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Burst suppression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798343/isoflurane-produces-antidepressant-effects-and-induces-trkb-signaling-in-rodents
#1
Hanna Antila, Maria Ryazantseva, Dina Popova, Pia Sipilä, Ramon Guirado, Samuel Kohtala, Ipek Yalcin, Jesse Lindholm, Liisa Vesa, Vinicius Sato, Joshua Cordeira, Henri Autio, Mikhail Kislin, Maribel Rios, Sâmia Joca, Plinio Casarotto, Leonard Khiroug, Sari Lauri, Tomi Taira, Eero Castrén, Tomi Rantamäki
A brief burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to rapidly alleviate symptoms of depression in a subset of patients, but the neurobiological basis of these observations remains obscure. We show that a single isoflurane anesthesia produces antidepressant-like behavioural effects in the learned helplessness paradigm and regulates molecular events implicated in the mechanism of action of rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine: activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor TrkB, facilitation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797637/temporal-changes-in-innate-immunity-parameters-epinecidin-gene-expression-and-mortality-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-experimentally-infected-with-a-fish-pathogen-vibrio-harveyi-jml1
#2
Edgar C Amar, Joseph P Faisan, Mary Jane S Apines-Amar, Rolando V Pakingking
Changes in innate immunity parameters and epinecidin mRNA transcript levels were examined to characterize the non-specific immune response of E. coioides to pathogenic V. harveyi JML1 isolated from affected cage-cultured fish. After fish had been injected with bacteria at a dose causing 30% mortality, blood and tissue samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 240 h post-infection (hpi) for assessment of indices such as the oxidative burst (OB) and phagocytic index (PI) of head kidney cells, and lysozyme activity (LYS) and total immunoglobulin (Total Ig) levels of the plasma...
August 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761775/real-time-monitoring-of-superoxide-anion-radical-generation-in-response-to-wounding-electrochemical-study
#3
Ankush Prasad, Aditya Kumar, Ryo Matsuoka, Akemi Takahashi, Ryo Fujii, Yamato Sugiura, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Shigeo Aoyagi, Tatsuo Aikawa, Takeshi Kondo, Makoto Yuasa, Pavel Pospíšil, Shigenobu Kasai
BACKGROUND: The growth and development of plants is deleteriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. Wounding in plants is caused by exposure to environmental stress, mechanical stress, and via herbivory. Typically, oxidative burst in response to wounding is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as the superoxide anion radical (O2(•-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and singlet oxygen; however, few experimental studies have provided direct evidence of their detection in plants...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744923/the-role-of-t-type-calcium-channels-in-the-subiculum-to-burst-or-not-to-burst
#4
Srdjan M Joksimovic, Pierce Eggan, Yukitoshi Izumi, Sonja Lj Joksimovic, Vesna Tesic, Robert M Dietz, James E Orfila, Michael R DiGruccio, Paco S Herson, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Charles F Zorumski, Slobodan M Todorovic
Several studies suggest that voltage-gated calcium currents are involved in generating high frequency burst firing in the subiculum, but the exact nature of these currents remains unknown. Here, we used selective pharmacology, molecular and genetic approaches to implicate Cav3.1-containing T-channels in subicular burst firing, in contrast to several previous reports discounting T-channels as major contributors to subicular neuron physiology. Furthermore, pharmacological antagonism of T-channels completely suppressed development of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1-subiculum, but not in the CA3-CA1 pathway...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742985/gabab-receptors-suppress-burst-firing-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#5
Stuart M Cain, Esperanza Garcia, Zeina Waheed, Karen L Jones, Trevor J Bushell, Terrance P Snutch
Burst-firing in thalamic neurons is known to play a key role in mediating thalamocortical (TC) oscillations that are associated with non-REM sleep and some types of epileptic seizure. Within the TC system the primary output of GABAergic neurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) is thought to induce the de-inactivation of T-type calcium channels in thalamic relay (TR) neurons, promoting burst-firing drive to the cortex and the propagation of TC network activity. However, RTN neurons also project back onto other neurons within the RTN...
July 25, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729926/coherence-of-bold-signal-and-electrical-activity-in-the-human-brain-during-deep-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#6
Daniel Golkowski, Andreas Ranft, Tobias Kiel, Valentin Riedl, Philipp Kohl, Guido Rohrer, Joachim Pientka, Sebastian Berger, Christine Preibisch, Claus Zimmer, George A Mashour, Gerhard Schneider, Eberhard F Kochs, Rüdiger Ilg, Denis Jordan
INTRODUCTION: Changes in neural activity induce changes in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal. Commonly, increases in BOLD signal are ascribed to cellular excitation. OBJECTIVE: The relationship between electrical activity and BOLD signal in the human brain was probed on the basis of burst suppression EEG. This condition includes two distinct states of high and low electrical activity. METHODS: Resting-state simultaneous EEG and BOLD measurements were acquired during deep sevoflurane anesthesia with burst suppression EEG in nineteen healthy volunteers...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728911/effects-of-riluzole-on-spinal-seizure-like-activity-in-the-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-of-newborn-rat
#7
Shih Tien Lin, Masayuki Ohbayashi, Toshinori Yamamoto, Hiroshi Onimaru, Mari Kogo
Riluzole blocks persistent Na(+) current, inhibits generation of neuronal bursts and decreases glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In previous studies of respiratory activity, riluzole suppressed inspiratory-related burst generation activity in rat slice or en bloc preparations. We examined riluzole's effects on inspiratory burst generation and drug-induced seizure-like activity in newborn rat en bloc preparations. Medulla-spinal cord preparations from postnatal day 0-3 Wistar rats were isolated under deep isoflurane anesthesia and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715964/uterine-and-abdominal-muscle-electromyographic-activities-in-control-and-pcea-treated-nulliparous-women-during-the-second-stage-of-labor
#8
Xueya Qian, Pin Li, Shao-Qing Shi, Robert E Garfield, Huishu Liu
OBJECTIVE: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), used to relieve pain during delivery, delays labor but the mechanism is unknown. The aim was to investigate the effects of PCEA on uterine and abdominal muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity during the second stage of labor. METHODS: This study included 45 nulliparous pregnant women without PCEA, 42 women with standard PCEA treatment given during the first stage of labor and stopped near the end of the first stage, and 22 women with standard PCEA treatment with continued use throughout the first and second stages of labor...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705167/inhibition-of-parkinsonian-tremor-with-cutaneous-afferent-evoked-by-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation
#9
Man-Zhao Hao, Shao-Qin Xu, Zi-Xiang Hu, Fu-Liang Xu, Chuan-Xin M Niu, Qin Xiao, Ning Lan
BACKGROUND: Recent study suggests that tremor signals are transmitted by way of multi-synaptic corticospinal pathway. Neurophysiological studies have also demonstrated that cutaneous afferents exert potent inhibition to descending motor commands by way of spinal interneurons. We hypothesize in this study that cutaneous afferents could also affect the transmission of tremor signals, thus, inhibit tremor in patients with PD. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis by activating cutaneous afferents in the dorsal hand skin innervated by superficial radial nerve using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696429/glud1-linked-to-schizophrenia-controls-the-burst-firing-of-dopamine-neurons
#10
N Benamer, F Marti, R Lujan, R Hepp, T G Aubier, A A M Dupin, G Frébourg, S Pons, U Maskos, P Faure, Y A Hay, B Lambolez, L Tricoire
Human mutations of the GRID1 gene encoding the orphan delta1 glutamate receptor-channel (GluD1) are associated with schizophrenia but the explicit role of GluD1 in brain circuits is unknown. Based on the known function of its paralog GluD2 in cerebellum, we searched for a role of GluD1 in slow glutamatergic transmission mediated by metabotropic receptor mGlu1 in midbrain dopamine neurons, whose dysfunction is a hallmark of schizophrenia. We found that an mGlu1 agonist elicits a slow depolarizing current in HEK cells co-expressing mGlu1 and GluD1, but not in cells expressing mGlu1 or GluD1 alone...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687180/a-patient-with-early-myoclonic-encephalopathy-eme-with-a-de-novo-kcnq2-mutation
#11
Karin Kojima, Kentaro Shirai, Mizuki Kobayashi, Akihiko Miyauchi, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hitoshi Osaka, Takanori Yamagata
BACKGROUND: The potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 2 (KCNQ2) gene has been reported to be associated with various types of epilepsy, including benign familial neonatal seizure (BFNS), early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), and unclassified early onset encephalopathies. We herein report a patient with early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME) caused by a KCNQ2 mutation. CASE REPORT: A male infant started to exhibit erratic myoclonus several days after birth and apnea attacks lasting for seconds with desaturation...
July 4, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686966/pectolinarigenin-from-the-leaves-of-clerodendrum-volubile-shows-potent-immunomodulatory-activity-by-inhibiting-t-cell-proliferation-and-modulating-respiratory-oxidative-burst-in-phagocytes
#12
Ochuko L Erukainure, M Ahmed Mesaik, Olubunmi Atolani, Aliyu Muhammad, Chika I Chukwuma, Md Shahidul Islam
There have been increasing interest in the use of plant-derived substance as immunomodulators for the treatment and management of inflammatory ailments. Clerodendrum volubile, a leafy vegetable is known for its folkloric applications in the treatments of several inflammatory related ailments, but with little scientific evidence. This study reports the isolation, structure elucidation and in vitro immunomodulatory potentials of pectolinarigenin from C. volubile leaves. The immunomodulatory potentials of the crude methanolic extract and fractions [n-hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n - butanol (BuOH)] were investigated on whole blood, neutrophil and macrophage phagocytic respiratory burst using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence technique...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683401/role-of-fusaric-acid-in-the-development-of-fusarium-wilt-symptoms-in-tomato-physiological-biochemical-and-proteomic-perspectives
#13
Vivek Kumar Singh, Harikesh Bahadur Singh, Ram Sanmukh Upadhyay
Fusarium wilt is one of the most prevalent and damaging diseases of tomato. Among various toxins secreted by the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (causal agent of Fusarium wilt of tomato), fusaric acid (FA) is suspected to be a potent pathogenicity factor in tomato wilt disease development. With this rationale the present study was carried out with physiological, biochemical and proteomic perspectives. Treatment of FA was given to the leaves of tomato directly through infiltration to show the characteristic features of Fusarium wilt of tomato...
June 28, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671900/phenotyping-the-immune-response-to-trauma-a-multiparametric-systems-immunology-approach
#14
Anupamaa Seshadri, Gabriel A Brat, Brian K Yorkgitis, Joshua Keegan, James Dolan, Ali Salim, Reza Askari, James A Lederer
OBJECTIVE: Trauma induces a complex immune response that requires a systems biology research approach. Here, we used a novel technology, mass cytometry by time-of-flight, to comprehensively characterize the multicellular response to trauma. DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells samples were stained with a 38-marker immunophenotyping cytometry by time-of-flight panel. Separately, matched peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae or CD3/CD28 antibodies and stained with a 38-marker cytokine panel...
June 30, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666936/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-hipsc-derived-neurons-respond-to-convulsant-drugs-when-co-cultured-with-hipsc-derived-astrocytes
#15
Misawa Niki Ishii, Koji Yamamoto, Masanobu Shoji, Asano Asami, Yuji Kawamata
Accurate risk assessment for drug-induced seizure is expected to be performed before entering clinical studies because of its severity and fatal damage to drug development. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has allowed the use of human neurons and glial cells in toxicology studies. Recently, several studies showed the advantage of co-culture system of human iPSC (hiPSC)-derived neurons with rodent/human primary astrocytes regarding neuronal functions. However, the application of hiPSC-derived neurons for seizure risk assessment has not yet been fully addressed, and not at all when co-cultured with hiPSC-derived astrocytes...
June 27, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666726/redox-sensitive-and-hyaluronic-acid-functionalized-liposomes-for-cytoplasmic-drug-delivery-to-osteosarcoma-in-animal-models
#16
Yingying Chi, Xuelei Yin, Kaoxiang Sun, Shuaishuai Feng, Jinhu Liu, Daquan Chen, Chuanyou Guo, Zimei Wu
This study aimed to develop redox-sensitive and CD44-targeted liposomes to improve chemotherapy of osteosarcoma. Cationic liposomes were prepared and stabilized with a novel detachable polyethylene glycol (PEG2000) conjugated with cholesterol through a bio-reducible disulfide linker (Chol-SS-mPEG). Hyaluronic acid (HA, MW 20-40kDa), a ligand to CD44, was non-covalently coated on the cationic liposomes. Doxorubicin (DOX) was actively loaded in the liposomes as a model drug. The roles of HA and Chol-SS-mPEG on intracellular drug delivery efficiency, and antitumor efficacy were studied...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642282/kappa-opioid-receptors-mediate-heterosynaptic-suppression-of-hippocampal-inputs-in-the-rat-ventral-striatum
#17
Julie M Brooks, Patricio O'Donnell
Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) are highly enriched within the ventral striatum (VS) and are thought to modulate striatal neurotransmission. This includes presynaptic inhibition of local glutamatergic release from excitatory inputs to the VS. However, it is not known which inputs drive this modulation and what impact they have on the local circuit dynamics within the VS. Individual medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the VS serve as a site of convergence for glutamatergic inputs arising from the PFC and limbic regions, such as the hippocampus (HP)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635324/gliptins-suppress-inflammatory-macrophage-activation-to-mitigate-inflammation-fibrosis-oxidative-stress-and-vascular-dysfunction-in-models-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#18
Xiaoyu Wang, Michael Hausding, Shih-Yen Weng, Yong Ook Kim, Sebastian Steven, Thomas Klein, Andreas Daiber, Detlef Schuppan
AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by steatosis, panlobular inflammation, liver fibrosis, and increased cardiovascular mortality. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins) are indirect glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity, used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their potential and underlying mechanisms to treat metabolic liver inflammation and fibrosis as well as the associated vascular dysfunction remain to be explored...
July 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628666/the-effector-avrrxo1-phosphorylates-nad-in-planta
#19
Teja Shidore, Corey D Broeckling, Jay S Kirkwood, John J Long, Jiamin Miao, Bingyu Zhao, Jan E Leach, Lindsay R Triplett
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals employ type III secreted effectors to suppress innate immunity. Most characterized effectors work through modification of host proteins or transcriptional regulators, although a few are known to modify small molecule targets. The Xanthomonas type III secreted avirulence factor AvrRxo1 is a structural homolog of the zeta toxin family of sugar-nucleotide kinases that suppresses bacterial growth. AvrRxo1 was recently reported to phosphorylate the central metabolite and signaling molecule NAD in vitro, suggesting that the effector might enhance bacterial virulence on plants through manipulation of primary metabolic pathways...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627809/ivabradine-reduces-digitalis-induced-ventricular-arrhythmias
#20
Gerrit Frommeyer, Jan Weller, Christian Ellermann, Nils Bögeholz, Patrick Leitz, Dirk G Dechering, Simon Kochhäuser, Kristina Wasmer, Lars Eckardt
The I(f) channel inhibitor ivabradine is recommended for treatment of heart failure but also affects potassium currents and thereby prolongs ventricular repolarization. The aim of this study was to examine the electrophysiological effects of ivabradine on digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Thirteen rabbit hearts were isolated and Langendorff-perfused. After obtaining baseline data, the digitalis glycoside ouabain was infused (0.2 μM). Monophasic action potentials and ECG showed a significant abbreviation of QT interval (-34 ms, p < 0...
June 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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