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Cory R Wyatt, Travis B Smith, Manoj K Sammi, William D Rooney, Alexander R Guimaraes
The use of quantitative imaging biomarkers in the imaging of various disease states, including cancer and neurodegenerative disease, has increased in recent years. T1 , T2 , and T2 * relaxation time constants have been shown to be affected by tissue structure or contrast infusion. Acquiring these biomarkers simultaneously in a multi-parametric acquisition could provide more robust detection of tissue changes in various disease states including neurodegeneration and cancer. Traditional magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) has been shown to provide quick, quantitative mapping of T1 and T2 relaxation time constants...
July 16, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Mona Farokhzadi, Gholam-Ali Hossein-Zadeh, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh
Exploring brain networks is an essential step towards understanding functional organization of the brain, which needs characterization of linear and nonlinear connections based on measurements like EEG or MEG. Conventional measures of connectivity are mostly linear and bivariate. This paper proposes an effective connectivity measure called Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Granger Causality (ANFISGC). The proposed measure is based on the symplectic geometry embedding dimension, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) predictor, and Granger Causality (GC)...
July 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Jing Zhao, Shiqiang Hao, Saiful M Islam, Haijie Chen, Shulan Ma, Chris Wolverton, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
Two new layered compounds Rb2 ZnBi2 Se5 and Cs6 Cd2 Bi8 Te17 are described. Rb2 ZnBi2 Se5 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, with lattice parameters of a = 15.6509(17) Å, b = 4.218(8) Å, and c = 18.653(3) Å. Cs6 Cd2 Bi8 Te17 crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/ m space group, with a = 28.646(6) Å, b = 4.4634(9) Å, c = 21.164(4) Å, and β = 107.65(3)°. The two structures are different and composed of anionic layers which are formed by inter connecting of BiQ6 octahedra (Q = Se or Te) and MQ4 (M = Zn or Cd) tetrahedra...
July 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Juan J Gonzalez, Lakshmi Talasila, Lisa Ochoa, John Youssef, Orimisan S Adekolujo
Bronchoesophageal and tracheoesophageal fistulas are an uncommon but well-documented complication of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To our knowledge, a fistula directly connecting the esophagus with the lung (esophageal-pulmonary fistula) and resulting from HL has not been reported in the literature. We present a case of HL complicated with an esophageal-pulmonary fistula. The early recognition and treatment of an esophageal-pulmonary fistula in patients with HL are imperative since, with appropriate treatment, HL complicated with an aero-esophageal fistula has the same prognosis as those without one, unlike the dismal prognosis in esophageal and lung cancer...
May 7, 2018: Curēus
Shilai Xing, Chengcheng Tao, Zhihong Song, Wei Liu, Juan Yan, Lifang Kang, Cong Lin, Tao Sang
Coexpression network revealing genes with Co-variation Expression pattern (CE) and those with Top rank of Expression fold change (TE) played different roles in responding to new environment of Miscanthus lutarioriparius. Variation in gene expression level, the product of genetic and/or environmental perturbation, determines the robustness-to-plasticity spectrum of a phenotype in plants. Understanding how expression variation of plant population response to a new field is crucial to domesticate energy crops...
July 13, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Amy R McDowell, Susan C Shelmerdine, David W Carmichael, Owen J Arthurs
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of advanced diffusion imaging in Post-Mortem MRI (PMMR) at 3T.  Methods: We acquired PMMR brain and body imaging in 12 neonates, mean gestational age 33.4 weeks (range 29-37 weeks) at 3T and 1.5T. Head and body diffusion imaging at 1.5T using bipolar diffusion encoding and single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) for acquisition (TE 96ms; TR 2700ms; voxel size 1.8x1.8mm in-plane with slice thickness 5mm; b values of 500 and 1000 s/mm2 applied in three orthogonal directions; total acquisition time 2:12)...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Romain Paillot, Dion Garrett, Maria R Lopez-Alvarez, Ihlan Birand, Fernando Montesso, Linda Horspool
Vaccination is one of the most effective tools for limiting the impact of equine influenza (EI). The humoral immunity established following a primary vaccination course can decrease significantly between the second (V2) and third immunisations (V3), leaving some horses insufficiently protected for several weeks. This so-called "immunity gap" poses a challenge to all EI vaccines. During this period, the EI infection of vaccinated animals may be followed by marked clinical signs and virus shedding. However, several EI vaccines have been shown to stimulate equine influenza virus (EIV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, which is likely to play a role in protection against EIV infection and/or mitigate the clinical and virological signs of EI...
July 2, 2018: Vaccines
Lukas Schrader, Jürgen Schmitz
The growing knowledge about the influence of transposable elements (TEs) on (1) long-term genome and transcriptome evolution, (2) genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic variation within populations, and (3) patterns of somatic genetic differences in individuals continues to spur the interest of evolutionary biologists in the role of TEs in adaptive evolution. As TEs can trigger a broad range of molecular variation in a population with potentially severe fitness and phenotypic consequences for individuals, different mechanisms evolved to keep TE activity in check, allowing for a dynamic interplay between the host, its TEs and the environment in evolution...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
İlginç Kızılpınar Temizer, Aytaç Güder, Fulya Aydın Temel, Esin Avci
Pollen is one of the most valuable nutrients due to its content and antioxidant activity. In this study, its botanic origin, total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (HPSA) (in terms of SC50 ), ferric reducing antioxidant power capacity (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (in terms of SC50 ), metal-chelating activity (MCA) (%), and heavy metal content were examined to determine the quality of pollen that has been collected from seven different cities of Turkey...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Matthias Weil
Single crystals of Ba2 K2 Te2 O9 (dibarium dipotassium nona-oxidoditellurate), (I), Ba2 KNaTe2 O9 (dibarium potassium sodium nona-oxidoditellurate), (II), and Ba2 CaTeO6 (dibarium calcium hexa-oxidotellurate), (III), were obtained from KNO3 /KI or KNO3 /NaNO3 flux syntheses in platinum crucibles for (I) and (II), or porcelain crucibles for (III). (I) and (II) are isotypic and are members of triple perovskites with general formula A 2 [12 co ] A '[12 co ] B 2 [6 o ] B '[6 o ] O9 . They crystallize in the 6 H -BaTiO3 structure family in space-group type P 63 / mmc , with the A , A ', B and B ' sites being occupied by K, Ba, Te and a second Ba in (I), and in (II) by mixed-occupied (Ba/K), Ba, Te and Na sites, respectively...
July 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Alexandre Freitas da Silva, Filipe Zimmer Dezordi, Elgion Lucio Silva Loreto, Gabriel Luz Wallau
Background: The majority of Eukaryotic genomes are composed of a small portion of stable (non-mobile) genes and a large fraction of parasitic mobile elements such as transposable elements and endogenous viruses: the Mobilome. Such important component of many genomes are normally underscored in genomic analysis and detailed characterized mobilomes only exists for model species. In this study, we used a combination of de novo and homology approaches to characterize the Mobilome of two non-model parasitoid wasp species...
2018: Mobile DNA
Geoffrey J Faulkner, Victor Billon
Retrotransposons are transposable elements (TEs) capable of "jumping" in germ, embryonic and tumor cells and, as is now clearly established, in the neuronal lineage. Mosaic TE insertions form part of a broader landscape of somatic genome variation and hold significant potential to generate phenotypic diversity, in the brain and elsewhere. At present, the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon family appears to be the most active autonomous TE in most mammals, based on experimental data obtained from disease-causing L1 mutations, engineered L1 reporter systems tested in cultured cells and transgenic rodents, and single-cell genomic analyses...
2018: Mobile DNA
Min Jung Kim, Da-Hye Lee, Jiyun Ahn, Tae-Youl Ha, Young Jin Jang, Eunju Do, Chang Hwa Jung
Although classification of an individual's Sasang constitution is a key step in the prescription of traditional Korean medicine, the classifying process is complex and not objective. Identification of metabolic-based biomarkers could allow the development of a reliable and sensitive classification technique and even therapeutic management. Our pilot study investigated whether metabolites in plasma are characteristic of Sasang constitutions. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolic analysis was conducted against 15 Soyangin (SY), 15 Taeeumin (TE), and 18 Soeumin (SE) individuals, as classified according to the Questionnaire for Sasang Constitution Classification II (QSCC II) and specialist diagnosis...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ning Su, Shuai Guo, Fu Li, Dawei Liu, Bo Li
Antimony telluride (Sb₂Te₃)-based two-dimensional films and micro-pillar arrays are fabricated by electrochemical deposition from electrolytes containing SbO⁺ and HTeO₂⁺ on Si wafer-based Pt electrode and multi-channel glass templates, respectively. The results indicate that the addition of tartaric acid increases the solubility of SbO⁺ in acidic solution. The compositions of deposits depend on the electrolyte concentration, and the micro morphologies rely on the reduction potential. Regarding the electrolyte containing 8 mM of SbO⁺ and 12 mM of HTeO₂⁺, the grain size increases and the density of films decreases as the deposition potential shifts from -100 mV to -400 mV...
July 12, 2018: Materials
Kathryn Schnippel, Norbert Ndjeka, Gary Maartens, Graeme Meintjes, Iqbal Master, Nazir Ismail, Jennifer Hughes, Hannetjie Ferreira, Xavier Padanilam, Rodolfo Romero, Julian Te Riele, Francesca Conradie
BACKGROUND: Addition of bedaquiline to treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of death in a phase 2b clinical trial, resulting in caution from WHO. Following a compassionate access programme and local regulatory approval, the South African National Tuberculosis Programme began widespread use of bedaquiline in March, 2015, especially among patients with extensively drug resistant tuberculosis for whom no other effective treatment options were available...
July 9, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Stuart B Hooper, Arjan B Te Pas, Graeme R Polglase, Myra Wyckoff
Animal models have made and continue to make important contributions to neonatal medicine. For example, studies in fetal sheep have taught us much about the physiology of the fetal-to-neonatal transition. However, whereas animal models allow multiple factors to be investigated in a logical and systematic manner, no animal model is perfect for humans and so we need to understand the fundamental differences in physiology between the species in question and humans. Although most physiological systems are well conserved between species, some small differences exist and so wherever possible the knowledge generated from preclinical studies in animals should be tested in clinical trials...
July 6, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Julius Matthias Weinrich, Rudolf Beyer, Lennart Well, Enver Tahir, Maria Lindemann, Undine Wilke, Gerhard Adam, Peter Bannas, Gunnar K Lund
BACKGROUND: To determine the type and frequency of vascular and organ malformations in adults with thalidomide embryopathy (TE) using non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and to assess the effect of the observed malformations on renal function.Methods and Results:The institutional ethics committee approved this prospective study and written informed consent was given by all 78 subjects (50 females) with TE (mean age: 55±1.1 years), who were examined by non-contrast MRA at 3T...
July 10, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Xin Tang, Xiaolin Zhang, Te Cao, Leyi Ni, Ping Xie
The geo-engineering approach of modified soil flocculation has been widely applied to mitigate algal blooms and eutrophication in relatively small lakes. Nevertheless, its potential ecological risks and feasibility should be examined and identified prior to its application in large natural lakes given the multiple functions of these water bodies in human health and welfare. In situ mesocosm experiments on modified soil flocculation were performed in Lake Taihu during summer 2010 and 2011. Chitosan-modified kaolinite (CMK) soil was used to flocculate algal blooms and improve water transparency to facilitate the re-establishment of the submersed macrophyte Vallisneria natans in this shallow eutrophic lake...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Corinna Binder-Heschl, Kelly Crossley, Arjan Te Pas, Graeme Polglase, Douglas Blank, Valerie Zahra, Alison Moxham, Karyn Rodgers, Stuart Hooper
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is routinely given to preterm infants hours after birth to treat apnea of prematurity. In view of it's success, earlier administration in the delivery room is being considered, but little is known about how caffeine may effect the cardiovascular changes during the fetal to neonatal transition. Our aim was to determine the effect of prenatal caffeine administration on haemodynamic parameters in ventilated preterm lambs immediately after birth. METHODS: Catheters (carotid artery and jugular vein) and ultrasonic flow probes (pulmonary artery and carotid artery) were implanted in preterm lambs (~126 ±2 days of gestation; term is 147 days), immediately before delivery by caesarean section...
2018: PloS One
Fan Cheng, Hongyan Cao, Jinchun Liu, Lijun Jiang, Hongjuan Han, Yanbo Zhang, Dongxing Guo
BACKGROUD: To assess the diagnostic performance of transient elastography (TE) in detecting the presence and size of esophageal varices (EV) in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Science Direct, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WeiPu, WanFang database, and Baidu Scholar to identify studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of TE in liver stiffness measurement, compared with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), for the detection of the presence and degree of EV in cirrhosis...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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