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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548141/glass-capillary-based-microfluidic-elisa-for-rapid-diagnostics
#1
Xiaotian Tan, Maung Kyaw Khaing Oo, Yuan Gong, Yaoxin Li, Hongbo Zhu, Xudong Fan
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used in medical diagnostics and fundamental biological research due to its high specificity and reproducibility. However, the traditional 96-well-plate based ELISA still suffers from several notable drawbacks, such as long assay time (4-6 hours), burdensome procedures and large sample/reagent volumes (∼100 μl), which significantly limit traditional ELISA's applications in rapid clinical diagnosis and quasi-real-time prognosis of some fast-developing diseases...
May 26, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543738/crispr-editing-in-biological-and-biomedical-investigation
#2
Xing-Da Ju, Jing Xu, Zhong Sheng Sun
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas (CRISPR--associated protein) system, a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against viral infection, is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool in broad research areas. To further improve and expand its functionality, various CRISPR delivery strategies have been tested and optimized, and key CRISPR system components such as Cas protein have been engineered with different purposes. Benefiting from more in-depth understanding and further development of CRISPR, versatile CRISPR-based platforms for genome editing have been rapidly developed to advance investigations in biology and biomedicine...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543651/the-past-present-and-future-of-mexico-s-national-bioethics-commission
#3
Manuel Ruiz de Chavez, Aidee Orozco, Gustavo Olaiz
The establishment of Mexico's National Bioethics Commission (Comisión Nacional de Bioética), in 1992, was conceived within the context of a global movement aimed at raising awareness of the ethical implications of technological and scientific development, especially in biomedicine. In 2005, a new decree put the commission under the scope of the Secretariat of Health and granted it technical and operational autonomy, allowing it to become a regulatory agency aimed at promoting a culture of bioethics, encouraging reflection on human health, and developing guidelines for health care, research, and education, through a global, secular, and democratic perspective...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538924/bioethics-of-protection-a-health-practice-evaluation-tool
#4
Fermin Roland Schramm
Bioethics of protection (BP) was proposed in the early 21st century in bioethics, built in Latin America following attempts by researchers to work on the possibilities of public health policies being morally legitimate, socially fair (equitable) and respectful of human rights, after noting the limits of traditional bioethical tools, essentially implemented in and restricted to interpersonal conflicts between moral agents and patients involved in the practice of biomedicine. Methodologically, BP tries to negotiate distinct problematic disciplinary realms that are, however, interlinked through interdisciplinary dialogue and common concern with the quality of life of the human population, considered in its natural, technological, social and cultural contexts: Public Health, concerned with the health and well-being of individuals and populations; Bioethics, concerned primarily with the moral legitimacy of practices that affect their quality of life; Biopolitics, concerned with the social effects of health policies...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537074/polylactic-acid-nanofibers-scaffold-decorated-with-chitosan-island-like-topography-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#5
Ting Xu, Hongyang Yang, Dongzhi Yang, Zhong-Zhen Yu
In this work, a bicomponent scaffold with a core-shell and island-like structure that combines the respective advantages of polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan (CS) was prepared via electrospinning accmopanied by an automatic phase separation and crystallization. The aim of this study was to introduce nanosized topography, and the high bioactivity of chitosan onto PLA nanofibers to enhance the cell biocompatibility of PLA scaffolds. The morphology, inner structure, surface composition, crystallinity, and thermodynamic analysis of nanofibers with various PLA/CS ratios were respectively characterized, and the formation mechanism of a core-shell or island-like topography structure was also speculated...
May 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535341/fully-stretchable-optoelectronic-sensors-based-on-colloidal-quantum-dots-for-sensing-photoplethysmographic-signals
#6
Tae-Ho Kim, Chang-Seok Lee, Sangwon Kim, Jaehyun Hur, Sangmin Lee, Keun Wook Shin, Young-Zoon Yoon, Moon Kee Choi, Jiwoong Yang, Dae-Hyeong Kim, Taeghwan Hyeon, Seongjun Park, Sungwoo Hwang
Flexible and stretchable optoelectronic devices can be potentially applied in displays, biosensors, biomedicine, robotics, and energy generation. The use of nanomaterials with superior optical properties such as quantum dots (QDs) is important in the realization of wearable displays and biomedical devices, but specific structural design as well as selection of materials should preferentially accompany this technology to realize stretchable forms of these devices. Here, we report stretchable optoelectronic sensors manufactured using colloidal QDs and integrated with elastomeric substrates, whose optoelectronic properties are stable under various deformations...
May 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532554/traditional-medicines-and-kidney-disease-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-opportunities-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
John W Stanifer, Kajiru Kilonzo, Daphne Wang, Guobin Su, Wei Mao, Lei Zhang, La Zhang, Shobhana Nayak-Rao, J Jaime Miranda
Traditional medicines are a principal form of health care for many populations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and they have gained attention as an important means of health care coverage globally. In the context of kidney diseases, the challenges and opportunities presented by traditional medicine practices are among the most important considerations for developing effective and sustainable public health strategies. However, little is known about the practices of traditional medicines in relation to kidney diseases, especially concerning benefits and harms...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532401/risk-reassurance-and-routine-a-qualitative-study-of-narrative-understandings-of-the-potential-for-hiv-self-testing-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-england
#8
T Charles Witzel, Peter Weatherburn, Alison J Rodger, Adam H Bourne, Fiona M Burns
BACKGROUND: HIV testing has seen a rapid evolution over the last decade with multiple modalities now in use globally. In recent years HIV self-testing (HIVST) has been legalised in the UK paving the way for further expansion of testing. Interventions are delivered in particular social contexts which shape uptake. It is therefore important to understand how novel interventions are likely to be received by their intended users. This study aims to understand how HIVST compliments existing testing strategies considered or adopted by men who have sex with men (MSM)...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530745/self-assembling-peptide-and-protein-amyloids-from-structure-to-tailored-function-in-nanotechnology
#9
REVIEW
Gang Wei, Zhiqiang Su, Nicholas P Reynolds, Paolo Arosio, Ian W Hamley, Ehud Gazit, Raffaele Mezzenga
Self-assembled peptide and protein amyloid nanostructures have traditionally been considered only as pathological aggregates implicated in human neurodegenerative diseases. In more recent times, these nanostructures have found interesting applications as advanced materials in biomedicine, tissue engineering, renewable energy, environmental science, nanotechnology and material science, to name only a few fields. In all these applications, the final function depends on: (i) the specific mechanisms of protein aggregation, (ii) the hierarchical structure of the protein and peptide amyloids from the atomistic to mesoscopic length scales and (iii) the physical properties of the amyloids in the context of their surrounding environment (biological or artificial)...
May 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529709/last-rolls-of-the-yoyo-assessing-the-human-canonical-protein-count
#10
REVIEW
Christopher Southan
In 2004, when the protein estimate from the finished human genome was only 24,000, the surprise was compounded as reviewed estimates fell to 19,000 by 2014. However, variability in the total canonical protein counts (i.e. excluding alternative splice forms) of open reading frames (ORFs) in different annotation portals persists. This work assesses these differences and possible causes. A 16-year analysis of Ensembl and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot shows convergence to a protein number of ~20,000. The former had shown some yo-yoing, but both have now plateaued...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527428/physicochemical-and-biological-interactions-between-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-and-a-1-8-naphthalimide-derivative
#11
Gerardo Pulido-Reyes, Esperanza Martín, J L Gu Coronado, Francisco Leganes, Roberto Rosal, Francisca Fernández-Piñas
Cerium (Ce) oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have attracted attention due to their high bioactivity and unique redox-chemistry. The oxygen vacancies at the surface of the nanoparticle explain the autocatalytic properties of CNPs in which the Ce(3+) atoms occupy the center of the oxygen vacancies surrounded by Ce(4+) atoms. Until now, CNPs have been associated with organic molecules at the synthesis stage to extend their applications or improve their stability. However, there is a lack of information regarding the post-synthesis interaction of CNPs and organic molecules that could enhance or induce new properties...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527359/nanocubes-of-indium-oxide-induce-cytotoxicity-and-apoptosis-through-oxidative-stress-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#12
Maqusood Ahamed, Mohd Javed Akhtar, M A Majeed Khan, Hisham A Alhadlaq, Ali Aldalbahi
The demand for semiconductor indium oxide (In2O3) nanocrystals is increasing because of their diverse applications, including in biomedicine. However, there is a scarcity of studies on the biological interaction of indium oxide nanocrystals. Here, we explored the underlying mechanisms of toxicity induced by indium oxide nanocubes in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Prepared indium oxide nanocubes were crystalline with an average size of 21nm. Biointeraction studies have shown that indium oxide nanocubes induce cell viability reduction and cell membrane damage in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
May 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523636/informing-materials-drugs-as-tools-for-exploring-cancer-mechanisms-and-pathways
#13
Etienne Vignola-Gagné, Peter Keating, Alberto Cambrosio
This paper builds on previous work that investigated anticancer drugs as 'informed materials', i.e., substances that undergo an informational enrichment that situates them in a dense relational web of qualifications and measurements generated by clinical experiments and clinical trials. The paper analyzes the recent transformation of anticancer drugs from 'informed' to 'informing material'. Briefly put: in the post-genomic era, anti-cancer drugs have become instruments for the production of new biological, pathological, and therapeutic insights into the underlying etiology and evolution of cancer...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521882/cholesterol-metabolites-alleviate-injured-liver-function-and-decrease-mortality-in-an-lps-induced-mouse-model
#14
Yanxia Ning, Jin Kyung Kim, Hae-Ki Min, Shunlin Ren
BACKGROUND: Oxysterol sulfation plays a fundamental role in the regulation of many biological events. Its products, 25-hydroxycholesterol 3-sulfate (25HC3S) and 25-hydroxycholesterol 3, 25-disulfate (25HCDS), have been demonstrated to be potent regulators of lipid metabolism, inflammatory response, cell apoptosis, and cell survival. In the present study, we tested these products' potential to treat LPS-induced acute liver failure in a mouse model. METHODS: Acute liver failure mouse model was established by intravenous injection with LPS...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521150/the-effects-of-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-on-dorsoventral-patterning-convergent-extension-and-neural-and-cardiac-development-of-zebrafish
#15
Jia Xu, Qiuping Zhang, Xu Li, Sihui Zhan, Lifeng Wang, Dongyan Chen
Currently, nanoparticles are widely used in biomedicine and industry. CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are versatile materials in our daily life and their toxicity has drawn extensive attention. In this study, we concentrate on the effect of CuO-NPs on early zebrafish development. The results reveal that CuO-NPs can induce abnormal phenotypes of a smaller head and eyes and delayed epiboly. The gene expression pattern shows that CuO-NPs spatially narrow the expression of dorsal genes chordin and goosecoid and alter the expression of dlx3, ntl and hgg which are related to the cell migration of gastrulation...
May 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516460/taxane-grafted-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-as-a-new-theranostic-tool-against-cancer-the-promising-example-of-docetaxel-functionalized-titanate-nanotubes-on-prostate-tumors
#16
Alexis Loiseau, Julien Boudon, Céline Mirjolet, Gilles Créhange, Nadine Millot
The combination of anticancer drugs and metal oxide nanoparticles is of great interest in cancer nanomedicine. Here, the development of a new nanohybrid, titanate nanotube-docetaxel (TiONts-DTX) is reported, the two parts of which are conjugated by covalent linkages. Unlike most nanoparticles currently being developed for biomedical purposes, TiONts present a needle-shaped morphology. The surface of TiONts is linked with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and with a hetero-bifunctional polymer (polyethylene glycol) to create well-dispersed and biocompatible nanovectors...
May 18, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514290/the-relationship-between-iodine-intake-and-the-risk-of-thyroid-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#17
Ling-Zhi Cao, Xiao-Dong Peng, Jian-Ping Xie, Fan-Hui Yang, Hu-Ling Wen, Suping Li
Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The relationship between iodine intake and TC risk is controversial always. We aim to figure out the relationship between iodine intake and TC using meta-analysis. Literature research in MEDLINE, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and China BioMedicine was performed up to April 2016, searched for relevant case-control and cohort studies. The effect of iodine consumption on the risk of TC was assessed using the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512552/ability-of-salivary-biomarkers-in-the-prognostic-of-systemic-and-buccal-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Aida Gutiérrez-Corrales, Elena Campano-Cuevas, Gabriel Castillo-Dalí, Daniel Torres-Lagares, José-Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez
Nowadays, there is a growing interest in using saliva as an alternative sample for the diagnosis, prediction and progression of several diseases. It has been established that some molecules found in saliva are related to oral inflammatory processes and systemic health status. Furthermore, it is known that saliva is crucial for the carrying out of different functions in the oral cavity and its role in the local modulation of inflammatory and immune response is being thoroughly studied by the health research community...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510015/dissociative-mechanism-for-irreversible-thermal-denaturation-of-oligomeric-proteins
#19
REVIEW
Natalia A Chebotareva, Svetlana G Roman, Boris I Kurganov
Protein stability is a fundamental characteristic essential for understanding conformational transformations of the proteins in the cell. When using protein preparations in biotechnology and biomedicine, the problem of protein stability is of great importance. The kinetics of denaturation of oligomeric proteins may have characteristic properties determined by the quaternary structure. The kinetic schemes of denaturation can include the multiple stages of conformational transitions in the protein oligomer and stages of reversible dissociation of the oligomer...
December 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508925/using-maldi-tof-ms-imaging-and-lc-hrms-for-the-investigation-of-the-degradation-of-polycaprolactone-diol-exposed-to-different-wastewater-treatments
#20
Daniel Rivas, Bozo Zonja, Peter Eichhorn, Antoni Ginebreda, Sandra Pérez, Damià Barceló
Polymers are used in high amounts in a wide range of applications from biomedicine to industry. Because of the growing awareness of the increasing amounts of plastic wastes in the aquatic environment during recent years, the evaluation of their biodegradability deserves special attention. In the past, most efforts were dedicated to studying the biodegradation of polyesters in soil and compost, while very little research has been conducted on their fate in wastewater. Here, we assessed the ability of bacterial communities residing in the aerobic and denitrification tank from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to degrade the polymeric ester polycaprolactone diol (PCLD; average molecular weight of 1250 Da)...
May 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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