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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796191/smart-carriers-and-nanohealers-a-nanomedical-insight-on-natural-polymers
#1
REVIEW
Sreejith Raveendran, Ankit K Rochani, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi Kumar
Biodegradable polymers are popularly being used in an increasing number of fields in the past few decades. The popularity and favorability of these materials are due to their remarkable properties, enabling a wide range of applications and market requirements to be met. Polymer biodegradable systems are a promising arena of research for targeted and site-specific controlled drug delivery, for developing artificial limbs, 3D porous scaffolds for cellular regeneration or tissue engineering and biosensing applications...
August 10, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782192/the-effect-of-four-types-of-artificial-nerve-graft-structures-on-the-repair-of-10-mm-rat-sciatic-nerve-gap
#2
Chan Zhou, Bin Liu, Yong Huang, Xiu Zeng, Huajian You, Jin Li, Yaoguang Zhang
Investigating the effect of four types of artificial nerve graft (ANG) structures on rat sciatic nerve defect repair will aid future ANG designs. In this study, fibroin fibres and polylactic acid were used to prepare four ANGs with differing structures: nerve conduit with micron-sized pores (Conduit with pore group), nerve conduit without micron-sized pores (Conduit group), nerve scaffold comprising Conduit with pore group material plus silk fibres (Scaffold with pore group), and nerve scaffold comprising Conduit group material plus silk fibres (Scaffold group)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755930/locomotion-characteristics-of-dairy-cows-walking-on-pasture-and-the-effect-of-artificial-flooring-systems-on-locomotion-comfort
#3
M Alsaaod, S Huber, G Beer, P Kohler, G Schüpbach-Regula, A Steiner
The locomotion comfort of dairy cows depends on the floor of the walking alleys. Optimal locomotion comfort is given when cows walk on pasture, allowing freedom from discomfort and pain and the expression of normal behavior. This study examined the characteristics of locomotion behavior on pasture (gold standard with optimal locomotion comfort) and compared it with behaviors of cows walking on mastic asphalt or solid rubber mats before and after a routine claw trimming session. Our hypotheses were (1) that gait variables were different on pasture versus mastic asphalt and on mastic asphalt versus rubber, and (2) that claw trimming had an effect on gait variables of cows walking on mastic asphalt...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751652/fractal-electrodes-as-a-generic-interface-for-stimulating-neurons
#4
W J Watterson, R D Montgomery, R P Taylor
The prospect of replacing damaged body parts with artificial implants is being transformed from science fiction to science fact through the increasing application of electronics to interface with human neurons in the limbs, the brain, and the retina. We propose bio-inspired electronics which adopt the fractal geometry of the neurons they interface with. Our focus is on retinal implants, although performance improvements will be generic to many neuronal types. The key component is a multifunctional electrode; light passes through this electrode into a photodiode which charges the electrode...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736125/minimally-invasive-treatment-of-displaced-femoral-shaft-fractures-with-a-teleoperated-robot-assisted-surgical-system
#5
Qing Zhu, Bin Liang, Xingsong Wang, Xiaogang Sun, Liming Wang
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgical operation of intramedullary (IM) nailing is a standard technique for treating diaphyseal fractures. However, in addition to its advantages, there are some drawbacks such as the frequent occurrence of malalignment, physical fatigue and high radiation exposure to medical staff. The use of robotic and navigation techniques is promising treatments for femoral fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper presents a novel robot-assisted manipulator for femoral shaft fracture reduction with indirect contact with the femur...
July 12, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713455/a-pilot-study-of-the-effect-of-outsole-hardness-on-lower-limb-kinematics-and-kinetics-during-soccer-related-movements
#6
Dong Sun, Qichang Mei, Julien S Baker, Xuewen Jia, Yaodong Gu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different outsole hardness of turf cleats shoes on the lower limb kinematics and kinetics of soccer players playing on artificial turf. The participants were required to complete tasks of straight running and 45° left sidestep cutting movements, respectively, at the speed of 4.5 ± 0.2 m/s on artificial turf. They were asked to randomly select turf cleats shoes with a soft outsole (SO), medium hardness outsole (MO) and hard outsole (HO). During the stance phase of straight running, peak pressure and force-time integral in medial forefoot (MFF) of players wearing cleats shoes with MO were significantly higher than those wearing cleats shoes with SO...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675376/model-based-bayesian-signal-extraction-algorithm-for-peripheral-nerves
#7
Thomas Eggers, Yazan M Dweiri, Grant McCallum, Dominique M Durand
Multi-channel cuff electrodes have recently been investigated for extracting fascicular-level motor commands from mixed neural recordings. Such signals could provide volitional, intuitive control over a robotic prosthesis for amputee patients. Recent work has demonstrated success in extracting these signals in acute and chronic preparations using spatial filtering techniques. These extracted signals, however, had low signal-to-noise ratios and thus limited their utility to binary classification. In this work a new algorithm is proposed which combines previous source localization approaches to create a model based method which operates in real time...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640883/an-artificial-emg-generation-model-based-on-signal-dependent-noise-and-related-application-to-motion-classification
#8
Akira Furui, Hideaki Hayashi, Go Nakamura, Takaaki Chin, Toshio Tsuji
This paper proposes an artificial electromyogram (EMG) signal generation model based on signal-dependent noise, which has been ignored in existing methods, by introducing the stochastic construction of the EMG signals. In the proposed model, an EMG signal variance value is first generated from a probability distribution with a shape determined by a commanded muscle force and signal-dependent noise. Artificial EMG signals are then generated from the associated Gaussian distribution with a zero mean and the generated variance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633788/fluoroscopic-and-gait-analyses-for-the-functional-performance-of%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-custom-made-total-talonavicular-replacement
#9
Claudio Belvedere, Matteo Cadossi, Antonio Mazzotti, Sandro Giannini, Alberto Leardini
The present study evaluated the restoration of joint function in a special clinical case: a professional rock climber who underwent an original total talonavicular replacement with a custom-made prosthesis after a complex articular fracture. Full body gait analysis and 3-dimensional joint kinematics using single-plane fluoroscopy were performed on the same day at the 30-month follow-up examination. Gait analysis was performed using stereophotogrammetric, dynamometric, electromyographic, and baropodometric systems...
July 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611573/simultaneous-and-continuous-estimation-of-shoulder-and-elbow-kinematics-from-surface-emg-signals
#10
Qin Zhang, Runfeng Liu, Wenbin Chen, Caihua Xiong
In this paper, we present a simultaneous and continuous kinematics estimation method for multiple DoFs across shoulder and elbow joint. Although simultaneous and continuous kinematics estimation from surface electromyography (EMG) is a feasible way to achieve natural and intuitive human-machine interaction, few works investigated multi-DoF estimation across the significant joints of upper limb, shoulder and elbow joints. This paper evaluates the feasibility to estimate 4-DoF kinematics at shoulder and elbow during coordinated arm movements...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606179/modifying-upper-limb-inter-joint-coordination-in-healthy-subjects-by-training-with-a-robotic-exoskeleton
#11
Tommaso Proietti, Emmanuel Guigon, Agnès Roby-Brami, Nathanaël Jarrassé
BACKGROUND: The possibility to modify the usually pathological patterns of coordination of the upper-limb in stroke survivors remains a central issue and an open question for neurorehabilitation. Despite robot-led physical training could potentially improve the motor recovery of hemiparetic patients, most of the state-of-the-art studies addressing motor control learning, with artificial virtual force fields, only focused on the end-effector kinematic adaptation, by using planar devices...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600975/relationship-and-significance-of-gait-deviations-associated-with-limb-length-discrepancy-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Sam Khamis, Eli Carmeli
Controversy still exists as to the clinical significance of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in spite of the fact that further evidence has been emerging regarding the relationship between several clinical conditions and LLD. The objectives of our study were to review the available research with regard to LLD as a cause of clinically significant gait deviations, to determine if there is a relationship between the magnitude of LLD and the presence of gait deviations and to identify the most common gait deviations associated with LLD...
May 31, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594815/preparation-of-biomimetic-hierarchically-helical-fiber-actuators-from-carbon-nanotubes
#13
Jue Deng, Yifan Xu, Sisi He, Peining Chen, Luke Bao, Yajie Hu, Bingjie Wang, Xuemei Sun, Huisheng Peng
Mechanically responsive materials that are able to sense and respond to external stimuli have important applications in soft robotics and the formation of artificial muscles, such as intelligent electronics, prosthetic limbs, comfort-adjusting textiles and miniature actuators for microfluidics. However, previous artificial muscles based on polymer materials are insufficient in generating large actuations, fast responses, diverse deformation modes and high cycle performances. To this end, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are proposed as promising candidates to be assembled into artificial muscles, as they are lightweight, robust and have high surface-to-volume ratios...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541915/embedded-system-for-prosthetic-control-using-implanted-neuromuscular-interfaces-accessed-via-an-osseointegrated-implant
#14
Enzo Mastinu, Pascal Doguet, Yohan Botquin, Bo Hakansson, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Despite the technological progress in robotics achieved in the last decades, prosthetic limbs still lack functionality, reliability, and comfort. Recently, an implanted neuromusculoskeletal interface built upon osseointegration was developed and tested in humans, namely the Osseointegrated Human-Machine Gateway. Here, we present an embedded system to exploit the advantages of this technology. Our artificial limb controller allows for bioelectric signals acquisition, processing, decoding of motor intent, prosthetic control, and sensory feedback...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525482/artificial-cervical-disk-replacement-for-the-treatment-of-adjacent-segment-disease-after-anterior-cervical-decompression-and-fusion
#15
Sheng Bin, Huang Xiangwang, Xiao Sheng, Xiang Tiecheng, Liu Xiangyang, Zhang Yi, Liu Bin
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of artificial cervical disk replacement (ACDR) for the treatment of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ACDF is the useful procedure for degenerative cervical diseases. However, studies have reported accelerated degeneration of functional spinal units adjacent to the fusion site after ACDF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2004 and January 2011, 32 inpatients (18 male, 14 female; age, 38-61 y; mean, 48 y) underwent ACDR for the treatment of ASD after previous ACDF (single-level: n=12; 2-level: n=15; 3-level: n=5)...
June 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521576/rethinking-the-foam-cosmesis-for-people-with-lower-limb-absence
#16
Nicola Cairns, Jonathan Corney, Kevin Murray, Karena Moore-Millar, Gillian D Hatcher, Saeed Zahedi, Richard Bradbury, Joe McCarthy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A recent survey of people with lower limb absence revealed that patients' satisfaction with their foam cosmesis is lower than desired. The aim of this project was to improve the lifelike appearance, functionality and durability of the cosmesis through a user-centred design methodology. TECHNIQUE: Concept development and prototyping led to a new cosmesis design which features a cut-out located at the knee, inserted with an artificial patella made of a more rigid foam...
May 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489540/nonlinear-frequency-domain-analysis-of-the-transformation-of-cortical-inputs-by-a-motoneuron-pool-muscle-complex
#17
Renato Watanabe, Andre Kohn
Corticomotor coherence in the beta and/or gamma bands has been described in different motor tasks but the role of descending brain oscillations on force control has been elusive. Large-scale computational models of a motoneuron pool and the muscle it innervates have been used as tools to advance the knowledge of how neural elements may influence force control. Here we present a frequency domain analysis of a NARX model fitted to a large-scale neuromuscular model by means of generalized frequency response functions (GFRF)...
May 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472991/resolving-the-effect-of-wrist-position-on-myoelectric-pattern-recognition-control
#18
Adenike A Adewuyi, Levi J Hargrove, Todd A Kuiken
BACKGROUND: The use of pattern recognition-based methods to control myoelectric upper-limb prostheses has been well studied in individuals with high-level amputations but few studies have demonstrated that it is suitable for partial-hand amputees, who often possess a functional wrist. This study's objective was to evaluate strategies that allow partial-hand amputees to control a prosthetic hand while allowing retain wrist function. METHODS: EMG data was recorded from the extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles of six non-amputees and two partial-hand amputees while they performed 4 hand motions in 13 different wrist positions...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467317/deep-learning-based-artificial-vision-for-grasp-classification-in-myoelectric-hands
#19
Ghazal Ghazaei, Ali Alameer, Patrick Degenaar, Graham Morgan, Kianoush Nazarpour
OBJECTIVE: Computer vision-based assistive technology solutions can revolutionise the quality of care for people with sensorimotor disorders. The goal of this work was to enable trans-radial amputees to use a simple, yet efficient, computer vision system to grasp and move common household objects with a two-channel myoelectric prosthetic hand. APPROACH: We developed a deep learning-based artificial vision system to augment the grasp functionality of a commercial prosthesis...
June 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451687/reconstruction-of-12-lead-ecg-using-a-single-patch-device
#20
Hong J Lee, Dong S Lee, Hyun B Kwon, Do Y Kim, Kwang S Park
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to develop an optimal electrode system in the form of a small and wearable single-patch ECG monitoring device that allows for the faithful reconstruction of the standard 12-lead ECG. METHODS: The optimized universal electrode positions on the chest and the personalized transformation matrix were determined using linear regression as well as artificial neural networks (ANNs). A total of 24 combinations of 4 neighboring electrodes on 35 channels were evaluated on 19 subjects...
April 28, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
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