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Gastric conditioning

Gloria Galli, Flaminia Purchiaroni, Edith Lahner, Maria Carlotta Sacchi, Emanuela Pilozzi, Vito Domenico Corleto, Emilio Di Giulio, Bruno Annibale
BACKGROUND: Duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytosis (DIL) is a histological finding characterized by the increase of intraepithelial CD3T-lymphocytes over the normal value without villous atrophy, mostly associated to coeliac disease (CD), Helicobacter pylori (Hp) gastritis and autoimmune diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of DIL, CD and Hp gastritis in an endoscopic population over a 13 year period. METHODS: From 2003 to 2015 we included adult patients who consecutively underwent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (OGD) with duodenal biopsies assessing the overall and annual occurrence of DIL and CD and the prevalence of Hp gastritis...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Shireesh Saurabh
Biliopancreatic limb obstruction after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a challenging diagnosis as the symptoms are very nonspecific. CT scan is the optimal study for evaluation. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
Masaki Tago, Yoshimasa Oda, Naoko E Furukawa, Shu-Ichi Yamashita
Spontaneous dissection without an aneurysm limited to left gastric artery is fairly rare. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of this condition in patients with sudden-onset abdominal pain.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
Stephanie Longet, Vincenzo Aversa, Daire O'Donnell, Joshua Tobias, Monica Rosa, Jan Holmgren, Ivan S Coulter, Ed C Lavelle
Oral vaccines present an attractive alternative to injectable vaccines for enteric diseases due to ease of delivery and the induction of intestinal immunity at the site of infection. However, susceptibility to gastrointestinal proteolysis, limited transepithelial uptake and a lack of clinically acceptable adjuvants present significant challenges. A further challenge to mass vaccination in developing countries is the very expensive requirement to maintain the cold chain. We recently described the effectiveness of a Single Multiple Pill(®) (SmPill(®)) adjuvanted capsule approach to enhance the effectiveness of a candidate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) oral vaccine...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Marian Hu, Yung-Che Tseng, Yi-Hsien Su, Etienne Lein, Hae-Gyeong Lee, Jay-Ron Lee, Sam Dupont, Meike Stumpp
The unusual rate and extent of environmental changes due to human activities may exceed the capacity of marine organisms to deal with this phenomenon. The identification of physiological systems that set the tolerance limits and their potential for phenotypic buffering in the most vulnerable ontogenetic stages become increasingly important to make large-scale projections. Here, we demonstrate that the differential sensitivity of non-calcifying Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates) larvae towards simulated ocean acidification is dictated by the physiology of their digestive systems...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Xianfeng Xia, Philip Wai Yan Chiu, Ping Kuen Lam, Wai Ching Chin, Enders Kwok Wai Ng, James Yun Wong Lau
Studies have indicated that the definitive engraftment and transdifferentiation potential of stem cells does not seem crucial for its property of tissue repair. Our previous study showed that transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) enhanced the healing of sutured gastric perforation. This study aimed to investigate the paracrine role of ADMSCs in the experimental gastric mucosal injury. Normoxia-conditioned medium (Nor CM) and hypoxia (HPO) CM were obtained after culturing ADMSCs in 20% O2 and 5% O2 for 48h...
October 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Araceli Olivares, Paulina Silva, Claudia Altamirano
The target site of action of probiotics is the intestine. They must be surviving the stomach acidic condition before reaching the target site. Three probiotic bacteria were microencapsulated in sodium alginate beads using a sophisticated microencapsulation technology provided by BÜCHI B-390. This study reports the tolerance of the different microencapsulated Lactobacillus at low pH using simulated gastric juice, comparing it with the tolerance of free bacteria. The three microencapsulated strains displayed time-dependent acid sensitivity at pH values under 3...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
Chandana Lall, Anastasia A Cruz, Vlad Bura, Adam A Rudd, Thangavijayan Bosemani, Kenneth J Chang
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a novel surgical approach, currently performed for an array of conditions. Endoscopic procedures offer significant benefits, including lower cost, no surgical incisions, and shorter hospital stays. These advantages align with the current trends in health care, namely a push for "cost-effective care." There are a multitude of health issues which are now being addressed by the endoscopic surgical approach, including peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), which is a relatively new technique used in the treatment of achalasia...
October 5, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
Jesse P Wright, Gretchen C Edwards, Kathryn Goggins, Vikram Tiwari, Amelia Maiga, Kelvin Moses, Sunil Kripalani, Kamran Idrees
Importance: Low health literacy is known to adversely affect health outcomes in patients with chronic medical conditions. To our knowledge, the association of health literacy with postoperative outcomes has not been studied in-depth in a surgical patient population. Objective: To evaluate the association of health literacy with postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: From November 2010 to December 2013, 1239 patients who were undergoing elective gastric, colorectal, hepatic, and pancreatic resections for both benign and malignant disease at a single academic institution were retrospectively reviewed...
October 4, 2017: JAMA Surgery
Akihiro Takezawa, Kenei Furukawa, Taro Sakamoto, Hiroaki Shiba, Yasuro Futagawa, Katsuhiko Yanaga
A 61-year-old man visited our hospital for treatment of a retroperitoneal tumor. The patient had undergone distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer in the past. At 5 years after distal gastrectomy, a retroperitoneal tumor with a large diameter of 30mm was detected by computed tomography and the patient underwent chemotherapy for suspected lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer at a local hospital. However, the retroperitoneal tumor gradually increased, and it was diagnosed finally as asymptomatic paraganglioma...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Lei Huang, Zhi-Jian Wei, Tuan-Jie Li, Yu-Ming Jiang, A-Man Xu
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate associations of presurgical body mass index (BMI) with clinicopathological factors and its prognostic significance in radically D2-resected patients with non-metastasized gastric cancer (GC) and Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG). METHODS: A large prospective cohort consisting of radically-resected GC and AEG patients was analyzed. Follow-up was successful in 671 out of 700 patients, who were categorized into underweight (BMI<18...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Tugçe Unutkan, Sezgin Bakirdere, Seyfullah Keyf
A highly sensitive analytical HPLC-UV method was developed for the determination of amoxicillin in drugs and wastewater samples at a single wavelength (230 nm). In order to substantially predict the in vivo behavior of amoxicillin, drug samples were subjected to simulated gastric conditions. The calibration plot of the method was linear from 0.050 to 500 mg L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 16 and 54 μg L-1, respectively. The percentage recovery of amoxicillin in wastewater was found to be 97...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
İsa Burak Güney, Semra Paydaş, Hüseyin Tuğsan Ballı
Super scan is a well-known finding described in skeletal scintigraphy characterized by uniform symmetrically increased radiopharmaceutical uptake by bones and consequently diminished renal parenchymal activity. Sy et al. hypothesized that the faint visualization of renal cortex in bone scintigraphy might be the result of increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical by pathologic bones and reduced phosphate excretion. The super scan on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) has been observed in various conditions such as prostate cancer, lung cancer, renal adenocarcinoma, gastric cancer and primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa, Potchanapond Graidist, Yaowaporn Sangsen, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee
A supersaturatable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS) with a reduced amount of surfactant and incorporation of a polymer precipitation inhibitor, Eudragit® E PO was developed. The optimized S-SMEDDS formulation (SS-15) consisted of 55% surfactants, 40% oils, and 5% Eudragit® E PO (curcumin at 44.4 mg/g of the formulation). The precipitation profiles from the supersaturation assay revealed that the curcumin S-SMEDDS performed as a better inhibitor of curcumin precipitation in simulated gastric fluid over a 240-min study than the normal curcumin SMEDDS and an aqueous curcumin suspension...
October 3, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
Hong-Beum Kim, Sang-Gon Park
Arterioportal shunt (APS) is an organic communication between the hepatic arterial system and the portal venous system. The APS is one of the major causes of transient hepatic attenuation differences on dynamic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This condition is usually associated with trauma, liver cirrhosis, and malignancies of the liver. However, there has been no report about oxaliplatin-induced APS. A 41-year-old male was diagnosed with Stage IIIB gastric cancer. The patient initially underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin After 3 cycles of therapy, the mass had markedly decreased, and a total gastrectomy with splenectomy was performed...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Martin Jakab, Nina Ketterl, Johannes Fürst, Marlena Beyreis, Michael Kittl, Tobias Kiesslich, Cornelia Hauser-Kronberger, Martin Gaisberger, Markus Ritter
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of pancreatic β-cells involves glucose uptake and metabolism, closure of KATP channels and depolarization of the cell membrane potential (Vmem), activation of voltage-activated Ca2+ currents (ICav) and influx of Ca2+, which eventually triggers hormone exocytosis. Beside this classical pathway, KATP-independent mechanisms such as changes in intracellular pH (pHi) or cell volume, which also affect β-cell viability, can elicit or modify insulin release...
October 2, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiquan Ke, Rong Yan, Zhenguo Sun, Yulan Cheng, Amy Meltzer, Nonghua Lu, Xu Shu, Zhe Wang, Binbin Huang, Xi Liu, Zhixiong Wang, Jee Hoon Song, Christopher K Ng, Sariat Ibrahim, John M Abraham, Eun Ji Shin, Shuixiang He, Stephen J Meltzer
There have been no reports describing the effects of cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) on three-dimensional organoids. In this study, we delineated the proneoplastic effects of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC)-derived EVs on gastric organoids (gastroids) and elucidated molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. EVs were identified using PKH-67 staining. Morphologic changes, Ki-67 immunochemistry, cell viability, growth rates, and expression levels of miR-25 and miR-210, as well as of their target mRNAs, were determined in gastroids co-cultured with EAC-derived extracellular vesicles (c-EVs)...
September 29, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Bruno Amato, Mario Santoro, Giuseppe Giugliano, Giuseppe Servillo, Veronica Di Nardo, Lorenza Di Domenico, Rita Compagna, Raffaele Izzo
In the last 25 years, the number of patients aged ≥75 years undergoing non-cardiac surgery has greatly increased. In elderly patients, frailty is significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse events, functional decline, procedural complications, prolonged hospitalization, and mortality. The relationship between frailty and increased mortality and morbidity requires an appropriate tool of assessment to accurately quantify the patient's clinical and perioperative conditions. The preoperative evaluation of elderly patients candidate for non-cardiac surgery should include assessment of frailty, sarcopenia and malnutrition, as these are related to high surgical risk...
July 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Lifeng Zhang, Qingjiang Chen, Zhigang Gao, Qixing Xiong, Qiang Shu
Gastric duplication is a rare congenital abnormality, and its diagnosis and treatment may be challenging in certain children. The present study reported four cases of gastric duplication who were followed-up and treated in the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University between March 2010 and March 2015. The study aimed to increase the knowledge on this disease in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment, as well as decrease the possibility of misdiagnosis. Diagnosis could not be confirmed by the clinical manifestation, ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT)...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mei Wang, Bin Chen, Xiao-Xian Sun, Xiang-Dong Zhao, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Li Sun, Chang-Gen Xu, Bo Shen, Zhao-Liang Su, Wen-Rong Xu, Wei Zhu
Gastric cancer tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) are important resident stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and have been shown to play a key role in gastric cancer progression. Whether GC-MSCs exert a tumor-promoting function by affecting anti-tumor immunity is still unclear. In this study, we used GC-MSC conditioned medium (GC-MSC-CM) to pretreat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors. We found that GC-MSC-CM pretreatment markedly reversed the inhibitory effect of PBMCs on gastric cancer growth in vivo, but did not affect functions of PBMCs on gastric cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in vitro...
September 27, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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