keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Artificial limbs

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772308/prostheses-as-extensions-of-the-body-progress-and-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Maria Niedernhuber, Damiano G Barone, Bigna Lenggenhager
Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the incorporation of artificial limbs. This research promises to provide individuals with sensorimotor disorders such as amputations with prostheses which feel like their own body part. While neuroscience made a leap towards uncovering the basic neurocognitive mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness, the development of incorporated prosthetic limbs still faces substantial challenges in basic neuroscience and in clinical reality. Here we critically examine recent findings on prosthesis incorporation to aid patient rehabilitation in the context of advances in cognitive and applied neuroscience as well as technology...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766489/phenotypic-disparity-of-the-elbow-joint-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-carnivores
#2
Borja Figueirido
In this article, I use geometric morphometrics in 2D from a sample of 366 elbow joints to quantify phenotypic disparity in domestic dog breeds, in wild canids, and across the order Carnivora. The elbow joint is a well-established morphological indicator of forearm motion and, by extension, of functional adaptations towards locomotor or predatory behavior in living carnivores. The study of the elbow joint in domestic dogs allows the exploration of potential convergences between (i) pursuit predators and fast-running dogs, and (ii) ambush predators and fighting breeds...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764303/relief-from-intractable-phantom-pain-by-combining-psilocybin-and-mirror-visual-feedback-mvf
#3
Vilayanur Ramachandran, Chaipat Chunharas, Zeve Marcus, Timothy Furnish, Albert Lin
AL's leg was amputated resulting in phantom-limb pain (PLP). (1) When a volunteer placed her foot on or near the phantom - touching it evoked organized sensations in corresponding locations on AL's phantom. (2) Mirror-visual-feedback (MVF) relieved PLP, as did, "phantom massage". (3) Psilocybin-MVF pairing produced synergistic effects, complete elimination of PLP, and reduction in paroxysmal episodes. (4) Touching the volunteer's leg where AL previously had external fixators, evoked sensation of nails boring through the leg...
May 15, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760647/discrimination-and-recognition-of-phantom-finger-sensation-through-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation
#4
Mengnan Li, Dingguo Zhang, Yao Chen, Xinyu Chai, Longwen He, Ying Chen, Jinyao Guo, Xiaohong Sui
Tactile sensory feedback would make a significant contribution to the state-of-the-art prosthetic hands for achieving dexterous manipulation over objects. Phantom finger sensation, also called referred sensation of lost fingers, can be noninvasively evoked by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of the phantom finger territories (PFTs) near the stump for upper-limb amputees. As such, intuitive sensations pertaining to lost fingers could be non-invasively generated. However, the encoding of stimulation parameters into tactile sensations that can be intuitively interpreted by the users remains a significant challenge...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716723/experimental-evaluation-of-current-and-novel-approximations-of-articular-surfaces-of-the-ankle-joint
#5
Claudio Belvedere, Sorin Siegler, Andrea Ensini, Jason Toy, Paolo Caravaggi, Ramya Namani, Luca Giuseppe Princi, Stefano Durante, Alberto Leardini
Kinematics and flexibility properties of both natural and replaced ankle joints are affected by the geometry of the articulating surfaces. Recent studies proposed an original saddle-shaped, skewed, truncated cone with laterally oriented apex, as tibiotalar contact surfaces for ankle prosthesis. The goal of this study was to compare in vitro this novel design with traditional cylindrical or medially centered conic geometries in terms of their ability to replicate the natural ankle joint mechanics. Ten lower limb cadaver specimens underwent a validated process of custom design for the replacement of the natural ankle joint...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692699/a-control-scheme-that-uses-dynamic-postural-synergies-to-coordinate-a-hybrid-walking-neuroprosthesis-theory-and-experiments
#6
Naji A Alibeji, Vahidreza Molazadeh, Brad E Dicianno, Nitin Sharma
A hybrid walking neuroprosthesis that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES) with a powered lower limb exoskeleton can be used to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. It provides therapeutic benefits of FES and torque reliability of the powered exoskeleton. Moreover, by harnessing metabolic power of muscles via FES, the hybrid combination has a potential to lower power consumption and reduce actuator size in the powered exoskeleton. Its control design, however, must overcome the challenges of actuator redundancy due to the combined use of FES and electric motor...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669293/three-dimensional-human-ipsc-derived-artificial-skeletal-muscles-model-muscular-dystrophies-and-enable-multilineage-tissue-engineering
#7
Sara Martina Maffioletti, Shilpita Sarcar, Alexander B H Henderson, Ingra Mannhardt, Luca Pinton, Louise Anne Moyle, Heather Steele-Stallard, Ornella Cappellari, Kim E Wells, Giulia Ferrari, Jamie S Mitchell, Giulia E Tyzack, Vassilios N Kotiadis, Moustafa Khedr, Martina Ragazzi, Weixin Wang, Michael R Duchen, Rickie Patani, Peter S Zammit, Dominic J Wells, Thomas Eschenhagen, Francesco Saverio Tedesco
Generating human skeletal muscle models is instrumental for investigating muscle pathology and therapy. Here, we report the generation of three-dimensional (3D) artificial skeletal muscle tissue from human pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with Duchenne, limb-girdle, and congenital muscular dystrophies. 3D skeletal myogenic differentiation of pluripotent cells was induced within hydrogels under tension to provide myofiber alignment. Artificial muscles recapitulated characteristics of human skeletal muscle tissue and could be implanted into immunodeficient mice...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623051/melatonin-promotes-cheliped-regeneration-digestive-enzyme-function-and-immunity-following-autotomy-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#8
Cong Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Yang, Min-Jie Xu, Gen-Yong Huang, Qian Zhang, Yong-Xu Cheng, Long He, Hong-Yu Ren
In the pond culture of juvenile Eriocheir sinensis , a high limb-impairment rate seriously affects the culture success. Therefore, it is particularly important to artificially promote limb regeneration. This study evaluated the effects of melatonin on cheliped regeneration, digestive ability, and immunity, as well as its relationship with the eyestalk. It was found that the injection of melatonin significantly increased the limb regeneration rate compared with the saline group ( P < 0.05). The qRT-PCR results of growth-related genes showed that the level of EcR-mRNA (ecdysteroid receptor) and Chi-mRNA (chitinase) expression was significantly increased following the melatonin injection, while the expression of MIH-mRNA (molt-inhibiting hormone) was significantly decreased ( P < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616982/a-fast-intracortical-brain-machine-interface-with-patterned-optogenetic-feedback
#9
Aamir Abbasi, Dorian Goueytes, Daniel E Shulz, Valerie Ego-Stengel, Luc Estebanez
OBJECTIVE: The development of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) brings a new perspective to patients with a loss of autonomy. By combining online recordings of brain activity with a decoding algorithm, patients can learn to control a robotic arm in order to perform simple actions. However, in contrast to the vast amounts of somatosensory information channeled by limbs to the brain, current BMIs are devoid of touch and force sensors. Patients must therefore rely solely on vision and audition, which are maladapted to the control of a prosthesis...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607020/patterns-of-musculoskeletal-growth-and-dimensional-changes-associated-with-selection-and-developmental-plasticity-in-domestic-and-wild-strain-turkeys
#10
Kristin K Stover, Daniel M Weinreich, Thomas J Roberts, Elizabeth L Brainerd
Domestication is a type of experimental evolution in which humans have artificially selected for specific desired traits. Selected strain animals can be utilized to identify correlated responses by comparing them to the wild strain. In particular, domestic turkeys have been selected for increased body mass and high-growth rate, most significantly over the past 60 years. Yet it remains unclear how artificial selection has affected the morphology and evolution of the musculoskeletal system as a whole. Here, we compare growth rate over 21 weeks, hind limb bone scaling across ontogeny via in vivo CT scanning, and muscle proportions in wild and domestic turkeys to identify differences in structural scaling and the potential contributions of selection and developmental plasticity to whole-organism morphology...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594348/study-of-a-seventeenth-century-french-artificial-mummy-autopsical-native-and-contrast-injected-ct-investigations
#11
Rozenn Colleter, Fabrice Dedouit, Sylvie Duchesne, Patrice Gérard, Laurent Dercle, Pierre Poilpré, Véronique Gendrot, Hervé Rousseau, Éric Crubézy, Norbert Telmon, Fatima-Zohra Mokrane
BACKGROUND: A lead coffin was fortuitously discovered in a church called "Eglise des Toussaints" in Rennes (French Brittany). A collaborative taskforce investigated this extraordinary discovery. A multi-disciplinary team of experts from the National Institute for Preventive Archeological Research (INRAP) and Rangueil University Hospital of Toulouse was created, including anthropologists, archeologists, forensic pathologists, radiologists, and pathologists. The inscription on the lead coffin specified that the body belonged to "Messer Louys de Bruslon, Lord of Plessis," a nobleman who died on November 1, 1661...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566253/percutaneous-osseointegrated-prostheses-for-transfemoral-amputations
#12
Yan Li, Bennie Lindeque
The direct attachment of the osseointegrated prosthesis to the skeleton avoids the inherent problems of socket suspension. It also permits physiological weight bearing, improved range of motion in the proximal joint, and osseoperceptive sensor feedback, enabling better control of the artificial limb by amputees. This article describes the osseointegration program in Sweden based on the use of bone-anchored prostheses for transfemoral amputation rehabilitation. The authors discuss in detail the patient-centered evaluation, surgical technique, and postoperative rehabilitation protocol...
March 1, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565773/a-novel-partial-gravity-ground-based-analogue-for-rats-via-quadrupedal-unloading
#13
Marie Mortreux, Janice A Nagy, Frank C Ko, Mary L Bouxsein, Seward B Rutkove
Musculoskeletal deconditioning is a well-known consequence of microgravity; however, the effects of partial gravity such as that experienced on the Moon (0.16g) or Mars (0.38g) on musculoskeletal health remain relatively unexplored. Since Mars is being increasingly viewed as the likely next extraterrestrial site for human exploration, there is an increasing need for earth-based analogue models that can study the long-term physiological effects of such environments. Moreover, this model would also offer the opportunity to explore the potential impact of partial artificial gravity (as would be achieved centrifugation)...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557683/staying-just-normal-preservation-strategies-in-prosthesis-use
#14
Philip Jefferies, Pamela Gallagher, Mark Philbin
PURPOSE: Research on prosthesis use is largely focused on understanding how persons manage the loss of a limb and begin their prosthesis use. We sought to elaborate an important aspect of a common concern of prosthesis users as they live day to day with their artificial limbs; specifically, the nature and management of threats that have implications for staying "just normal". METHODS: Grounded Theory methodology was employed to collect and analyse data from 24 interviewees, 17 weblogs, 17 autobiographies, and posts from four internet discussion forums...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553412/severe-extremity-amputations-in-surviving-palestinian-civilians-caused-by-explosives-fired-from-drones-during-the-gaza-war
#15
Hanne Heszlein-Lossius, Yahya Al-Borno, Samar Shaqoura, Nashwa Skaik, Lasse Melvær Giil, Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: During four separate Israeli military attacks on Gaza (2006, 2009, 2012, and 2014), about 4000 Palestinians were killed and more than 17 000 injured (412 killed and 1264 injured in 2006; 1383 killed and more than 5300 injured in 2009; 130 killed and 1399 injured in 2012; and 2251 killed and 11 231 injured in 2014). An unknown number of people had traumatic amputations of one or more extremities. Use of unmanned Israeli drones for surveillance and armed attacks on Gaza was evident, but exact figures on numbers of drone strikes on Gaza are not available...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551756/sensory-adaptation-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-somatosensory-nerves
#16
Emily Lauren Graczyk, Benoit Delhaye, Matthew A Schiefer, Sliman J Bensmaia, Dustin J Tyler
Sensory systems adapt their sensitivity to ambient stimulation levels to improve their responsiveness to changes in stimulation. The sense of touch is also subject to adaptation, as evidenced by the desensitization produced by prolonged vibratory stimulation of the skin. Electrical stimulation of nerves elicits tactile sensations that can convey feedback for bionic limbs. In this study, we investigate whether artificial touch is also subject to adaptation, despite the fact that the peripheral mechanotransducers are bypassed...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543161/the-critical-role-of-self-contact-for-embodiment-in-virtual-reality
#17
Sidney Bovet, Henrique Galvan Debarba, Bruno Herbelin, Eray Molla, Ronan Boulic
With the broad range of motion capture devices available on the market, it is now commonplace to directly control the limb movement of an avatar during immersion in a virtual environment. Here, we study how the subjective experience of embodying a full-body controlled avatar is influenced by motor alteration and self-contact mismatches. Self-contact is in particular a strong source of passive haptic feedback and we assume it to bring a clear benefit in terms of embodiment. For evaluating this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulate self-contacts and the virtual hand displacement relatively to the body...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534764/online-mapping-of-emg-signals-into-kinematics-by-autoencoding
#18
Ivan Vujaklija, Vahid Shalchyan, Ernest N Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Hamid R Marateb, Dario Farina
BACKGROUND: In this paper, we propose a nonlinear minimally supervised method based on autoencoding (AEN) of EMG for myocontrol. The proposed method was tested against the state-of-the-art (SOA) control scheme using a Fitts' law approach. METHODS: Seven able-bodied subjects performed a series of target acquisition myoelectric control tasks using the AEN and SOA algorithms for controlling two degrees-of-freedom (radial/ulnar deviation and flexion/extension of the wrist), and their online performance was characterized by six metrics...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534154/artificial-limb-representation-in-amputees
#19
Fiona M Z van den Heiligenberg, Tanya Orlov, Scott N Macdonald, Eugene P Duff, David Henderson Slater, Christian F Beckmann, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505450/a-device-for-the-quantification-of-oxygen-consumption-and-caloric-expenditure-in-the-neonatal-range
#20
Einav Nachman, Peter Clemensen, Katheryn Santos, Alexis R Cole, Brian D Polizzotti, Grace Hofmann, Kristen T Leeman, Sarah J van den Bosch, John N Kheir
BACKGROUND: The accurate measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure (EE) may be helpful to optimize the treatment of critically ill patients. However, current techniques are limited in their ability to accurately quantify these end points in infants due to a low VO2, low tidal volume, and rapid respiratory rate. This study describes and validates a new device intended to perform in this size range. METHODS: We created a customized device that quantifies inspiratory volume using a pneumotachometer and concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide gas in the inspiratory and expiratory limbs...
March 1, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
keyword
keyword
10869
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"