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Burst suppression

Clarissa J Whitmire, Daniel C Millard, Garrett B Stanley
Sensory stimulation drives complex interactions across neural circuits as information is encoded and then transmitted from one brain region to the next. In the highly interconnected thalamocortical circuit, these complex interactions elicit repeatable neural dynamics in response to temporal patterns of stimuli that provide insight into the circuit properties that generated them. Here, using a combination of in-vivo voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging of cortex, single unit recording in thalamus, and optogenetics to manipulate thalamic state in the rodent vibrissa pathway, we probed the thalamocortical circuit with simple temporal patterns of stimuli delivered either to the whiskers on the face (sensory stimulation) or to the thalamus directly via electrical or optogenetic inputs (artificial stimulation)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Piotr T Filipczak, Cynthia L Thomas, Wenshu Chen, Andrew Salzman, Jacob D McDonald, Yong Lin, Steven A Belinsky
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multi-organ disorder characterized by the development of neoplastic lesions in kidney, lung, brain, heart and skin. It is caused by an inactivating mutation in tumor suppressor genes coding the TSC1/TSC2 complex, resulting in hyperactivation of mTOR- and Raf/MEK/MAPK-dependent signaling that stimulates tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Despite its oncogenic effect, cells with TSC deficiency were more sensitive to oxidative stress and dependent on mitochondrial metabolism, providing a rationale for a new therapeutic approach...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Research
Anthony G Hudetz, Jeannette A Vizuete, Siveshigan Pillay, George A Mashour
Consciousness has been linked to the repertoire of brain states at various spatiotemporal scales. Anesthesia is thought to modify consciousness by altering information integration in cortical and thalamocortical circuits. At a mesoscopic scale, neuronal populations in the cortex form synchronized ensembles whose characteristics are presumably state-dependent but this has not been rigorously tested. In this study, spontaneous neuronal activity was recorded with 64-contact microelectrode arrays in primary visual cortex of chronically instrumented, unrestrained rats under stepwise decreasing levels of desflurane anesthesia (8%, 6%, 4%, and 2% inhaled concentrations) and wakefulness (0% concentration)...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Deepika Sharma, Brijendra Kumar Tiwari, Subhash Mehto, Cecil Antony, Gunjan Kak, Yogendra Singh, Krishnamurthy Natarajan
The prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) strains eliciting drug resistance has necessitated the need for understanding the complexities of host pathogen interactions. The regulation of calcium homeostasis by Voltage Gated Calcium Channel (VGCCs) upon M. tb infection has recently assumed importance in this area. We previously showed a suppressor role of VGCC during M. tb infections and recently reported the mechanisms of its regulation by M. tb. Here in this report, we further characterize the role of VGCC in mediating defence responses of macrophages during mycobacterial infection...
2016: PloS One
Manoj Kumar, Sanjeev Bhoi, Sujata Mohanty, Vineet Kumar Kamal, D N Rao, Pravas Mishra, Sagar Galwankar
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is the major leading cause of death after trauma. Up to 50% of early deaths are due to massive hemorrhage. Excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokine and hypercatecholamine induces hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) apoptosis, leading to multiorgan failure and death. However, still, result remains elusive for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) behavior in trauma HS (T/HS). OBJECTIVES: Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the in vitro HSCs behavior with or without recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), recombinant human granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF), recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) alone, and combination with rhEPO + rhGM-CSF + rhIL-3 (EG3) in T/HS patients...
July 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Ana R Inácio, Azat Nasretdinov, Julia Lebedeva, Roustem Khazipov
Early stages of sensorimotor system development in mammals are characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous movements. Whether and how these movements support correlated activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits remains unknown. Here we show highly correlated activity in sensory and motor zones in the spinal cord of neonatal rats in vivo. Both during twitches and complex movements, movement-generating bursts in motor zones are followed by bursts in sensory zones. Deafferentation does not affect activity in motor zones and movements, but profoundly suppresses activity bursts in sensory laminae and results in sensorimotor uncoupling, implying a primary role of sensory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Satoshi Fukunaga, Miho Sogame, Masaki Hata, Suthitar Singkaravanit-Ogawa, Mariola Piślewska-Bednarek, Mariko Onozawa-Komori, Takumi Nishiuchi, Kei Hiruma, Hiromasa Saitoh, Ryohei Terauchi, Saeko Kitakura, Yoshihiro Inoue, Paweł Bednarek, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Yoshitaka Takano
Plant immune responses triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) typically restrict pathogen growth without a host cell death response. We isolated two Arabidopsis mutants, derived from accession Col-0, that activate cell death upon inoculation with nonadapted fungal pathogens. Notably, the mutants trigger cell death also when treated with bacterial MAMPs such as flg22. Positional cloning identified NSL1 (Necrotic Spotted Lesion 1) as a responsible gene for the phenotype of the two mutants, whereas nsl1 mutations of the accession No-0 result in necrotic lesion formation without pathogen inoculation...
October 6, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mohamed M Mira, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasolla
Hypoxic root growth in maize is influenced by expression of phytoglobins (ZmPgbs). Relative to WT, suppression of ZmPgb1.1 or ZmPgb1.2 inhibits growth of roots exposed to 4% oxygen causing structural abnormalities in the root apical meristems. These effects were accompanied by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), possibly through the transcriptional induction of four Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs). TUNEL-positive nuclei in meristematic cells indicated the involvement of programmed cell death (PCD) in the process...
October 4, 2016: Plant Physiology
Tuo Lin, Lisheng Jiang, Zulin Dou, Cheng Wu, Feng Liu, Guangqing Xu, Yue Lan
BACKGROUND: Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS) are powerful patterns of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), with substantial potential for motor function rehabilitation post-stroke. However, TBS of suprahyoid motor cortex excitability has not been investigated. This study investigated TBS effects on suprahyoid motor cortex excitability and its potential mechanisms in healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirty-five healthy subjects (23 females; mean age = 21...
August 24, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Yu-Lin Su, Kuan-Ting Chen, Yu-Chen Sheu, Shuo-Yuan Sung, Ru-Siou Hsu, Chi-Shiun Chiang, Shang-Hsiu Hu
Delivery of drug and energy within responsive carriers that effectively target and accumulate in cancer cells promises to mitigate side effects and to enhance the uniquely therapeutic efficacy demanded for personalized medicine. To achieve this goal, however, these carriers, which are usually piled up at the periphery of tumors near the blood vessel, must simultaneously overcome the challenges associated with low tumor penetration and the transport of sufficient cargos to deep tumors to eradicate whole cancer cells...
October 3, 2016: ACS Nano
Christina Gross, Xiaodi Yao, Tobias Engel, Durgesh Tiwari, Lei Xing, Shane Rowley, Scott W Danielson, Kristen T Thomas, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos, Lindsay M Schroeder, Raymund Y K Pun, Steve C Danzer, David C Henshall, Gary J Bassell
Seizures are bursts of excessive synchronized neuronal activity, suggesting that mechanisms controlling brain excitability are compromised. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv4.2, a major mediator of hyperpolarizing A-type currents in the brain, is a crucial regulator of neuronal excitability. Kv4.2 expression levels are reduced following seizures and in epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that Kv4.2 mRNA is recruited to the RNA-induced silencing complex shortly after status epilepticus in mice and after kainic acid treatment of hippocampal neurons, coincident with reduction of Kv4...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
Uzma Salar, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Almas Jabeen, Aisha Faheem, Muhammad Imran Fakhri, Syed Muhammad Saad, Shahnaz Perveen, Muhammad Taha, Abdul Hameed
Coumarin sulfonates 4-43 were synthesized by reacting 3-hydroxy coumarin 1, 4-hydroxy coumarin 2and6-hydroxy coumarin 3 with different substituted sulfonyl chlorides and subjected to evaluate for their in vitro immunomodulatory potential. The compounds were investigated for their effect on oxidative burst activity of zymosan stimulated whole blood phagocytes using a luminol enhanced chemiluminescence technique. Ibuprofen was used as standard drug (IC50=54.2±9.2μM). Eleven compounds 6 (IC50=46.60±14.6μM), 8 (IC50=11...
September 19, 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
Amaya M Singh, Robin E Duncan, W Richard Staines
A preceding bout of acute aerobic exercise can enhance the induction of early long-term potentiation (LTP) in the primary motor cortex (M1). However, the influence of exercise when performed after the induction of plasticity has not been investigated. In addition, it is unclear whether the same effects are seen with techniques that induce long-term depression (LTD). We used continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to temporarily suppress cortical excitability and investigate whether moderate-intensity cycling exercise would alter the duration or intensity of cTBS after-effects in a nonexercised upper limb muscle...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Taj Ali Khan, Kalsoom Kalsoom, Asif Iqbal, Huma Asif, Hazir Rahman, Syed Omar Farooq, Hassan Naveed, Umar Nasir, Muhammad Usman Amin, Mubashir Hussain, Hamid Nawaz Tipu, Andrei Florea
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the five structural genes (CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, and NCF4) that typically results in a decrease in function or inability to generate a respiratory burst, leading to defective killing of pathogens, including fungi and intracellular bacteria. Mutations in CYBB, encoding the gp91phox (also known as NOX2) result in X-linked CGD account for approximately 65% of CGD cases. Here, we aimed the characterization of a novel missense mutation c...
September 23, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Stefon J R van Noordt, James A Desjardins, Cody E T Gogo, Ayda Tekok-Kilic, Sidney J Segalowitz
The oscillatory dynamics of medial frontal EEG theta and posterior alpha are implicated in the modulation of attention and cognitive control. We used a novel saccade cueing paradigm to examine whether theta and alpha are modulated by task difficulty during response preparation. After isolating and functionally classifying medial frontal and posterior alpha independent components, the EEG spectral power in these components was calculated on pro- and anti-saccade trials prior to response probes. The results of bootstrap re-sampling show that, compared to pro-saccade trials, correct anti-saccades are characterized by an increase in medial frontal theta and suppression of posterior alpha during the response preparation period...
September 22, 2016: NeuroImage
Pavol Bokes, Abhyudai Singh
Inside individual cells, expression of genes is stochastic across organisms ranging from bacterial to human cells. A ubiquitous feature of stochastic expression is burst-like synthesis of gene products, which drives considerable intercellular variability in protein levels across an isogenic cell population. One common mechanism by which cells control such stochasticity is negative feedback regulation, where a protein inhibits its own synthesis. For a single gene that is expressed in bursts, negative feedback can affect the burst frequency or the burst size...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Marleen C Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Elisabeth T Wijers, Michel J A M van Putten
OBJECTIVE: To report on a distinct effect of auditory and sensory stimuli on the EEG in comatose patients with severe postanoxic encephalopathy. METHODS: In two comatose patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe postanoxic encephalopathy and burst-suppression EEG, we studied the effect of external stimuli (sound and touch) on the occurrence of bursts. RESULTS: In patient A bursts could be induced by either auditory or sensory stimuli...
August 26, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Joo Yong Woo, Kwang Ju Jeong, Young Jin Kim, Kyung-Hee Paek
In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Derek L Greene, Naoto Hoshi
Neuronal Kv7 channels underlie a voltage-gated non-inactivating potassium current known as the M-current. Due to its particular characteristics, Kv7 channels show pronounced control over the excitability of neurons. We will discuss various factors that have been shown to drastically alter the activity of this channel such as protein and phospholipid interactions, phosphorylation, calcium, and numerous neurotransmitters. Kv7 channels locate to key areas for the control of action potential initiation and propagation...
September 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Andreas Ranft, Daniel Golkowski, Tobias Kiel, Valentin Riedl, Philipp Kohl, Guido Rohrer, Joachim Pientka, Sebastian Berger, Alexander Thul, Max Maurer, Christine Preibisch, Claus Zimmer, George A Mashour, Eberhard F Kochs, Denis Jordan, Rüdiger Ilg
BACKGROUND: The neural correlates of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness have yet to be fully elucidated. Sedative and anesthetic states induced by propofol have been studied extensively, consistently revealing a decrease of frontoparietal and thalamocortical connectivity. There is, however, less understanding of the effects of halogenated ethers on functional brain networks. METHODS: The authors recorded simultaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography in 16 artificially ventilated volunteers during sevoflurane anesthesia at burst suppression and 3 and 2 vol% steady-state concentrations for 700 s each to assess functional connectivity changes compared to wakefulness...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
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