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Gastric conditioning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096257/inhibition-of-gastric-inhibitory-polypeptide-receptor-signaling-in-adipose-tissue-reduces-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#1
Erina Joo, Norio Harada, Shunsuke Yamane, Toru Fukushima, Daisuke Taura, Kanako Iwasaki, Akiko Sankoda, Kimitaka Shibue, Takanari Harada, Kazuyo Suzuki, Akihiro Hamasaki, Nobuya Inagaki
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR) directly induces energy accumulation in adipose tissue in vitro However, the importance of the direct effect of GIPR signaling on adipose tissue in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, we generated adipose tissue- specific GIPR-knockout (GIPR(adipo-/-)) mice and investigated the direct actions of GIP in adipose tissue. Under high fat diet (HFD)-fed conditions, GIPR(adipo-/-) mice had significantly lower body weight and lean body mass compared with those in floxed GIPR (GIPR(fl/fl)) mice, although the fat volume was not significantly different between the two groups...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095729/impact-of-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-on-helicobacter-pylori-related-extragastric-diseases-a-hypothesis
#2
Jannis Kountouras, Marina Boziki, Stergios A Polyzos, Panagiotis Katsinelos, Emmanouel Gavalas, Christos Zeglinas, Dimitri Tzivras, Iordanis Romiopoulos, Nikolaos Giorgakis, Kyriaki Anastasiadou, Elizabeth Vardaka, Constantinos Kountouras, Evangelos Kazakos, Georgia Xiromerisiou, Efthimios Dardiotis, Georgia Deretzi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that contribute to pathogenesis of a variety of H. pylori-related gastric diseases, as shown in animal and human studies. Helicobacter pylori infection is also associated with variety of systemic extragastric diseases in which H. pylori-related ROS production might also be involved in the pathogenesis of these systemic conditions. We proposed that Hp-related ROS may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of Hp-related systemic diseases including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma and other relative neurodegenerative diseases, thereby suggesting introduction of relative ROS scavengers as therapeutic strategies against these diseases which are among the leading causes of disability and are associated with a large public health global burden...
January 17, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094573/advanced-gastric-adenocarcinoma-optimizing-therapy-options
#3
Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Kazuto Harada, Yusuke Shimodaira, Fatemeh G Amlashi, Quan Lin, Jaffer A Ajani
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is the fifth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. When localized, cure is achievable with surgery and adjunctive therapies in some patients, however, once advanced, GAC is not a curable condition. Only two targeted agents (trastuzumab and ramucirumab) have been approved and apatinib was approved only in China. Because of the heterogeneous nature of GAC, it is not possible to assess a standard therapeutic approach. Areas Covered: In this review, we aimed to describe the optimal systemic therapy regimens for advanced GAC...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093941/novel-surface-engineered-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-of-rosuvastatin-calcium-for-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-targeting-a-quality-by-design-driven-perspective
#4
Sarwar Beg, Sanyog Jain, Varun Kushwah, Gurjit Kaur Bhatti, Premjeet Singh Sandhu, O P Katare, Bhupinder Singh
AIM: The present studies describe Quality by Design-oriented development and characterization of surface-engineered solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of rosuvastatin calcium for low density lipoprotein-receptor targeting. MATERIALS & METHODS: SLNs were systematically prepared employing Compritol 888 and Tween-80. Surface modification of SLNs was accomplished with Phospholipon 90G and DSPE-mPEG-2000 as the ligands for specific targeting to the low density lipoprotein-receptors...
January 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093323/in-vitro-gastric-survival-of-commercially-available-probiotic-strains-and-oral-dosage-forms
#5
Romain Caillard, Nicolas Lapointe
Although the intestinal microbial community is still incompletely understood, there is strong evidence of the benefits of using probiotics to address some medical states or conditions. As a result, the probiotics oral supplements market has exploded during the last few years. However, while their sensitivity to gastric juices, acidic pH and bile is well known, most of these oral forms would not guarantee any survival of the strains in such conditions. In this work, we have studied the resistance to simulated gastric juices of several commercially available probiotics products...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092842/blocking-tgf-%C3%AE-1-by-p17-peptides-attenuates-gastric-cancer-cell-induced-peritoneal-fibrosis-and-prevents-peritoneal-dissemination-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Zhi-Dong Lv, Wei-Jun Zhao, Li-Ying Jin, Wen-Juan Wang, Qian Dong, Na Li, Hui-Mian Xu, Hai-Bo Wang
Our previous study demonstrated that the peritoneal stroma environment favors proliferation of tumor cells by serving as a rich source of growth factors and chemokines known to be involved in tumor metastasis. In this study, we investigated the interaction between gastric cancer cells and peritoneal mesothelial cells, and determined the effects of TGF-β1 in this processing. Human peritoneal tissues and peritoneal wash fluid were obtained, which examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining or ELISA for measurements of TGF-β1 levels...
January 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089435/jejunal-gluconeogenesis-associated-with-insulin-resistance-level-and-its-evolution-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#7
Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso, Sara Garcia-Serrano, Francisco J Moreno-Ruiz, Guillermo Alcain-Martinez, Francisca Rodriguez-Pacheco, Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Intestinal gluconeogenesis (GNG) may play an important role in glucose homeostasis, but there is little information about the condition in humans. OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between intestinal GNG and insulin resistance, its association with the evolution of morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery, and the effect of insulin and or leptin. SETTING: Regional university hospital, Malaga (Spain). METHODS: Jejunal mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG was analyzed in 3 groups of morbidly obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: with low insulin resistance (MO-low-IR), with high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR), and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (MO-metf-T2D)...
December 2, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087355/generation-of-quercetin-cellulose-acetate-phthalate-systems-for-delivery-by-supercritical-antisolvent-process
#8
I García-Casas, A Montes, C Pereyra, E J Martínez de la Ossa
Supercritical antisolvent process (SAS) has been used to precipitate microparticles of quercetin, a plant pigment found in many foods and used for medical treatments, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, together with nanoparticles of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a polymer quite frequently used in drug delivery. Previously, precipitation of nanoparticles of CAP by the same process was studied at different conditions of pressure, temperature, CO2and solution flow rates, nozzle diameter and initial concentration of the solution...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087273/chitosan-cross-linked-with-poly-ethylene-glycol-dialdehyde-via-reductive-amination-as-effective-controlled-release-carriers-for-oral-protein-drug-delivery
#9
Zi-Wei Jing, Zhi-Wei Ma, Chen Li, Yi-Yang Jia, Min Luo, Xi-Xi Ma, Si-Yuan Zhou, Bang-Le Zhang
The covalently cross-linked chitosan-poly(ethylene glycol)1540 derivatives have been developed as a controlled release system with potential for the delivery of protein drug. The swelling characteristics of the hydrogels based on these derivatives as the function of different PEG content and the release profiles of a model protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) from the hydrogels were evaluated in simulated gastric fluid with or without enzyme in order to simulate the gastrointestinal tract conditions. The derivatives cross-linked with difunctional PEG1540-dialdehyde via reductive amination can swell in alkaline pH and remain insoluble in acidic medium...
December 31, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081355/oral-delivery-of-probiotics-in-poultry-using-ph-sensitive-tablets
#10
Tao Jiang, Hui-Shan Li, Geon Goo Han, Bijay Singh, Sang-Kee Kang, Jin-Duck Bok, Dae-Duk Kim, Zhong-Shan Hong, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho
As alternatives to antibiotics in live stocks, probiotics have been used although most of them in the form of liquid or semisolid formulations which show low cell viability after oral administration. Therefore, suitable dry dosage forms should be developed for live stocks to protect probiotics against the low pH in the stomach such that the products have higher probiotics survivability. Here, in order to develop a dry dosage forms of probiotics for poultry, we used hydroxyproyl methylcellulose phthalate 55 (HPMCP 55) as a tablet forming matrix to develop probiotics in a tablet form for poultry...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081301/ethanol-induces-platelet-apoptosis
#11
Lei Liu, Mengxing Chen, Lili Zhao, Qing Zhao, Renping Hu, Jie Zhu, Rong Yan, Kesheng Dai
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse incurs severe medical conditions, such as thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage, but the pathogenesis is not totally understood. Alcohol has been reported to induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells, such as hepatocyte, nerve cell, corneal fibroblasts. However, it is still unclear whether alcohol induces platelet apoptosis. METHODS: Washed human platelets were pretreated with ethanol (EtOH), and apoptotic events and platelet function were detected...
January 12, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079236/residual-gastric-volume-evaluation-with-ultrasonography-after-ingestion-of-carbohydrate-or-carbohydrate-plus-glutamine-enriched-beverages-a-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial-with-healthy-volunteers
#12
Paulo Cesar Gomes, Cervantes Caporossi, Jose Eduardo Aguilar-Nascimento, Ageo Mario Candido da Silva, Viviane Maeve Tavares de Araujo
BACKGROUND: - Abbreviation of preoperative fasting to 2 hours with maltodextrin (CHO)-enriched beverage is a safe procedure and may enhance postoperative recovery. Addition of glutamine (GLN) to CHO beverages may include potential benefits to the metabolism. However, by adding a nitrogenous source to CHO beverages, gastric emptying may be delayed and increase the risk of bronchoaspiration during anesthesia. OBJECTIVE: - In this study of safety, we aimed at investigating the residual gastric volume (RGV) 2 hours after the intake of either CHO beverage alone or CHO beverage combined with GLN...
January 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078172/gastric-rupture-in-pregnancy-case-series-from-a-tertiary-institution-in-rwanda-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
David Ntirushwa, Stephen Rulisa, Febronie Muhorakeye, Lisa Bazzett-Matabele, Theogene Rurangwa, Maria Small
Background Gastric rupture is a rare, life-threatening condition during pregnancy. Case study We present three cases of gastric perforation during pregnancy and the puerperium. The first patient presented with gastric perforation 4 days following an uncomplicated cesarean delivery for obstetric indications. She initially complained of epigastric pain; however, those symptoms resolved. She later demonstrated worsening abdominal distension, intra-abdominal free fluid, and signs of peritonitis. At laparotomy, an ascariasis-associated gastric rupture was diagnosed...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077560/mechanistic-insights-into-type-i-toxin-antitoxin-systems-in-helicobacter-pylori-the-importance-of-mrna-folding-in-controlling-toxin-expression
#14
Hélène Arnion, Dursun Nizam Korkut, Sara Masachis Gelo, Sandrine Chabas, Jérémy Reignier, Isabelle Iost, Fabien Darfeuille
Type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been identified in a wide range of bacterial genomes. Here, we report the characterization of a new type I TA system present on the chromosome of the major human gastric pathogen, Helicobacter pylori We show that the aapA1 gene encodes a 30 amino acid peptide whose artificial expression in H. pylori induces cell death. The synthesis of this toxin is prevented by the transcription of an antitoxin RNA, named IsoA1, expressed on the opposite strand of the toxin gene. We further reveal additional layers of post-transcriptional regulation that control toxin expression: (i) transcription of the aapA1 gene generates a full-length transcript whose folding impedes translation (ii) a 3' end processing of this message generates a shorter transcript that, after a structural rearrangement, becomes translatable (iii) but this rearrangement also leads to the formation of two stem-loop structures allowing formation of an extended duplex with IsoA1 via kissing-loop interactions...
January 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075429/telomerase-specific-oncolytic-adenovirus-expressing-trail-suppresses-peritoneal-dissemination-of-gastric-cancer
#15
W Zhou, S Dai, H Zhu, Z Song, Z Han, Y Cai, J B Lee, Z Li, X Hu, B Fang, C He, X Huang
Peritoneal dissemination is the most common condition of metastasis in gastric cancer. The survival duration of a patient with advanced stage gastric cancer, may be improved by gene therapy. In this study, we used an oncolytic adenovirus vector (Ad/TRAIL-E1) that expresses both the TRAIL and E1A genes under the control of a tumor-specific promoter. We evaluated the anti-tumor effect of Ad/TRAIL-E1 on gastric cancer cells in vitro, as well as in vivo in a xenograft peritoneal carcinomatosis mouse model. Our data showed that Ad/TRAIL-E1 induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cell lines, but not in the normal cell lines...
January 11, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075217/endoscopy-assisted-laparoscopic-resections-for-gastric-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-a-retrospective-study
#16
Jiang-Long Huang, Zong-Heng Zheng, Hong-Bo Wei, Tu-Feng Chen, Jian-Pei Liu, Yong Huang, Bo Wei, Jia-Feng Fang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the safety, feasibility, and clinical curative effect of endoscopy-assisted laparoscopic resections for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively compared the general condition of 41 GIST patients undergoing endoscopy-assisted laparoscopic resections (n = 41, combined group) with those undergoing traditional open gastrectomy (n = 43, open surgery group). RESULTS: All patients survived during the surgery...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075092/diabetes-mellitus-management-of-gastrointestinal-complications
#17
Beth Careyva, Brian Stello
Gastrointestinal disorders are common complications of diabetes mellitus and include gastroparesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and chronic diarrhea. Symptoms of gastroparesis include early satiety, postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting of undigested food, bloating, and abdominal pain. Gastroparesis is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Gastric emptying scintigraphy is the preferred diagnostic test...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071649/effect-of-shortened-sleep-on-energy-expenditure-core-body-temperature-and-appetite-a-human-randomised-crossover-trial
#18
Masanobu Hibi, Chie Kubota, Tomohito Mizuno, Sayaka Aritake, Yuki Mitsui, Mitsuhiro Katashima, Sunao Uchida
The effects of sleep restriction on energy metabolism and appetite remain controversial. We examined the effects of shortened sleep duration on energy metabolism, core body temperature (CBT), and appetite profiles. Nine healthy men were evaluated in a randomised crossover study under two conditions: a 3.5-h sleep duration and a 7-h sleep duration for three consecutive nights followed by one 7-h recovery sleep night. The subjects' energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilisation, and CBT were continually measured for 48 h using a whole-room calorimeter...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070825/prevalence-and-predictors-of-giardia-in-the-united-states
#19
Haley M Zylberberg, Peter H R Green, Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta, Benjamin Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: Infection with Giardia lamblia is a common cause of diarrheal disease in the developing and industrialized world. AIMS: We aimed to assess the prevalence of giardiasis in the United States (US) among patients with duodenal biopsies, investigating demographic and clinical factors associated with this condition. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with duodenal biopsies submitted to a national pathology laboratory between January 2, 2008, and December 31, 2015...
January 9, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069786/portomesenteric-vein-thrombosis-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-for-morbid-obesity
#20
Leslie S Anewenah, Mohammed Asif, Richard Francesco, Prashanth Ramachandra
Portomesenteric vein thrombosis (PMVT) is a rare, life-threatening pathology associated with increased prevalence in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) versus other gastric bypass procedures. Gaining popularity, LSG is becoming the first choice of patients and physicians alike due to its low complication profile compared to the gastric bypass procedure. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who underwent an uncomplicated LSG for the treatment of morbid obesity, and presented on postoperative day 13 with PMVT...
January 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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