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Artificial limbs

Philip Jefferies, Pamela Gallagher, Mark Philbin
PURPOSE: Research on prosthesis use is largely focused on understanding how persons manage the loss of a limb and begin their prosthesis use. We sought to elaborate an important aspect of a common concern of prosthesis users as they live day to day with their artificial limbs; specifically, the nature and management of threats that have implications for staying "just normal". METHODS: Grounded Theory methodology was employed to collect and analyse data from 24 interviewees, 17 weblogs, 17 autobiographies, and posts from four internet discussion forums...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Hanne Heszlein-Lossius, Yahya Al-Borno, Samar Shaqoura, Nashwa Skaik, Lasse Melvær Giil, Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: During four separate Israeli military attacks on Gaza (2006, 2009, 2012, and 2014), about 4000 Palestinians were killed and more than 17 000 injured (412 killed and 1264 injured in 2006; 1383 killed and more than 5300 injured in 2009; 130 killed and 1399 injured in 2012; and 2251 killed and 11 231 injured in 2014). An unknown number of people had traumatic amputations of one or more extremities. Use of unmanned Israeli drones for surveillance and armed attacks on Gaza was evident, but exact figures on numbers of drone strikes on Gaza are not available...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Emily Lauren Graczyk, Benoit Delhaye, Matthew A Schiefer, Sliman J Bensmaia, Dustin J Tyler
Sensory systems adapt their sensitivity to ambient stimulation levels to improve their responsiveness to changes in stimulation. The sense of touch is also subject to adaptation, as evidenced by the desensitization produced by prolonged vibratory stimulation of the skin. Electrical stimulation of nerves elicits tactile sensations that can convey feedback for bionic limbs. In this study, we investigate whether artificial touch is also subject to adaptation, despite the fact that the peripheral mechanotransducers are bypassed...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Sidney Bovet, Henrique Galvan Debarba, Bruno Herbelin, Eray Molla, Ronan Boulic
With the broad range of motion capture devices available on the market, it is now commonplace to directly control the limb movement of an avatar during immersion in a virtual environment. Here, we study how the subjective experience of embodying a full-body controlled avatar is influenced by motor alteration and self-contact mismatches. Self-contact is in particular a strong source of passive haptic feedback and we assume it to bring a clear benefit in terms of embodiment. For evaluating this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulate self-contacts and the virtual hand displacement relatively to the body...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Ivan Vujaklija, Vahid Shalchyan, Ernest N Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Hamid R Marateb, Dario Farina
BACKGROUND: In this paper, we propose a nonlinear minimally supervised method based on autoencoding (AEN) of EMG for myocontrol. The proposed method was tested against the state-of-the-art (SOA) control scheme using a Fitts' law approach. METHODS: Seven able-bodied subjects performed a series of target acquisition myoelectric control tasks using the AEN and SOA algorithms for controlling two degrees-of-freedom (radial/ulnar deviation and flexion/extension of the wrist), and their online performance was characterized by six metrics...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Fiona M Z van den Heiligenberg, Tanya Orlov, Scott N Macdonald, Eugene P Duff, David Henderson Slater, Christian F Beckmann, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images...
March 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Einav Nachman, Peter Clemensen, Katheryn Santos, Alexis R Cole, Brian D Polizzotti, Grace Hofmann, Kristen T Leeman, Sarah J van den Bosch, John N Kheir
BACKGROUND: The accurate measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure (EE) may be helpful to optimize the treatment of critically ill patients. However, current techniques are limited in their ability to accurately quantify these end points in infants due to a low VO2, low tidal volume, and rapid respiratory rate. This study describes and validates a new device intended to perform in this size range. METHODS: We created a customized device that quantifies inspiratory volume using a pneumotachometer and concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide gas in the inspiratory and expiratory limbs...
March 1, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
R Olivera, L N Moro, R Jordan, N Pallarols, A Guglielminetti, C Luzzani, S G Miriuka, G Vichera
Introduction: Cell plasticity is crucial in cloning to allow an efficient nuclear reprogramming and healthy offspring. Hence, cells with high plasticity, such as multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), may be a promising alternative for horse cloning. In this study, we evaluated the use of bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) as nuclear donors in horse cloning, and we compared the in vitro and in vivo embryo development with respect to fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Zona-free nuclear transfer was performed using BM-MSCs (MSC group, n=3432) or adult fibroblasts (AF group, n=4527)...
2018: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
Hong Yang, Xi-Bin Li, Jie Tan, Hao Li, Yin-Chu Shao, Feng Shuang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influential factors of total blood loss during unilateral artificial total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: From January 2014 to July 2016, 131 patients undergwent primary unilateral total hip arthroplasty, including 55 males and 76 females, ranging in age from 40 to 89 years old, with an average of 64.5 years old. The data of patients with unilateral total hip arthroplasty were collected, and the data of hemodynamics, coagulation function, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were recorded according to the observation data...
November 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
José Suarez Sanchez-Andrade, Henning Richter, Karolin Kuhn, Andrea S Bischofberger, Patrick R Kircher, Séamus Hoey
While articular cartilage changes are considered to be one of the initial events in the pathological cascade leading to osteoarthritis, these changes remain difficult to detect using conventional diagnostic imaging modalities such as plain radiography. The aim of this prospective, experimental, methods comparison study was to compare the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance arthrography, computed tomography (CT), and CT arthrography in the detection of artificially induced articular cartilage defects in the equine carpal joints...
February 18, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Marta Marchini, Campbell Rolian
Species diversity in limb lengths and proportions is thought to have evolved adaptively in the context of locomotor and habitat specialization, but the heritable cellular processes that drove this evolution within species are poorly understood. In this study, we take a novel "micro-evo-devo" approach, using artificial selection on relative limb length to amplify phenotypic variation in a population of mice, known as Longshanks, to examine the cellular mechanisms of postnatal limb development that contribute to intraspecific limb length variation...
February 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Daniel Zeller, Marcus Hullin
A right-hemispheric specificity has been suggested both for spatial attention and for the feeling of body-ownership. Here, we assessed lateralization of spatial attention (Milner landmark task), rubber hand illusion (RHI), and their relationship in a group of 59 healthy elderly subjects. The occurrence of the RHI was assessed by objective (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (questionnaire) measures. Spatial attention was asymmetrical, with a slight, neglect-like overestimation of the right segment of mid-bisected lines...
February 6, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Bei-Yu Wang, Ting-Kui Wu, Hao Liu, Yu-Xiao Deng, Chen Ding
RATIONALE: Artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) has been reported to be an effective and safe surgical treatment for cervical spondylosis. However, iatrogenic fracture during ACDR surgery has rarely been reported. Considering its infrequency, we report a rare clinical case, with the aim of sharing our experience and exploring when to convert ACDR to fusion intraoperatively. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 47-year-old woman felt neck pain with weakness and numbness in both upper limbs for 5 months...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chan Zhou, Jin Li, Huajian You, Jinfeng Lv, Jinlong Yang, Bin Liu
Peripheral nerve defects, but not artificial nerves, are repaired by endogenous cells. We examined cell activity during the repair process in the presence of autologous nerves and artificial preparations in order to guide future artificial nerve fabrication. PLGA tubes, nerve scaffolds comprising a PLGA tube plus 6,000 fibroin fibers, or autologous nerves were implanted into 10 mm rat sciatic nerve defects (n = 60 per group). Over a period of 1-20 weeks after nerve grafting, sections were stained and imaged to distinguish the cell types present and we quantified the recovery of motor and sensory function in the surgically implanted limb...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
Zhiye Du, Shun Tang, Rongli Yang, Xiaodong Tang, Tao Ji, Wei Guo
BACKGROUND: Hip dislocation is a major complication of total femoral prosthetic reconstruction (TFR) after femoral tumor resection. Hip dislocation can occur because of inadequate functional abductor musculature, inadequate hip capsule repair, or a long lever arm after total femur replacement. To eliminate the negative effects of these factors on the risk of hip dislocation, the use of artificial ligaments may help to increase the stability of the hip joint. We aimed to determine whether application of an artificial ligament would improve limb function and active range of movement (ROM) after TFR...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
Li-Chun Liu, Wen-Jun Ding, Xiao-Xiang Zhou, Da-Dong Zhu, Jin-Liang Huang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effects of artificial radial head prosthesis replacement for the treatment of comminuted fracture of the radial head. METHODS: From June 2011 to June 2015, 25 patients with radial head comminuted fracture were treated with artificial radial head replacement, including 10 males and 15 females, ranging in age form 24 to 61 years old(mean, 40 years old). The functional recovery of the patients suffering from limb and elbow in different periods, the activity degree of the elbow joint and the function of the elbow in the latest follow-up were compared...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Brian Fletcher, Jaime De La Ree, James Drougas
Simulation in surgery is becoming an important component of surgical education. Training on bench top models has been demonstrated to improve technical skills. The objective of our project was to create a vascular surgery simulation model. The simulation model consists of a platform, artificial blood reservoir, artificial blood, inflow and outflow limbs, electric motor, battery, pulse generator, and cryopreserved vessel. Three different vascular surgery simulation stations were created: carotid endarterectomy with shunting and patch angioplasty, arterial bypass, and arteriovenous graft formation...
December 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
Pauline Hanot, Anthony Herrel, Claude Guintard, Raphaël Cornette
The relationships between the different component parts of organisms, such as the sharing of common development or function, produce a coordinated variation between the different traits. This morphological integration contributes to drive or constrain morphological variation and thus impacts phenotypic diversification. Artificial selection is known to contribute significantly to phenotypic diversification of domestic species. However, little attention has been paid to its potential impact on integration patterns...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Heidi Wolfmeier, Daniel Pletzer, Sarah C Mansour, Robert E W Hancock
Microbial biofilms, which are elaborate and highly resistant microbial aggregates formed on surfaces or medical devices, cause two-thirds of infections and constitute a serious threat to public health. Immunocompromised patients, individuals who require implanted devices, artificial limbs, organ transplants, or external life support and those with major injuries or burns, are particularly prone to become infected. Antibiotics, the mainstay treatments of bacterial infections, have often proven ineffective in the fight against microbes when growing as biofilms, and to date, no antibiotic has been developed for use against biofilm infections...
December 27, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
Jun Ming Wan, Liang le Liu, Jian Fang Zhang, Jian Wei Lu, Qi Li
Tissue engineering technology is applicable for study of nerve regeneration after spinal cord injury. Many natural and artificial scaffold are not applicable because of poor mechanical properties and cell compatibility. Polypeptides with fine three-dimensional structure and cell compatibility and are widely used in tissue engineering research. The purpose of this study was to verify the neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells by using self-polymerize dendritic polypeptide for spinal cord tissue engineering...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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