha Sridharan
Electrophysiological observation plays a major role in epilepsy evaluation. However, human interpretation of brain signals is subjective and prone to misdiagnosis. Automating this process, especially seizure detection relying on scalpbased Electroencephalography (EEG) and intracranial EEG, has been the focus of research over recent decades. Nevertheless, its numerous challenges have inhibited a definitive solution. Inspired by recent advances in deep learning, here we describe a new classification approach for EEG time series based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) via the use of Long- Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jean K Mah, Nens van Alfen
Advances in high-resolution ultrasound have provided clinicians with unique opportunities to study diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Ultrasound complements the clinical and electrophysiology exam by showing the degree of abnormalities in myopathies, as well as spontaneous muscle activities in motor neuron diseases and other disorders. In experienced hands, ultrasound is more sensitive than MRI in detecting peripheral nerve pathologies. It can also guide needle placement for electromyography exam, therapeutic injections, and muscle biopsy...
November 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Jonathan Scott Calvert, Peter Grahn, Jeffrey Strommen, Igor Lavrov, Lisa Beck, Megan Gill, Margaux Linde, Desmond Brown, Meegan van Straaten, Daniel Veith, Cesar Lopez, Dimitry Sayenko, Yury Gerasimenko, Victor Reggie Edgerton, Kristin Zhao, Kendall Lee
Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of the spinal cord has been shown to restore function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Characterization of EES-evoked motor responses has provided a basic understanding of spinal sensorimotor network activity related to EES-enabled motor activity of the lower extremities. However, the use of EES-evoked motor responses to guide EES system implantation over the spinal cord and their relation to post-operative EES-enabled function in humans with chronic paralysis due to SCI has yet to be described...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Thomas M Kinfe, René Hurlemann
Given that one third of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) only show limited response to established treatments, alternative therapeutic strategies such as non-invasive/invasive brain stimulation approaches have emerged as an adjunctive treatment option for distinct SZ symptom domains (e.g. acoustic hallucinations, negative/positive symptoms and cognitive impairment). aking comparative interventional studies and standardized technical parameters into consideration, current meta-analyses indicate that adjunctive electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation have a positive effect...
November 14, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Jaya Shankar Kaushik, Rajni Farmania
Surface electroencephalography (EEG) is a useful electrophysiological investigation for evaluating a paroxysmal event in children. It measures the electro potential difference between two points on the scalp. It is a non-invasive tool that analyzes neuronal maturation and abnormal cortical excitability. EEG helps in differentiating epileptic from non-epileptic clinical event and focal seizures from generalized seizure. This review is to discuss the rational use of interictal scalp EEG in diagnosis of epilepsy and different types of epilepsy syndromes in children...
October 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Patrik Schmid, Nicole Badur, Sebastian Kluge, Esther Vögelin
Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Value of Ultrasound Compared to Nerve Conduction Studies Abstract. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compression syndrome of the peripheral nerves. The patient's history with nocturnal brachialgia, daytime brachialgia, nocturnal paraesthesia and daytime paraesthesia (part of the 6-item CTS symptom scale) and a specific clinical exam take part while making a diagnosis. Additional diagnostics include electrophysiological testings. A high-resolution ultrasound examination for the evaluation of the morphology of the median nerve has gained importance in diagnosis of a carpal tunnel syndrome, whilst an electrophysiological exam allows a functional evaluation...
2018: Praxis
Xianjun Ding, Hong Jiang, Xingyue Hu, Hong Ren, Huaying Cai
To describe the clinical, electrophysiological, and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of two cases of atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Methods We reported two GBS variant cases with initial and prominent symptoms of low back pain. We analysed their clinical, electrophysiological, and lumbar MRI features. Results Two patients with GBS reported low back pain as the initial and prominent symptom, which was not accompanied by limb weakness. The electrophysiological study showed abnormal F-waves in the common peroneal and tibial nerves, and acute polyradiculoneuropathy in the cauda equina...
2018: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
Javiera Jilberto, Daniel E Hurtado
The field of computational cardiology has steadily progressed toward reliable and accurate simulations of the heart, showing great potential in clinical applications such as the optimization of cardiac interventions and the study of pro-arrhythmic effects of drugs in humans, among others. However, the computational effort demanded by in-silico studies of the heart remains challenging, highlighting the need of novel numerical methods that can improve the efficiency of simulations while targeting an acceptable accuracy...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Danesh Ashouri Vajari, Maria Vomero, Johannes B Erhardt, Ali Sadr, Juan S Ordonez, Volker A Coenen, Thomas Stieglitz
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a successful medical therapy for many treatment resistant neuropsychiatric disorders such as movement disorders; e.g., Parkinson's disease, Tremor, and dystonia. Moreover, DBS is becoming more and more appealing for a rapidly growing number of patients with other neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. In spite of the promising outcomes, the current clinical hardware used in DBS does not match the technological standards of other medical applications and as a result could possibly lead to side effects such as high energy consumption and others...
October 10, 2018: Micromachines
Evan N Nicolai, Nicholas J Michelson, Megan L Settell, Seth A Hara, James K Trevathan, Anders J Asp, Kaylene C Stocking, J Luis Lujan, Takashi D Y Kozai, Kip A Ludwig
Implantable devices to measure neurochemical or electrical activity from the brain are mainstays of neuroscience research and have become increasingly utilized as enabling components of clinical therapies. In order to increase the number of recording channels on these devices while minimizing the immune response, flexible electrodes under 10 µm in diameter have been proposed as ideal next-generation neural interfaces. However, the representation of motion artifact during neurochemical or electrophysiological recordings using ultra-small, flexible electrodes remains unexplored...
September 27, 2018: Micromachines
Thomas Reithmeier, Rimmon Isaak, Renan Sanchez-Porres
Patients with acute cerebral injuries for various reasons (traumatic, ischemic, hemorrhagic) are at risc for developing secondary brain damage and further neurological deterioration. The aim of neuromonitoring is to recognize subtile changes in intracranial physiology as early as possible to initiate adequate diagnostic and therapeutic measures to prevent secondary brain damage. Beside the classic method of clinical neuromonitoring in awake patients, implantation of intracranial probes to monitor intracranial pressure, brain tissue oxygenation and brain metabolism are used in comatose patients...
October 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Greg Morley, Scott Bernstein, Laura Kuznekoff, Carolina Vasquez, Phil Saul, Dieter Haemmerich
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac catheter cryoablation is a safer alternative to radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmia treatment, but electrophysiological (EP) effects during and after freezing are not adequately characterized. The goal of this study was to determine transient and permanent temperature induced EP effects, during and after localized tissue freezing. METHODS: Conduction in right (RV) and left ventricles (LV) was studied by optical activation mapping during and after cryoablation in paced, isolated Langendorff-perfused porcine hearts...
November 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Brenton S Bauer, Anthony Li, Jason S Bradfield
Arrhythmogenic inflammatory cardiomyopathy is a recent clinical description of a subgroup of patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy who are referred to electrophysiologists for evaluation and management of ventricular arrhythmias and are found to have evidence of active cardiac inflammation. The identification of these patients is key, since the aetiology of their arrhythmic burden is likely both related to scar-mediated and direct inflammatory mechanisms, which may have different treatment approaches. Evaluation of these patients starts with a full clinical history and physical examination along with echocardiography, as with most patients with cardiomyopathy, however, additional imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT and cardiac MRI is crucial...
August 2018: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
Yasunari Kanda, Daiju Yamazaki, Tomoharu Osada, Takashi Yoshinaga, Kohei Sawada
Cardiac safety assessment is challenging because a better understanding of torsadogenic mechanisms beyond hERG blockade and QT interval prolongation is necessary for patient safety. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) provide a new human cell-based platform to assess cardiac safety in non-clinical testing during drug development. The multi-electrode array (MEA) platform is a promising electrophysiological technology to assess QT interval prolongation and proarrhythmic potential of drug candidates using hiPSC-CMs...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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