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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211791/motor-control-of-drosophila-feeding-behavior
#1
Olivia Schwarz, Ali Asgar Bohra, Xinyu Liu, Heinrich Reichert, Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, Jan Pielage
The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. While progress has been made towards the identification of central mechanisms coordinating limb movement, only limited knowledge exists regarding the generation and execution of sequential motor action patterns at the level of individual motoneurons. Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. We first provide a neuroanatomical description of the motoneurons and muscles contributing to proboscis motion...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210544/cataracts-and-strabismus-associated-with-hand-rearing-using-artificial-milk-formulas-in-bengal-tiger-panthera-tigris-spp-tigris-cubs
#2
Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Frühvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira
The aim of this investigation is to describe the potential contributing nutritional factors involved in the development of ophthalmic and dermatologic changes in four Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris spp tigris) cubs fed an artificial milk formula. The affected animals were compared with two other tiger cubs that had been nursed by their dam naturally. After the first clinical signs appeared, the tiger cubs underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Severe symmetric generalized alopecia over the trunk, sparing the head and distal portion of the front and rear limbs, bilateral cataracts and strabismus were noticed...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209569/injury-rates-in-recreational-tennis-players-do-not-differ-between-different-playing-surfaces
#3
Babette M Pluim, Benjamin Clarsen, Evert Verhagen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the prevalence of tennis injuries between the four most common court surfaces in the Netherlands, including hard court, clay, sand-fill artificial grass and red-sand-fill artificial grass. Natural grass was not included in this study. METHODS: This was a repeated cross-sectional study over 6 months, involving members of the Royal Netherlands Lawn Tennis Association (KNLTB). A monthly questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 20 000 KNLTB members, stratified by their club's playing surface...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202483/clinical-management-of-electrical-burns-in-the-developing-world-a-case-of-electrical-burn-injury-left-untreated-leading-to-amputation
#4
Marcus Choong, Delia Chy, Jerric R Guevarra, Allen Ross
We discuss the case of a 26-year-old male patient from Northern Samar, the Philippines who was left without essential health services after the amputation of all four limbs following a high voltage (20 000 volts) injury in Metro Manila in 2011. Local health services in the developing world are faced with enormous challenges in providing first-line care for burn patients. The cost of maintaining a burn unit, finding suitable qualified staff, and appropriate referral mechanisms are only some of the challenges faced...
February 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164748/development-of-a-residuum-socket-interface-simulator-for-lower-limb-prosthetics
#5
Michael Paul McGrath, Jianliang Gao, Jinghua Tang, Piotr Laszczak, Liudi Jiang, Dan Bader, David Moser, Saeed Zahedi
Mechanical coupling at the interface between lower limb residua and prosthetic sockets plays an important role in assessing socket fitting and tissue health. However, most research lab-based lower limb prosthetic simulators to-date have implemented a rigid socket coupling. This study describes the fabrication and implementation of a lower limb residuum/socket interface simulator, designed to reproduce the forces and moments present during the key loading phases of amputee walking. An artificial residuum made with model bones encased in silicone was used, mimicking the compliant mechanical loading of a real residuum/socket interface...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134658/flow-rate-through-pigtail-catheter-used-for-left-heart-decompression-in-an-artificial-model-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-circuit
#6
Won Ho Kim, Tae Hee Hong, Joung Hun Byun, Jong Woo Kim, Sung Hwan Kim, Sung Ho Moon, Hyun Oh Park, Jun Young Choi, Jun Ho Yang, In Seok Jang, Chung Eun Lee, Jeong Hee Yun
In refractory cardiogenic shock, veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be initiated. Although left heart decompression can be accomplished by insertion of a left atrial (LA) or LV cannula using a percutaneous pigtail catheter, the venting flow rate according to catheter size and ECMO flow rate is unknown. We developed an artificial ECMO circuit. 1L saline bag with its pressure set to 20 mmHg was connected to ECMO to mimic LV failure. A pigtail catheter was inserted into the 1 L saline bag to simulate LV unloading...
January 26, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127889/cell-free-artificial-implants-of-electrospun-fibres-in-a-three-dimensional-gelatin-matrix-support-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-in-vivo
#7
Andreas Kriebel, Dorothee Hodde, Thomas Kuenzel, Jessica Engels, Gary Brook, Jörg Mey
Surgical repair of larger peripheral nerve lesions requires the use of autologous nerve grafts. At present, clinical alternatives to avoid nerve transplantation consist of empty tubes, which are only suitable for the repair over short distances and have limited success. We developed a cell-free, three-dimensional scaffold for axonal guidance in long-distance nerve repair. Sub-micron scale fibres of biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and collagen/PCL (c/PCL) blends were incorporated in a gelatin matrix and inserted in collagen tubes...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113324/continuous-estimation-of-human-multi-joint-angles-from-semg-using-a-state-space-model
#8
Qichuan Ding, Jianda Han, Xingang Zhao
Due to the couplings among joint-relative muscles, it is a challenge to accurately estimate continuous multi-joint movements from multi-channel sEMG signals. Traditional approaches always build a nonlinear regression model, such as artificial neural network, to predict the multi-joint movement variables using sEMG as inputs. However, the redundant sEMGdata are always not distinguished; the prediction errors cannot be evaluated and corrected online as well. In this work, a correlation-based redundancy-segmentation method is proposed to segment the sEMG-vector including redundancy into irredundant and redundant subvectors...
December 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040606/steinert-syndrome-and-repercussions-in-dental-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Helena Baptista, Inês Lopes Cardoso
Steinert syndrome, also called myotonic dystrophy type 1, is a genetic disorder with autosomal dominant transmission characterized by myotonia and a multisystemic clinical picture that affects several tissues of the human body. The most common systemic phenotypes are: muscular, cardiac, respiratory, CNS, ocular, gynecological, digestive, orthopedical, as well as cognitive and psychological symptoms (cognitive decline). Muscles involved in voluntary movement are highly affected by myotonia especially distal muscles of upper limbs...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994147/ownership-of-an-artificial-limb-induced-by-electrical-brain-stimulation
#10
Kelly L Collins, Arvid Guterstam, Jeneva Cronin, Jared D Olson, H Henrik Ehrsson, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Replacing the function of a missing or paralyzed limb with a prosthetic device that acts and feels like one's own limb is a major goal in applied neuroscience. Recent studies in nonhuman primates have shown that motor control and sensory feedback can be achieved by connecting sensors in a robotic arm to electrodes implanted in the brain. However, it remains unknown whether electrical brain stimulation can be used to create a sense of ownership of an artificial limb. In this study on two human subjects, we show that ownership of an artificial hand can be induced via the electrical stimulation of the hand section of the somatosensory (SI) cortex in synchrony with touches applied to a rubber hand...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992345/continuous-estimation-of-human-multi-joint-angles-from-semg-using-a-state-space-model
#11
Qichuan Ding, Jianda Han, Xingang Zhao
Due to the couplings among joint-relative muscles, it is a challenge to accurately estimate continuous multi-joint movements from multi-channel sEMG signals. Traditional approaches always build a nonlinear regression model, such as artificial neural network, to predict the multi-joint movement variables using sEMG as inputs. However, the redundant sEMGdata are always not distinguished; the prediction errors cannot be evaluated and corrected online as well. In this work, a correlation-based redundancy-segmentation method is proposed to segment the sEMG-vector including redundancy into irredundant and redundant subvectors...
December 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983626/design-and-optimization-of-a-hybrid-driven-waist-rehabilitation-robot
#12
Bin Zi, Guangcai Yin, Dan Zhang
In this paper a waist rehabilitation robot driven by cables and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) has been conceptualized and designed. In the process of mechanism design, the human body structure, the waist movement characteristics, and the actuators' driving characteristics are the main considerable factors to make the hybrid-driven waist rehabilitation robot (HWRR) cost-effective, safe, flexible, and well-adapted. A variety of sensors are chosen to measure the position and orientation of the recovery patient to ensure patient safety at the same time as the structure design...
December 14, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977642/quickstats-use-of-equipment-or-assistance-for-getting-around-among-persons-aged-%C3%A2-50-years-national-health-interview-survey-2014-2015%C3%A2
#13
(no author information available yet)
In 2014-2015, 13.9% of persons aged ≥50 years used equipment or received assistance for getting around. Specifically, 9.6% of persons aged ≥50 years used a cane or walking stick, 5.8% used a walker or Zimmer frame, and 5.3% had assistance from another person. Wheelchairs or scooters were used by 3.5%, crutches by 0.7%, and artificial limbs by 0.6%.
December 16, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849464/a-review-of-unique-considerations-for-female-veterans-with-amputation
#14
Billie J Randolph, Leif M Nelson, M Jason Highsmith
This article explores unique considerations that face both women living with limb loss and their health care providers. This demographic of patient has a higher rate of artificial limb rejection, thus challenging providers to address needs for cosmesis and function that varies from those of male counterparts. Health care providers for women with amputations, such as the Veterans Affairs, must evolve health care delivery, research practices, and work jointly with industry in order to meet the needs of this population...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847323/pigeonetics-takes-flight-evolution-development-and-genetics-of-intraspecific-variation
#15
REVIEW
Eric T Domyan, Michael D Shapiro
Intensive artificial selection over thousands of years has produced hundreds of varieties of domestic pigeon. As Charles Darwin observed, the morphological differences among breeds can rise to the magnitude of variation typically observed among different species. Nevertheless, different pigeon varieties are interfertile, thereby enabling forward genetic and genomic approaches to identify genes that underlie derived traits. Building on classical genetic studies of pigeon variation, recent molecular investigations find a spectrum of coding and regulatory alleles controlling derived traits, including plumage color, feather growth polarity, and limb identity...
November 12, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833537/forward-prediction-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-and-dynamic-brain-machine-interface
#16
He Cui
While remarkable progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) over the past two decades, it is still difficult to utilize neural signals to drive artificial actuators to produce predictive movements in response to dynamic stimuli. In contrast to naturalistic limb movements largely based on forward planning, brain-controlled neuroprosthetics mainly rely on feedback without prior trajectory formation. As an important sensorimotor interface integrating multisensory inputs and efference copy, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might play a proactive role in predictive motor control...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815182/key-considerations-in-designing-a-somatosensory-neuroprosthesis
#17
Benoit P Delhaye, Hannes P Saal, Sliman J Bensmaia
In recent years, a consensus has emerged that somatosensory feedback needs to be provided for upper limb neuroprostheses to be useful. An increasingly promising approach to sensory restoration is to electrically stimulate neurons along the somatosensory neuraxis to convey information about the state of the prosthetic limb and about contact with objects. To date, efforts towards artificial sensory feedback have consisted mainly of demonstrating that some sensory information could be conveyed using a small number of stimulation patterns, generally delivered through single electrodes...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807418/evaluating-emg-feature-and-classifier-selection-for-application-to-partial-hand-prosthesis-control
#18
Adenike A Adewuyi, Levi J Hargrove, Todd A Kuiken
Pattern recognition-based myoelectric control of upper-limb prostheses has the potential to restore control of multiple degrees of freedom. Though this control method has been extensively studied in individuals with higher-level amputations, few studies have investigated its effectiveness for individuals with partial-hand amputations. Most partial-hand amputees retain a functional wrist and the ability of pattern recognition-based methods to correctly classify hand motions from different wrist positions is not well studied...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799908/assessment-of-myoelectric-controller-performance-and-kinematic-behavior-of-a-novel-soft-synergy-inspired-robotic-hand-for-prosthetic-applications
#19
Simone Fani, Matteo Bianchi, Sonal Jain, José Simões Pimenta Neto, Scott Boege, Giorgio Grioli, Antonio Bicchi, Marco Santello
Myoelectric artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human-robot interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798422/epidural-and-transcutaneous-spinal-electrical-stimulation-for-restoration-of-movement-after-incomplete-and-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Winfried Mayr, Matthias Krenn, Milan R Dimitrijevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Purpose of this review is to outline and explain the therapeutic use of electrical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for modification of spinal motor output. Central functional stimulation provides afferent input to posterior root neurons and is applied to improve volitional movements, posture and their endurance, control spasticity, and improve bladder function or perfusion in the lower limbs. Clinical accomplishments strongly depend on each individual's physiological state and specific methodical adaptation to that physiological state...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
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