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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775401/electroencephalographic-signals-during-anesthesia-recorded-from-surface-and-depth-electrodes
#1
Ville Jäntti, Tuomo Ylinen, Narayan Puthanmadam Subramaniyam, Kotoe Kamata, Arvi Yli-Hankala, Pasi Kauppinen, Eila Sonkajärvi
Purpose - Anesthesiologists have increasingly started to use EEG based indexes to estimate the level and type of unconsciousness. However, the physiology and biophysics are poorly understood in anesthesiological literature. Methods - EEG was recorded from electrodes on the surface of head, including scalp, as well as DBS (deep brain stimulation) electrodes implanted deep in the brain. Mathematical modeling with a realistic head model was performed to create illustrative images of the sensitivity of electrode montages...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768258/multiple-actions-of-rotenone-an-inhibitor-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-on-ionic-currents-and-miniature-end-plate-potential-in-mouse-hippocampal-mhippoe-14-neurons
#2
Chin-Wei Huang, Kao-Min Lin, Te-Yu Hung, Yao-Chung Chuang, Sheng-Nan Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rotenone (Rot) is known to suppress the activity of complex I in the mitochondrial chain reaction; however, whether this compound has effects on ion currents in neurons remains largely unexplored. METHODS: With the aid of patch-clamp technology and simulation modeling, the effects of Rot on membrane ion currents present in mHippoE-14 cells were investigated. RESULTS: Addition of Rot produced an inhibitory action on the peak amplitude of INa with an IC50 value of 39...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757952/novel-n4-like-bacteriophages-of-pectobacterium-atrosepticum
#3
Colin Buttimer, Hanne Hendrix, Alan Lucid, Horst Neve, Jean-Paul Noben, Charles Franz, Jim O'Mahony, Rob Lavigne, Aidan Coffey
Pectobacterium atrosepticum is an economically important phytopathogen that is responsible for potato blackleg and soft rot, and for which current control strategies are limited. In this study, stem samples of potato crops exhibiting blackleg were taken from three farms in Co. Cork, Ireland, and they were found to be infected with P. atrosepticum . Three closely related bacteriophages (phages) that are specific to this phytopathogen were isolated and characterized, namely vB_PatP_CB1, vB_PatP_CB3, and vB_PatP_CB4 (abbreviated as CB1, CB3, and CB4)...
May 14, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747107/glutaredoxin-grxs16-mediates-brassinosteroid-induced-apoplastic-h-2-o-2-production-to-promote-pesticide-metabolism-in-tomato
#4
Jiayin Hou, Qihao Zhang, Yue Zhou, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Yanhong Zhou, Jingquan Yu, Hua Fang, Xiaojian Xia
Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroid phytohormones, are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Despite recent studies on BRs-promoted pesticide metabolism in plants, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) significantly enhanced the expression of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG1 (RBOH1) and H2 O2 accumulation in the apoplast of chlorothalonil (CHT, a broad spectrum nonsystemic fungicide)-treated tomato plants...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745347/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-an-overview-of-treatment-and-recent-patents
#5
Kam Lun E Lun Hon, Alexander K C Leung, Alcy R Torres
BACKGROUND: New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) refers to a clinical presentation in a patient without active epilepsy or other existing relevant neurological disorder, with new onset of refractory status epilepticus in the absence of a clear acute or active structural, metabolic, or toxic cause. Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a subset of NORSE that requires a febrile infection between 24 hours and 2 weeks prior to the onset of refractory status epilepticus, with or without fever at the onset of status epilepticus, and with no restriction to the age of the patient...
May 8, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742421/modular-study-of-the-type-iii-effector-repertoire-in-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-reveals-a-matrix-of-effector-interplay-in-pathogenesis
#6
Hai-Lei Wei, Wei Zhang, Alan Collmer
The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of Nicotiana benthamiana and other plants by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E) proteins. Effectorless polymutant DC3000D36E was used with a modularized system for native delivery of the 29 DC3000 T3Es singly and in pairs. Assays of the performance of this T3E library in N. benthamiana leaves revealed a matrix of T3E interplay, with six T3Es eliciting death and eight others variously suppressing the death activity of the six...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736233/nos2-deficiency-has-no-influence-on-the-radiosensitivity-of-the-hematopoietic-system
#7
Chengcheng Li, Yi Luo, Lijian Shao, Aimin Meng, Daohong Zhou
Objective: Previous studies have shown that inhibition of inducible NO synthase (NOS2 or iNOS) with an inhibitor can selectively protect several normal tissues against radiation during radiotherapy. However, the role of NOS2 in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced bone marrow (BM) suppression is unknown and thus was investigated in the present study using NOS2- /- and wild-type mice 14 days after they were exposed to a sublethal dose of total body irradiation (TBI). Methods: The effects of different doses of IR (1, 2 and 4 Gy) on the apoptosis and colony-forming ability of bone marrow cells from wild-type (WT) and NOS2- /- mice were investigated in vitro...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732098/a-mitochondria-targeted-nanoradiosensitizer-activating-reactive-oxygen-species-burst-for-enhanced-radiation-therapy
#8
Na Li, Longhai Yu, Jianbo Wang, Xiaonan Gao, Yuanyuan Chen, Wei Pan, Bo Tang
Radiation therapy (RT) has been widely used for malignant tumor treatment. However, the large dosage of ionizing radiation and high frequency of radiotherapy in clinical cancer therapy cause severe damage to normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Therefore, how to increase the local treatment efficacy and reduce the damage to normal tissues has been a challenge for RT. Herein, we developed a novel strategy for enhanced RT based on a mitochondria targeted titanium dioxide-gold nanoradiosensitizer. When irradiated with X-rays, the nanosensitizer could produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria, which induced the domino effect on the ROS burst...
March 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727818/efficacy-and-safety-of-ketogenic-diet-for-treatment-of-pediatric-convulsive-refractory-status-epilepticus
#9
Ravindra Arya, Katrina Peariso, Marina Gaínza-Lein, Jessica Harvey, Ann Bergin, J Nicholas Brenton, Brian T Burrows, Tracy Glauser, Howard P Goodkin, Yi-Chen Lai, Mohamad A Mikati, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Dmitry Tchapyjnikov, Angus A Wilfong, Korwyn Williams, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: To describe the efficacy and safety of ketogenic diet (KD) for convulsive refractory status epilepticus (RSE). METHODS: RSE patients treated with KD at the 6/11 participating institutions of the pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group from January-2011 to December-2016 were included. Patients receiving KD prior to the index RSE episode were excluded. RSE was defined as failure of ≥2 anti-seizure medications, including at least one non-benzodiazepine drug...
April 27, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679985/does-burst-suppression-achieve-seizure-control-in-refractory-status-epilepticus
#10
Kanitpong Phabphal, Suparat Chisurajinda, Thapanee Somboon, Kanjana Unwongse, Alan Geater
BACKGROUND: The general principles in the administration of anesthetic drugs entail not only the suppression of seizure activity but also the achievement of electroencephalography burst suppression (BS). However, previous studies have reported conflicting results, possibly owing to the inclusion of various anesthetic agents, not all patients undergoing continuous electroencephalography (cEEG), and the inclusion of anoxic encephalopathy. This study aimed to analyze the effects of midazolam-induced BS on the occurrence outcomes in refractory status epilepticus patients...
April 21, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679698/neurophysiological-and-neuroradiological-multimodal-approach-for-early-poor-outcome-prediction-after-cardiac-arrest
#11
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Lolli, Riccardo Carrai, Marco Moretti, Maddalena Spalletti, Morena Cozzolino, Adriano Peris, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
INTRODUCTION: Prognosticating outcome after cardiac arrest(CA) requires a multimodal approach. However, evidence regarding combinations of methods is limited. We evaluated whether the combination of electroencephalography(EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials(SEPs) and brain computed tomography(CT) could predict poor outcome. METHODS: We screened our database regarding patients successfully resuscitated after CA, for whom EEG, SEPs and brain CT were available within 24 hours...
April 18, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676259/mfn2-ubiquitination-by-pink1-parkin-gates-the-p97-dependent-release-of-er-from-mitochondria-to-drive-mitophagy
#12
Gian-Luca McLelland, Thomas Goiran, Wei Yi, Geneviève Dorval, Carol X Chen, Nadine D Lauinger, Andrea I Krahn, Sepideh Valimehr, Aleksandar Rakovic, Isabelle Rouiller, Thomas M Durcan, Jean-François Trempe, Edward A Fon
Despite their importance as signaling hubs, the function of mitochondria-ER contact sites in mitochondrial quality control pathways remains unexplored. Here we describe a mechanism by which Mfn2, a mitochondria-ER tether, gates the autophagic turnover of mitochondria by PINK1 and parkin. Mitochondria-ER appositions are destroyed during mitophagy, and reducing mitochondria-ER contacts increases the rate of mitochondrial degradation. Mechanistically, parkin/PINK1 catalyze a rapid burst of Mfn2 phosphoubiquitination to trigger p97-dependent disassembly of Mfn2 complexes from the outer mitochondrial membrane, dissociating mitochondria from the ER...
April 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663568/abnormal-function-of-the-uba5-protein-in-a-case-of-early-developmental-and-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-suppression-burst
#13
Cécile Mignon-Ravix, Mathieu Milh, Charlotte Sophia Kaiser, Jens Daniel, Florence Riccardi, Pierre Cacciagli, Majdi Nagara, Tiffany Busa, Eva Liebau, Laurent Villard
Early myoclonic epilepsy (EME) or Aicardi syndrome is one of the most severe epileptic syndromes affecting neonates. We performed whole exome sequencing in a sporadic case affected by EME and his parents. In the proband, we identified a homozygous missense variant in the ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5 (UBA5) gene, encoding a protein involved in post-translational modifications. Functional analysis of the UBA5 variant protein reveals that it is almost completely unable to perform its trans-thiolation activity...
April 16, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662954/crystal-nucleation-in-metallic-alloys-using-x-ray-radiography-and-machine-learning
#14
Enzo Liotti, Carlos Arteta, Andrew Zisserman, Andrew Lui, Victor Lempitsky, Patrick S Grant
The crystallization of solidifying Al-Cu alloys over a wide range of conditions was studied in situ by synchrotron x-ray radiography, and the data were analyzed using a computer vision algorithm trained using machine learning. The effect of cooling rate and solute concentration on nucleation undercooling, crystal formation rate, and crystal growth rate was measured automatically for thousands of separate crystals, which was impossible to achieve manually. Nucleation undercooling distributions confirmed the efficiency of extrinsic grain refiners and gave support to the widely assumed free growth model of heterogeneous nucleation...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662216/cortical-drive-and-thalamic-feed-forward-inhibition-control-thalamic-output-synchrony-during-absence-seizures
#15
Cian McCafferty, François David, Marcello Venzi, Magor L Lőrincz, Francis Delicata, Zoe Atherton, Gregorio Recchia, Gergely Orban, Régis C Lambert, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Nathalie Leresche, Vincenzo Crunelli
Behaviorally and pathologically relevant cortico-thalamo-cortical oscillations are driven by diverse interacting cell-intrinsic and synaptic processes. However, the mechanism that gives rise to the paroxysmal oscillations of absence seizures (ASs) remains unknown. Here we report that, during ASs in behaving animals, cortico-thalamic excitation drives thalamic firing by preferentially eliciting tonic rather than T-type Ca 2+ channel (T-channel)-dependent burst firing in thalamocortical (TC) neurons and by temporally framing thalamic output via feedforward reticular thalamic (NRT)-to-TC neuron inhibition...
May 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622280/effectiveness-of-total-corpus-callosotomy-for-diffuse-bilateral-polymicrogyria-report-of-three-pediatric-cases
#16
Shimpei Baba, Tohru Okanishi, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Sotaro Kanai, Shinji Itamura, Takayuki Suzuki, Yosuke Masuda, Hideo Enoki, Ayataka Fujimoto
PURPOSE: Polymicrogyria, a malformation of the cerebral cortex, frequently causes epilepsy. Diffuse bilateral polymicrogyria (DBP) is related to poor epilepsy prognosis, but most patients with DBP are not good candidates for resective epilepsy surgery and effectiveness of corpus callosotomy (CC), a palliative surgery, for patients without resective epileptogenic cortices, has not been established in DBP. Because CC might be effective against DBP-related epilepsy, we conducted total CC in three pediatric DBP cases...
April 3, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601810/2-3-dihydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl-suppresses-fmlp-induced-superoxide-anion-production-and-cathepsin-g-release-by-targeting-the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-g-protein-in-human-neutrophils
#17
Hsiang-Ruei Liao, Ih-Sheng Chen, Fu-Chao Liu, Shinn-Zhi Lin, Ching-Ping Tseng
This study investigates the effect and the underlying mechanism of 2',3-dihydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (RIR-2), a lignan extracted from the roots of Rhaphiolepis indica (L.) Lindl. ex Ker var. tashiroi Hayata ex Matsum. & Hayata (Rosaceae), on N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced respiratory burst and cathepsin G in human neutrophils. Signaling pathways regulated by RIR-2 which modulated fMLP-induced respiratory burst were evaluated by an interaction between β subunit of G-protein (Gβ) with downstream signaling induced by fMLP and by immunoblotting analysis of the downstream targets of Gβ-protein...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596845/spontaneous-respiratory-plasticity-following-unilateral-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-behaving-rats
#18
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Kristiina M Hormigo, Vitaliy Marchenko, Michael A Lane
Unilateral cervical C2 hemisection (C2Hx) is a classic model of spinal cord injury (SCI) for studying respiratory dysfunction and plasticity. However, most previous studies were performed under anesthesia, which significantly alters respiratory network. Therefore, the goal of this work was to assess spontaneous diaphragm recovery post-C2Hx in awake, freely behaving animals. Adult rats were chronically implanted with diaphragm EMG electrodes and recorded during 8 weeks post-C2Hx. Our results reveal that ipsilateral diaphragm activity partially recovers within days post-injury and reaches pre-injury amplitude in a few weeks...
March 26, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589814/gap-encoding-by-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-in-auditory-cortex
#19
Clifford H Keller, Katherine Kaylegian, Michael Wehr
Synaptic inhibition shapes the temporal processing of sounds in auditory cortex, but the contribution of specific inhibitory cell types to temporal processing remains unclear. Here we recorded from parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons in auditory cortex to determine how they encode gaps in noise, a model of temporal processing more generally. We found that PV+ cells had stronger and more prevalent on-responses, off-responses, and post-response suppression compared to presumed pyramidal cells. We summarize this pattern of differences as "deeper modulation" of gap responses in PV+ cells...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569305/enzymatic-activities-and-pathogenesis-related-genes-expression-in-sunflower-inbred-lines-affected-by-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-culture-filtrate
#20
Maryam Monazzah, Sattar Tahmasebi Enferadi, Zohreh Rabiei
AIMS: Studying biochemical responses and pathogenesis-related genes expression in sunflower-Sclerotinia interaction can shed light on factors participating to disease resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Partially resistant and susceptible lines were exposed to pathogen culture filtrate. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline was much pronounced in partially resistant line. The more resistant to S. sclerotiorum, the less (1,4)-β-glucanase activity was observed...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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