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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793061/microstructural-imaging-of-the-human-brain-with-a-super-scanner-10-key-advantages-of-ultra-strong-gradients-for-diffusion-mri
#1
D K Jones, D C Alexander, R Bowtell, M Cercignani, F Dell'Acqua, D J McHugh, K L Miller, M Palombo, G J M Parker, U S Rudrapatna, C M W Tax
The key component of a microstructural diffusion MRI 'super-scanner' is a dedicated high-strength gradient system that enables stronger diffusion weightings per unit time compared to conventional gradient designs. This can, in turn, drastically shorten the time needed for diffusion encoding, increase the signal-to-noise ratio, and facilitate measurements at shorter diffusion times. This review, written from the perspective of the National Facility for In Vivo MR Imaging of Human Tissue Microstructure, an initiative to establish a shared 300 mT/m-gradient facility amongst the microstructural imaging community, describes ten advantages of ultra-strong gradients for microstructural imaging...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792479/-fewer-but-not-weaker-understanding-the-intersectional-identities-among-chinese-immigrant-young-gay-men-in-toronto
#2
Yu-Te Huang, Lin Fang
Sexual minorities of color in North America are frequently defined as a "double minority" group. Intersectionality theory has inspired investigations into how different forms of marginalization intersect to shape the lives of people with multiple minority statuses. In this constructivist grounded theory study, 18 Chinese immigrant gay men between 18 and 28 years of age participated in a semistructured individual interview to narrate their lived experiences in relation to their intersectional identities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792358/in-vitro-activities-of-ceiba-speciosa-a-st-hil-ravenna-aqueous-stem-bark-extract
#3
Juliana Andréa Dörr, Shanna Bitencourt, Luísa Bortoluzzi, Celso Alves, Joana Silva, Stefani Stoll, Susete Pinteus, Aline Augusti Boligon, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos, Stefan Laufer, Rui Pedrosa, Márcia Inês Goettert
Several species of the genus Ceiba (Malvaceae) are ethnopharmacologically used. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the in vitro beneficial properties of the aqueous stem bark extract of Ceiba speciosa. The extract presented a great amount of phenolic compounds (117.4 ± 6.2 mg GAE/g). The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH (IC50  = 42.87 μg/mL), ORAC (2351.17 μmol TE/g) and FRAP (235.94 μM FeSO4 /g) methods. In addition, the extract reduced MCF-7 cell viability as assessed by MTT. However, it prevented mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reduced caspase-9 activity induced by hydrogen peroxide...
May 24, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791373/broadband-te-pass-slot-waveguide-polarizer-using-an-asymmetrical-directional-coupler
#4
Bin Ni, Jinbiao Xiao
A compact TE-pass polarizer for silicon-based slot waveguides is numerically proposed based on a directional coupler where an asymmetrical slot waveguide (ASW) and hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW) are involved. The input section is linearly tapered to an ASW to markedly enlarge the modal birefringence. Beneficially, only the TM mode can be coupled into the adjacent HPW and attenuated while the injected TE mode just passes through the slot waveguide without coupling by properly choosing the dimensions. As a consequence, an efficient TE-pass polarizer can be implemented...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791332/polarization-dependent-wide-angle-color-filter-incorporating-meta-dielectric-nanostructures
#5
Shangliang Wu, Yan Ye, Minghui Luo, Linsen Chen
A metadielectric nanostructure with narrow cavities is proposed, behaving as a reflective color filter for TM-polarized light while as a broadband reflector for TE-polarized light. By varying the cavity depth or changing the incident light polarization, reflective colors of the proposed structure cover the entire visible spectrum conveniently. In particular, the reflections of this proposed structure show good angular tolerance up to 50° for both polarizations. Furthermore, it can display colors even with two grating slits, which shows high printing resolution up to 70555 dpi, having great potential for applications of a large area color imaging and anticounterfeiting devices...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791135/optically-active-cdse-dot-cds-rod-nanocrystals-with-induced-chirality-and-circularly-polarized-luminescence
#6
Jiaji Cheng, Junjie Hao, Haochen Liu, Jiagen Li, Junzi Li, Xi Zhu, Xiaodong Lin, Kai Wang, Tingchao He
Ligand-induced chirality in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) has attracted attention because of the tunable optical properties of the NCs. Induced circular dichroism (CD) has been observed in CdX (X = S, Se, Te) NCs and their hybrids, but circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) in these fluorescent nanomaterials has been seldom reported. Herein, we describe the successful preparation of L- and D-cysteine-capped CdSe-dot/CdS-rods (DRs) with tunable CD and CPL behaviors and a maximum anisotropic factor (glum) of 4...
May 23, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790141/-using-trm-to-enhance-the-accuracy-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-preventive-measures-implemented-by-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-medical-staffs
#7
Yu-Ting Huang, Chao-Ya Huang, Hsiu-Ya Su, Chen-Te Ma
BACKGROUND & PROBLEMS: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common healthcare-associated infection in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The average VAP infection density was 4.7‰ in our unit between June and August 2015. The results of a status survey indicated that in-service education lacked specialization, leading to inadequate awareness among staffs regarding the proper care of newborns with VAP and a lack of related care guides. This, in turn, resulted in inconsistencies in care measures for newborns with VAP...
June 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789163/biodegradation-of-resin-dentin-interfaces-is-dependent-on-the-restorative-material-mode-of-adhesion-esterase-or-mmp-inhibition
#8
Bo Huang, Dennis G Cvitkovitch, J Paul Santerre, Yoav Finer
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of simulated human salivary esterases (SHSE) and metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibition on the integrity of restoration-tooth interfaces made from traditional or polyacid-modified resin composites bonded to human dentin by either total-etch or self-etch adhesives. METHODS: Resin-dentin specimens, made from traditional (Z250) or polyacid-modified (Dyract-eXtra) composites were bonded to human dentin using total-etch (TE-Scotchbond) or self-etch (SE-EasyBond) adhesives...
May 19, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788048/robustness-of-transposable-element-regulation-but-no-genomic-shock-observed-in-interspecific-arabidopsis-hybrids
#9
Ulrike Göbel, Agustin Arce, Fei He, Alain Rico, Gregor Schmitz, Juliette de Meaux
The merging of two divergent genomes in a hybrid is believed to trigger a "genomic shock", disrupting gene regulation and transposable element (TE) silencing. Here, we tested this expectation by comparing the pattern of expression of transposable elements in their native and hybrid genomic context. For this, we sequenced the transcriptome of the Arabidopsis thaliana genotype Col-0, the A. lyrata genotype MN47 and their F1 hybrid. Contrary to expectations, we observe that the level of TE expression in the hybrid is strongly correlated to levels in the parental species...
May 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787942/thrombotic-and-hemorrhagic-complications-in-children-and-young-adult-recipients-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-hsct
#10
Dominder Kaur, Aneel A Ashrani, Rajiv Pruthi, Shakila P Khan, Kent Bailey, Vilmarie Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Overall incidence of hemostatic complications in pediatric recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) is scarcely studied. This retrospective review explored the incidence and underlying risk factors of bleeding and thrombotic complications in children. PROCEDURE: Clinical characteristics, hemorrhagic events (HE), thrombotic events (TE) and follow up data were abstracted from medical records on patients aged <21 years undergoing HSCT during January 2000-June 2015...
April 26, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787745/modeling-transposable-element-dynamics-with-fragmentation-equations
#11
Mario Banuelos, Suzanne Sindi
Transposable elements (TEs), segments of DNA capable of self-replication, are abundant in the genomes of most organisms and thus serve as a record of past mutational events. While some work suggests TEs may serve a regulatory function for the host, most empirical and theoretical studies have shown that TEs often have deleterious effects on a host. Because they are not essential, the host genome consists of both full-length (actively replicating) and partial length (inactive remnant) copies of TEs. We developed a novel mathematical formulation of TE dynamics by modeling the density of full and partial length copies resulting from mutations (insertions and deletions) and TE replication within the host genome...
May 19, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787571/rnai-screening-of-subtracted-transcriptomes-reveals-tumor-suppression-by-taurine-activated-gabaa-receptors-involved-in-volume-regulation
#12
Camiel L C Wielders, Pim van Nierop, Tinke L Vormer, Floris Foijer, Joanne Verheij, Johannes C Lodder, Jesper B Andersen, Huibert D Mansvelder, Hein Te Riele
To identify coding and non-coding suppressor genes of anchorage-independent proliferation by efficient loss-of-function screening, we have developed a method for enzymatic production of low complexity shRNA libraries from subtracted transcriptomes. We produced and screened two LEGO (Low-complexity by Enrichment for Genes shut Off) shRNA libraries that were enriched for shRNA vectors targeting coding and non-coding polyadenylated transcripts that were reduced in transformed Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786097/spot-urine-and-24-h-diet-recall-estimates-of-dietary-sodium-intake-from-the-2008-09-new-zealand-adult-nutrition-survey-a-comparison
#13
Rachael M McLean, Sheila M Williams, Lisa A Te Morenga, Jim I Mann
BACKGROUND: We aimed to test the difference between estimates of dietary sodium intake using 24-h diet recall and spot urine collection in a large sample of New Zealand adults. METHODS: We analysed spot urine results, 24-h diet recall, dietary habits questionnaire and anthropometry from a representative sample of 3312 adults aged 15 years and older who participated in the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Estimates of adult population sodium intake were derived from 24-h diet recall and spot urine sodium using a formula derived from analysis of INTERSALT data...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786064/fabrication-of-aluminum-alloy-functionally-graded-material-using-directional-solidification-under-an-axial-static-magnetic-field
#14
Shaodong Hu, Annie Gagnoud, Yves Fautrelle, Rene Moreau, Xi Li
Aluminum alloy in situ functionally graded materials (FGMs) have been successfully fabricated using directional solidification under an axial static magnetic field. Al-Zn, Al-Ni and Al-Cu alloys with a hypereutectic composition were selected to produce FGMs. Experimental results show that the graded composition of the primary phases (i.e., Zn, Al3 Ni and Al2 Cu) is obvious along the longitudinal section of the sample. The graded composition of the primary phases could be controlled by the value of the magnetic field, growth rate and temperature gradient...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786036/overall-blastocyst-quality-trophectoderm-grade-and-inner-cell-mass-grade-predict-pregnancy-outcome-in-euploid-blastocyst-transfer-cycles
#15
Yan-Yu Zhao, Yang Yu, Xiao-Wei Zhang
Background: Despite recent advances that have improved the pregnancy success rates that can be achieved via in vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy, it is not yet clear which blastocyst morphological parameters best predict the outcomes of single blastocyst transfer. In addition, most of the previous studies did not exclude the effect of embryo aneuploidy on blastocysts transfer. Thus, the present study investigated the predictive value of various parameters on the pregnancy outcomes achieved via the transfer of frozen euploid blastocysts...
June 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785410/relationship-of-hs-crp-and-sacroiliac-joint-inflammation-in-undifferentiated-spondyloarthritis
#16
Te-Jung Liu, Cheng-Chiang Chang, Liang-Cheng Chen, Heng-Yi Chu, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Shin-Tsu Chang
Objective: Elevation of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level has been demonstrated as a risk factor for varying diseases, as well as a biomarker for predicting recovery after operation of lumber disc herniation. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between serum hs-CRP and sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA). Methods: In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients with uSpA who underwent hs-CRP testing between January 2007 and September 2013...
2018: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785393/monitoring-methotrexate-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-psoriasis-utility-of-transient-elastography
#17
REVIEW
Harriet S Cheng, Marius Rademaker
Increasingly, existing evidence indicates that methotrexate-associated liver injury is related to comorbid risk factors such as diabetes, alcoholism, and obesity, rather than to methotrexate itself. Despite this fact, significant effort continues to be expended in the monitoring of low-dose methotrexate in patients with psoriasis. The gold standard investigation has been liver biopsy, but this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As methotrexate-induced liver injury is uncommon, the risk/benefit ratio of liver biopsy has been questioned...
2018: Psoriasis: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785214/etiological-trends-and-patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-respiratory-infections
#18
Salma M Al-Zain Ahmed, Sara S Abdelrahman, Doua M Saad, Isra S Osman, Modasir G Osman, Eltahir A G Khalil
Background: Respiratory infections are one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases worldwide. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a major global health problem which is well established in developing countries. Good clinical suspicion and correct laboratory identification of respiratory infection causing organisms followed by the appropriate management are needed to compact both community-acquired and nosocomial infection respiratory infections...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785085/-wet-transepithelial-phototherapeutic-keratectomy-in-the-management-of-persistent-epithelial-defects-in-the-graft
#19
Sergei V Churashov, Elena V Kudryashova, Alexei N Kulikov, Ernest V Boiko, Valerii F Chernysh, Dmitrii S Maltsev
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of "wet" transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (TE-PTK) for treating persistent epithelial defects (PEDs) in the corneal graft following penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Methods: This study describes a noncomparative, prospective interventional case series. Patients with post-PKP graft epithelial defects lasting >3 months despite previous treatments with extensive wear soft contact lenses, amniotic membrane transplantation, and tarsorrhaphy were treated with wet TE-PTK...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784907/a-predictive-model-for-risk-of-early-grade-%C3%A2-3-infection-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-not-eligible-for-transplant-analysis-of-the-first-trial
#20
Charles Dumontet, Cyrille Hulin, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Andrew Belch, Angela Dispenzieri, Heinz Ludwig, Philippe Rodon, Jan Van Droogenbroeck, Lugui Qiu, Michele Cavo, Ann Van de Velde, Juan José Lahuerta, Olivier Allangba, Jae Hoon Lee, Eileen Boyle, Aurore Perrot, Philippe Moreau, Salomon Manier, Michel Attal, Murielle Roussel, Mohamad Mohty, Jean Yves Mary, Alexandre Civet, Bruno Costa, Antoine Tinel, Yann Gaston-Mathé, Thierry Facon
Infections are a major cause of death in patients with multiple myeloma. A post hoc analysis of the phase 3 FIRST trial was conducted to characterize treatment-emergent (TE) infections and study risk factors for TE grade ≥ 3 infection. The number of TE infections/month was highest during the first 4 months of treatment (defined as early infection). Of 1613 treated patients, 340 (21.1%) experienced TE grade ≥ 3 infections in the first 18 months and 56.2% of these patients experienced their first grade ≥ 3 infection in the first 4 months...
April 26, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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