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Linda Govere, Ephraim M Govere
BACKGROUND: With the rapid growth of minority populations in the United States, the need to train healthcare providers to give culturally competent care has never been greater. Extensive research on cultural competence of healthcare providers has been conducted, but no systematic review specifically focused on the effect of cultural competence training on patient satisfaction of clients from minority groups. AIMS: To search and critically appraise published research articles that evaluated the effectiveness of cultural competence training of healthcare providers on improving patient satisfaction of clients from minority groups...
October 25, 2016: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Igor V Tetko, Uko Maran, Alexander Tropsha
Thousands of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships (Q)SAR models have been described in peer-reviewed publications; however, this way of sharing seldom makes models available for the use by the research community outside of the developer's laboratory. Conversely, on-line models allow broad dissemination and application representing the most effective way of sharing the scientific knowledge. Approaches for sharing and providing on-line access to models range from web services created by individual users and laboratories to integrated modeling environments and model repositories...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Informatics
Anthony J Hatswell, Nick Freemantle, Gianluca Baio
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals are usually granted a marketing authorisation on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Occasionally the efficacy of a treatment is assessed without a randomised comparator group (either active or placebo). OBJECTIVE: To identify and develop a taxonomic account of economic modelling approaches for pharmaceuticals licensed without RCT data. METHODS: We searched PubMed, the websites of UK health technology assessment bodies and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Scientific Presentations Database for assessments of treatments granted a marketing authorisation by the US Food and Drug Administration or European Medicines Agency from January 1999 to May 2014 without RCT data (74 indications)...
October 24, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Allison N Kurti, Danielle R Davis, Ryan Redner, Brantley P Jarvis, Ivori Zvorsky, Diana R Keith, Hypatia A Bolivar, Thomas J White, Peter Rippberger, Catherine Markesich, Gary Atwood, Stephen T Higgins
Use of technology (e.g., Internet, cell phones) to allow remote implementation of incentives interventions for health-related behavior change is growing. To our knowledge, there has yet to be a systematic review of this literature reported. The present report provides a systematic review of the controlled studies where technology was used to remotely implement financial incentive interventions targeting substance use and other health behaviors published between 2004 and 2015. For inclusion in the review, studies had to use technology to remotely accomplish one of the following two aims alone or in combination: (a) monitor the target behavior, or (b) deliver incentives for achieving the target goal...
June 2016: Translational Issues in Psychological Science
Rachel Stork Poeppelman, Cara A Liebert, Daniel Brandt Vegas, Carl A Germann, Anna Volerman
BACKGROUND : Team-based learning (TBL) promotes problem solving and teamwork, and has been applied as an instructional method in undergraduate medical education with purported benefits. Although TBL curricula have been implemented for residents, no published systematic reviews or guidelines exist for the development and use of TBL in graduate medical education (GME). OBJECTIVE : To review TBL curricula in GME, identify gaps in the literature, and synthesize a framework to guide the development of TBL curricula at the GME level...
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Chad Swank, Staci Shearin, Samantha Cleveland, Simon Driver
Motor and non-motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) place individuals at greater risk of sedentary behaviors and comorbidities. Physical activity is one modifiable means to improving health and reducing risk of morbidity. We applied a behavioral framework to classify existing research on physical activity and PD to describe the current evolution and inform knowledge gaps in this area. Research placed in Phase 1 establishes links between physical activity and health-related outcomes; Phase 2 develops approaches to quantify physical activity behavior; Phase 3 identifies factors associated with implementation of physical activity behaviors; Phase 4 assesses the effectiveness of interventions to promote activity; Phase 5 disseminates evidence-based recommendations...
October 21, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Christine Miaskowski
OBJECTIVES: To consider future directions for symptom cluster research. These considerations are organized using the two main conceptual approaches for symptom cluster research (ie, "de novo" identification of symptom clusters, and identification of subgroups of patients with distinct symptom experiences with a prespecified symptom cluster). DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed journals and guidelines from professional organizations. CONCLUSION: Research on symptom clusters in oncology patients is growing at an exponential rate...
October 21, 2016: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Mary E Cooley, Mary Lou Siefert
OBJECTIVES: To discuss multiple co-occurring cancer symptoms, review symptom assessment instruments, identify innovative methods to integrate symptom assessment and management in the clinical setting, and examine barriers and facilitators for implementation of symptom assessment and use of clinical practice guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed articles, guidelines, systematic reviews, and web-based resources. CONCLUSION: Despite the availability of brief, reliable, and valid instruments, symptom assessment has not been integrated as a routine aspect of clinical care...
October 21, 2016: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
During recent decades, researchers have used several different parameters to evaluate the biological and health effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields in animals, humans and their isolated cells. The data reported in many of publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals were reviewed by the international and national expert groups of scientists for human risk assessment of exposure to radiofrequency fields. The criteria used for such assessment depended on the study design, methodology and reporting of the data in the publication...
November 1, 2016: Mutation Research
Stephen L Kopecky, Douglas C Bauer, Martha Gulati, Jeri W Nieves, Andrea J Singer, Peter P Toth, James A Underberg, Taylor C Wallace, Connie M Weaver
Description: Calcium is the dominant mineral present in bone and a shortfall nutrient in the American diet. Supplements have been recommended for persons who do not consume adequate calcium from their diet as a standard strategy for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Whether calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation is beneficial or detrimental to vascular health is not known. Methods: The National Osteoporosis Foundation and American Society for Preventive Cardiology convened an expert panel to evaluate the effects of dietary and supplemental calcium on cardiovascular disease based on the existing peer-reviewed scientific literature...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jin Xu, Xia-Fei Wang, Peng Chen, Fang-Tao Liu, Shuai-Chao Zheng, Hui Ye, Ming-He Mo
The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control...
October 19, 2016: Genes
Subha Rastogi, Madan Mohan Pandey, Aks Rawat
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors play a key role in the development as well as prevention of certain human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Currently there has been an increase in global interest to identify medicinal plants that are pharmacologically effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. Culinary herbs and spices are an important part of human nutrition in all the cultures of the world. There is a growing amount of literature concerning the potential benefits of these herbs and spices from a health perspective especially in conferring protection against cardiovascular diseases...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Molly Davis, Joanie Bilms, Cynthia Suveg
A growing body of research has highlighted the connection between parent-child positive behavioral synchrony and youth self-regulation; however, this association has yet to be the focus of a meta-analytic review. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aimed to estimate the magnitude of the relation between parent-child positive behavioral synchrony and youth self-regulation and to identify moderator variables that can explain the variability in the degree of this association across the extant literature. A thorough literature search of two major databases, in addition to scanning the reference sections of relevant articles, yielded a total of 10 peer-reviewed articles (24 effect sizes, 658 children) that were eligible for inclusion in the current meta-analysis...
October 23, 2016: Family Process
Wayne L Miller, Allan S Jaffe
The proliferation of cardiac-related biomarkers and advocacy for their use has often come without adequate discussion of limitations in the interpretation of values and their best use in heart failure (HF) patients to provide a balanced assessment of how cardiac biomarkers are advocated for use in HF and areas where we would argue there are no gaps in knowledge. We include suggestions to address these issues. We have focused on peer-reviewed publications over the period 2000 to present. Most studies have used samples at one or at most two points in time to define risk...
March 2016: ESC Heart Failure
E S Fernandes, A R A Cerqueira, A G Soares, Soraia K P Costa
A significant number of experimental and clinical studies published in peer-reviewed journals have demonstrated promising pharmacological properties of capsaicin in relieving signs and symptoms of non-communicable diseases (chronic diseases). This chapter provides an overview made from basic and clinical research studies of the potential therapeutic effects of capsaicin, loaded in different application forms, such as solution and cream, on chronic diseases (e.g. arthritis, chronic pain, functional gastrointestinal disorders and cancer)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenneth A Mundt, Bruce C Allen, P Robinan Gentry
Reproducibility and transparency in scientific reporting is paramount to advancing science and providing the foundation required for sound regulation. Recent examples demonstrate that pivotal scientific findings cannot be replicated, due to poor documentation or methodological bias, sparking debate across scientific and regulatory communities. However, there is general agreement that improvements in communicating and documenting research and risk assessment methods are needed. In the case of formaldehyde, the peer-review conducted by a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee questioned the approaches used by the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) in developing draft unit risk values...
October 19, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Christopher D Doern, Susan M Butler-Wu
The performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for routine bacterial and yeast identification as well as direct-from-blood culture bottle identification has been thoroughly evaluated in the peer-reviewed literature. Microbiologists are now moving beyond these methods to apply MS to other areas of the diagnostic process. This review discusses the emergence of advanced matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS applications, including the identification of filamentous fungi and mycobacteria and the current and future state of antimicrobial resistance testing...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Christopher D Doern, Susan M Butler-Wu
The performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for routine bacterial and yeast identification as well as direct-from-blood culture bottle identification has been thoroughly evaluated in the peer-reviewed literature. Microbiologists are now moving beyond these methods to apply MS to other areas of the diagnostic process. This review discusses the emergence of advanced matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS applications, including the identification of filamentous fungi and mycobacteria and the current and future state of antimicrobial resistance testing...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Angela Dawson, Deborah Bateson, Jane Estoesta, Elizabeth Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Improving access to safe abortion is an essential strategy in the provision of universal access to reproductive health care. Australians are largely supportive of the provision of abortion and its decriminalization. However, the lack of data and the complex legal and service delivery situation impacts upon access for women seeking an early termination of pregnancy. There are no systematic reviews from a health services perspective to help direct health planners and policy makers to improve access comprehensive medical and early surgical abortion in high income countries...
October 22, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Marjolein Poels, Maria P H Koster, Hennie R Boeije, Arie Franx, Henk F van Stel
Importance: Preconception care (PCC) has the potential to optimize pregnancy outcomes. However, awareness of PCC among the target population is generally limited, and the use of PCC remains low. Importance: The objective of this study was to review the literature on women's perceptions regarding barriers and facilitators for the use of PCC. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for published studies until February 2015...
October 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
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