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Artificial limbs

Andrew N Reynolds, Jim I Mann, Sheila Williams, Bernard J Venn
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Regular physical activity is a cornerstone of diabetes management. We conducted a study to evaluate whether specifying the timing of walking in relation to meals enhances the benefits conferred by current physical activity guidelines. METHODS: A total of 41 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean ± SD age 60 ± 9.9 years; mean diabetes duration 10 years) participated in this randomised, crossover study. Randomisation was by a computer-generated protocol...
October 17, 2016: Diabetologia
Craig P Smith, Raymond F Reynolds
When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism which could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially-evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should only operate when the arm is being controlled in an earth-fixed rather than body-fixed reference frame...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Arkady Rutkovskiy, Kåre-Olav Stensløkken, Ingvar Jarle Vaage
Ossification is a tightly regulated process, performed by specialized cells called osteoblasts. Dysregulation of this process may cause inadequate or excessive mineralization of bones or ectopic calcification, all of which have grave consequences for human health. Understanding osteoblast biology may help to treat diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, calcific heart valve disease, osteoporosis, and many others. Osteoblasts are bone-building cells of mesenchymal origin; they differentiate from mesenchymal progenitors, either directly or via an osteochondroprogenitor...
September 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Jungmin Yoon, Kyoung Won Nam, Jun Chang Lee, Dong Pyo Jang, In Young Kim
For hearing-impaired individuals with neurological motor deficits or finger/arm amputation due to accident or disease, hearing aid adjustment using a conventional finger manipulation-based remote controller is unavailable, and a more dedicated, hands-free alternative is required. In this study, we propose an eye-blinking-based beamforming control scheme for hearing aid users. Three electroencephalogram signals measured around the ears were utilized to detect eye-blinking patterns based on a three-layer artificial neural network...
September 21, 2016: Artificial Organs
Solaiman Shokur, Simone Gallo, Renan C Moioli, Ana Rita C Donati, Edgard Morya, Hannes Bleuler, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Spinal cord injuries disrupt bidirectional communication between the patient's brain and body. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for reproducing lower limb somatosensory feedback in paraplegics by remapping missing leg/foot tactile sensations onto the skin of patients' forearms. A portable haptic display was tested in eight patients in a setup where the lower limbs were simulated using immersive virtual reality (VR). For six out of eight patients, the haptic display induced the realistic illusion of walking on three different types of floor surfaces: beach sand, a paved street or grass...
2016: Scientific Reports
Vincenzo Rago, António N Rebelo, Federico Pizzuto, Daniel Barreira
BACKGROUND: The use of sand has been suggested as fitness-enhancing surface in field-based team sports. However, concerns have arisen in regard whether physical responses associated to sand training are sport-specific. We compared physical and technical demands during small-sided football games (4v4 + goalkeeper; SSGs) played on artificial turf and on sand. METHODS: Movement patterns, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and technical parameters were obtained from eight adult male footballers (20...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Keyu Xie, Wenfei Wei, Kai Yuan, Wei Lu, Min Guo, Zhihua Li, Qiang Song, Xingrui Liu, Jian-Gan Wang, Chao Shen
Owing to its ultrahigh specific capacity and low electrochemical potential, lithium (Li) metal is regarded as one of the most attractive anode materials for next-generation lithium batteries. Nevertheless, the commercialization of Li-metal-based rechargeable batteries (LiMBs) has been retarded by the uncontrollable growth of Li dendrites, as well as the resulting poor cycle stability and safety hazards. In this work, a 3D graphene@Ni scaffold has been proposed to accomplish dendrite-free Li deposition via structural and interfacial synergistic effects...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shinji Sasaki, Kiyotoshi Hasegawa, Tomoko Higashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Yasuaki Yasuda, Yoshikazu Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Hydrallantois is the excessive accumulation of fluid within the allantoic cavity in pregnant animals and is associated with fetal mortality. Although the incidence of hydrallantois is very low in artificial insemination breeding programs in cattle, recently 38 cows with the phenotypic appearance of hydrallantois were reported in a local subpopulation of Japanese Black cattle. Of these, 33 were traced back to the same sire; however, both their parents were reported healthy, suggesting that hydrallantois is a recessive inherited disorder...
2016: BMC Genomics
Dean L Mayfield, Bradley S Launikonis, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
There are high mechanical demands placed on skeletal muscles in movements requiring rapid acceleration of the body or its limbs. Tendons are responsible for transmitting muscle forces, but, due to their elasticity, can manipulate the mechanics of the internal contractile apparatus. Shortening of the contractile apparatus against the stretch of tendon affects force generation according to known mechanical properties, however, the extent to which differences in tendon compliance alter force development in response to a burst of electrical impulses is unclear...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Matthew J Leineweber, Sam Shi, Jan Andrysek
Artificial sensory feedback (ASF) systems can be used to compensate for lost proprioception in individuals with lower-limb impairments. Effective design of these ASF systems requires an in-depth understanding of how the parameters of specific feedback mechanism affect user perception and reaction to stimuli. This article presents a method for applying vibrotactile stimuli to human participants and measuring their response. Rotating mass vibratory motors are placed at pre-defined locations on the participant's thigh, and controlled through custom hardware and software...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Cosima Prahm, Korbinian Eckstein, Max Ortiz-Catalan, Georg Dorffner, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Oskar C Aszmann
BACKGROUND: Controlling a myoelectric prosthesis for upper limbs is increasingly challenging for the user as more electrodes and joints become available. Motion classification based on pattern recognition with a multi-electrode array allows multiple joints to be controlled simultaneously. Previous pattern recognition studies are difficult to compare, because individual research groups use their own data sets. To resolve this shortcoming and to facilitate comparisons, open access data sets were analysed using components of BioPatRec and Netlab pattern recognition models...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Aman Sharma, Matthew J Leineweber, Jan Andrysek
Artificial tactile feedback systems can improve prosthetic function for people with amputation by substituting for lost proprioception in the missing limb. However, limited data exists to guide the design and application of these systems for mobility and balance scenarios. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a noninvasive artificial sensory feedback (ASF) system on lower-limb function in the presence of a cognitive load and a liner interface. Reaction times (RTs) and accuracy of leg-movement responses to vibratory stimuli at the thigh were recorded for 12 nondisabled individuals and 3 participants with transfemoral amputation using a custom-built testing apparatus...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Antonella Maselli, Konstantina Kilteni, Joan López-Moliner, Mel Slater
Experimental work on body ownership illusions showed how simple multisensory manipulation can generate the illusory experience of an artificial limb as being part of the own-body. This work highlighted how own-body perception relies on a plastic brain representation emerging from multisensory integration. The flexibility of this representation is reflected in the short-term modulations of physiological states and perceptual processing observed during these illusions. Here, we explore the impact of ownership illusions on the temporal dimension of multisensory integration...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gretchen L Knaack, Daniel G McHail, German Borda, Beomseo Koo, Nathalia Peixoto, Stuart F Cogan, Theodore C Dumas, Joseph J Pancrazio
Implantable microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer clinical promise for prosthetic devices by enabling restoration of communication and control of artificial limbs. While proof-of-concept recordings from MEAs have been promising, work in animal models demonstrates that the obtained signals degrade over time. Both material robustness and tissue response are acknowledged to have a role in device lifetime. Amorphous Silicon carbide (a-SiC), a robust material that is corrosion resistant, has emerged as an alternative encapsulation layer for implantable devices...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Wei Peng, Liangwei Xu, Jia You, Lihua Fang, Qing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Osseointegration refers to the direct connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant. Porous implants with well-controlled porosity and pore size can enhance osseointegration. However, until recently implants were produced by machining solid core titanium rods. The aim of this study was to develop a multi-rooted dental implant (MRI) with a connected porous surface structure to facilitate osseointegration. METHODS: MRIs manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) and commercial implants with resorbable blasting media (RBM)-treated surfaces were inserted into the hind limbs of New Zealand white rabbits...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Boo Young Chung, Jens Foell, Dorothee Maria Gescher, Martin Bohus, Herta Flor
INTRODUCTION: Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report an unstable sense of self, which is further enhanced in dissociative states. As one consequence, BPD patients show a labile body percept, which might result in a higher degree of body plasticity. However, experimental data on body plasticity in BPD are not yet available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rubber hand illusion (RHI) probes the plasticity of one's body by inducing the feeling of ownership for an artificial limb...
August 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
H Gholizadeh, E D Lemaire, A Eshraghi
BACKGROUND: An optimal suspension system can improve comfort and quality of life in people with limb loss. To guide practice on prosthetic vacuum suspension systems, assessment of the current evidence and professional opinion are required. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were explored to find related articles. Search terms were amputees, artificial limb, prosthetic suspension, prosthetic liner, vacuum, and prosthesis. The results were refined by vacuum socket or vacuum assisted suspension or sub-atmospheric suspension...
August 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Marie F A Cutiongco, Marek Kukumberg, Jonnathan L Peneyra, Matthew S Yeo, Jia Y Yao, Abdul Jalil Rufaihah, Catherine Le Visage, Jackie Pei Ho, Evelyn K F Yim
Microvascular surgery is becoming a prevalent surgical practice. Replantation, hand reconstruction, orthopedic, and free tissue transfer procedures all rely on microvascular surgery for the repair of venous and arterial defects at the millimeter and submillimeter levels. Often, a vascular graft is required for the procedure as a means to bridge the gap between native arteries. While autologous vessels are desired for their bioactivity and non-thrombogenicity, the tedious harvest process, lack of availability, and caliber or mechanical mismatch contribute to graft failure...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Sheng Bin, Huang Xiangwang, Xiao Sheng, Xiang Tiecheng, Liu Xiangyang, Zhang Yi, Liu Bin
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for the treatment of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ACDF is the useful procedure for degenerative cervical diseases. However, studies have reported accelerated degeneration of functional spinal units (FSUs) adjacent to the fusion site after ACDF...
June 28, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Hadeya Anjum, Imran Amjad, Arshad Nawaz Malik
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques as compared with the traditional prosthetic strength training (TPT), in improving ambulatory function in subjects with transtibial amputation. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized control trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Artificial Limb Centre of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2014. METHODOLOGY: Patients with lower-limb amputation was selected through purposive sampling and randomly assigned into PNF group (n=31) and traditional group (n=32)...
June 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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