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Zhiwei Qiao, Gage Redler, Yuhua Qian, Shaojie Tang, Boris Epel, Howard Halpern
The optimization-based image reconstruction methods have been thoroughly investigated in the field of medical imaging. The Chambolle-Pock (CP) algorithm may be employed to solve these convex optimization image reconstruction programs. The preconditioned CP (PCP) algorithm has been shown to have much higher convergence rate than the ordinary CP (OCP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a preconditioner-parameter to tune the implementation of the algorithm to the specific application, which ranges from 0 and 2, but is often set to 1...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jiahui Lin, Hao Zhang, Jing Huang, Zhaoying Bian, Shanli Zhang, Yongbo Wang, Yuting Liao, Sui Li, Hua Zhang, Dong Zeng, Jianhua Ma
Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can improve the capability of differentiating different materials compared with conventional CT. However, due to non-negligible radiation exposure to patients, dose reduction has recently become a critical concern in CT imaging field. In this work, to reduce noise at the same time maintain DECT images quality, we present an iterative reconstruction algorithm for low-dose DECT images where in the objective function of the algorithm consists of a data-fidelity term and a regularization term...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Julia Mascolo-Fortin, Dmitri Matenine, Louis Archambault, Philippe Després
BACKGROUND: Four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography allows for temporally resolved imaging with useful applications in radiotherapy, but raises particular challenges in terms of image quality and computation time. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to develop a fast and accurate 4D algorithm by adapting a GPU-accelerated ordered subsets convex algorithm (OSC), combined with the total variation minimization regularization technique (TV). METHODS: Different initialization schemes were studied to adapt the OSC-TV algorithm to 4D reconstruction: each respiratory phase was initialized either with a 3D reconstruction or a blank image...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Digvijayini Bundhun, Sillma Rampadarath, Daneshwar Puchooa, Rajesh Jeewon
The purpose of the study was to explore the dietary intake, fruit, vegetable and energy intake and lifestyle behaviors among Mauritian children. A validated questionnaire was used, assessing dietary intake, mean energy intake, mean body mass index (BMI), lifestyle behaviors as well as nutritional knowledge (NK) among males and females. 336 children aged 6-12 years (165 males and 171 females) from 8 public primary schools were recruited. Statistical analyses revealed that children consumed less nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains and more of refined and calorie-laden foods, with no significant differences across genders...
February 2018: Heliyon
Ingrid Waisman, Elisa Hidalgo, María L Rossi
INTRODUCTION: The use of mobile devices has become ubiquitous in the family, across all social strata, and from an early age. OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of mobile and fixed screens among young children, the time spent doing traditional childhood activities, and the relationship to the maternal level of education. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive, crosssectional design. POPULATION: Children aged 6 months to 5 years seen in Río Cuarto, Córdoba, between July and September 2016...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Nguyen Xuan Xa, Johanna Helena Kattenberg, Nguyen Van Van, Vu Khac Anh Dung, Truong Minh Hieu, Nguyen Van Hong, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Nguyen Thanh Thao, Tran Thanh Duong, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Koen Peeters Grietens, Annette Erhart
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria persists in remote forested regions where infections are spatially heterogeneous, mostly asymptomatic and with low parasite density. Previous studies in Vietnam have investigated broad behavioural concepts such as 'engaging in forest activities' as risk factors for malaria infection, which may not explain heterogeneity in malaria risk, especially in malaria elimination settings. METHODS: A mixed methods study combining ethnographic research and a cross-sectional survey was embedded in a 1-year malariometric cohort study in three ethnic minority villages in South Tra My district, Quang Nam Province in Central Vietnam...
March 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kai Lehtimäki, Volker A Coenen, Antonio Gonçalves Ferreira, Paul Boon, Christian Elger, Rod S Taylor, Philippe Ryvlin, Antonio Gil-Nagel, Frans Gielen, Thomas C Brionne, Abdallah Abouihia, Grégory Beth
BACKGROUND: The Medtronic Registry for Epilepsy (MORE; Medtronic Inc, Dublin, Ireland) is an open label observational study evaluating the long-term effectiveness, safety, and performance of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference in success rate of placing contacts at ANT-target region (ANT-TR) between transventricular (TV) and extraventricular (EV) lead trajectories in 73 ANT-DBS implants in 17 European centers participating in the MORE registry...
March 15, 2018: Neurosurgery
Eshan U Patel, Charlotte A Gaydos, Zoe R Packman, Thomas C Quinn, Aaron A R Tobian
Background: The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in the United States is poorly defined. Methods: Males and females aged 18-59 years who participated in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and provided a urine specimen were tested for TV infection (n = 4057). Participants were also examined for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Nidal Abukhaizaran, Mohammed Hashem, Osama Hroub, Souad Belkebir, Khaled Demyati
BACKGROUND: Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for organ failure, but organs are scarce and their availability is affected by relational ties, religious beliefs, cultural influences, body integrity, medical mistrust, and other factors. This aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Palestinian population with respect to organ donation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used a validated questionnaire delivered by land telephone to collect data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to organ donation in the general population of the West Bank...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Bastien Provost, Gilles Missenard, Ciprian Pricopi, Olaf Mercier, Sacha Mussot, Dominique Fabre, Nathaniel Langer, Olivier Mir, Cécile Le Pechoux, Philippe Dartevelle, Elie Fadel
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy has long been the treatment of choice for local control of Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall (ESCW). However, there is debate regarding the use of surgery versus RT. Our objective was to identify risk factors that may affect long-term outcomes of non-metastatic ESCW all treated with preoperative chemotherapy followed by en-bloc resection and adjuvant Chemotherapy or Chemoradiation. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2014, 30 patients with a median age of 25 years (SD +/-8...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Franziska Bußwinkel, Oscar Goñi, Stefan Cord-Landwehr, Shane O'Connell, Bruno M Moerschbacher
Chitosans with defined characteristics have been shown to possess reproducible bioactivities for numerous applications. A promising approach for producing chitosans with defined degrees of polymerization (DP), degrees of acetylation (DA), and patterns of acetylation (PA) involves using chitin-modifying enzymes. One such enzyme, the chitinase Tv-ECH1 belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 18, seems to have an important role in the biocontrol properties of the fungus Trichoderma virens, suggesting its potential in generating novel chitosans for plant health applications...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Antonio De Leo, Margherita Nannini, Giulia Dondi, Donatella Santini, Milena Urbini, Elisa Gruppioni, Pierandrea De Iaco, Anna Myriam Perrone, Maria Abbondanza Pantaleo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and liver and peritoneum are the main sites of recurrence. Ovarian metastases from GIST are very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50 years-old woman was found to have a pelvic mass on transvaginal ultrasound (TV-US) and computed tomography (CT)-scan, considered as a right ovarian mass. The patient underwent surgical abdominal exploration that showed an ileal mass, a normal right ovary and an irregular and vascularized surface of the left ovary...
March 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
Aleksandra Klobučar, Vera Folnegović-Šmalc, Dubravka Kocijan-Hercigonja, Slavica Sović, Ljiljana Gulić
BACKGROUND: The main goal of this study was to analyse and show clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in 38 participants aged between 10 and 17 with DSM-IV diagnoses of Trichotillomania (TTM) that we were treating at Children's Hospital Zagreb from 2008 to 2017. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data obtained from semi-structured interviews by the criteria of DSM-IV, Youth Self Report (YSR) (Achenbach & Rescorla 2001) and survey that we created...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Alessandra Di Giovanni, Lucia Casarella, Marina Coppola, Domenico Iuzzolino, Marianna Rasile, Mario Malzoni
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess sensitivity and accuracy of combined transvaginal/transabdominal ultrasonography for evaluation of deep infiltrating bowel endometriosis nodules measured after surgery. DESIGN: A prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II.1). SETTING: A Center for Advanced Endoscopic Gynecologic Surgery from January 2014 to December 2016. PATIENTS: All women undergoing laparoscopic surgery and scheduled for segmental resection for clinically suspected bowel endometriosis...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Serge Boveda, Tej Elbanet Chalbia, Sophie Jacob, Stéphane Combes, Nicolas Combes, Christelle Cardin, Guillaume Laborie, Maria Joao Sousa, Zeynab Jebberi, Sophia Mzoughi, Jean-Paul Albenque, Rui Providencia
BACKGROUND: Post-procedural recovery following sub-cutaneous ICD (S-ICD) implantation is feared to be more painful and to require more prolonged hospital admission. The purpose of this study was to compare peri-procedural and short clinical outcomes of the S-ICD vs. the Transvenous ICD (TV-ICD). METHODS: We conducted a single-center cross-sectional study including all consecutive patients who underwent S-ICD implantation by the same operator since January 2016 and a gender and age-matched control group with all single chamber TV-ICD implanted patients over a contemporary time period...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Teruyo Nakatani, Tiffany Chen, Joshua Johnson, Jennifer J Westendorf, Nicola C Partridge
Histone deacetylase 4 (Hdac4) is known to control chondrocyte hypertrophy and bone formation. We have previously shown that parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates many aspects of Hdac4 function in osteoblastic cells in vitro; however, in vivo confirmation was previously precluded by pre-weaning lethality of the Hdac4 deficient mice. To analyze the function of Hdac4 in bone in mature animals, we generated mice with osteoblast lineage-specific knockout of Hdac4 (Hdac4ob-/- ) by crossing transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of a 2...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
André O Werneck, Edilson S Cyrino, Paul J Collings, Enio R V Ronque, Célia L Szwarcwald, Luís B Sardinha, Danilo R Silva
BACKGROUND: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
John W Garrett, Yinsheng Li, Ke Li, Guang-Hong Chen
PURPOSE: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to somewhat alleviate the breast tissue overlapping issues of two dimensional (2D) mammography.However, the improvement in current DBT systems over mammography is still limited.Statistical image reconstruction (SIR) methods have the potential to reduce through-plane artifacts in DBT, and thus may be used to further reduce anatomical clutter. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of SIR on anatomical clutter in the reconstructed DBT image volumes...
March 15, 2018: Medical Physics
Alicia R Gable, Claudia Der-Martirosian, Laura N Pinnock, Aram Dobalian
OBJECTIVE: To identify the communication preferences of homeless (H) and nonhomeless (NH) Veterans Affairs (VA) patients for receiving information about the impact of natural disasters on VA healthcare services. DESIGN: Probability-based sampling design stratified on age categories, urban/rural, coastal/noncoastal, and homelessness. SETTING: Northeast United States. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible NH and H participants included those who lived in and had at least one healthcare visit to a VA medical center/clinic in the region in the previous 24 months...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
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