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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916783/reduction-of-visceral-fat-by-liraglutide-is-associated-with-ameliorations-of-hepatic-steatosis-albuminuria-and-micro-inflammation-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-insulin-treatment-a-randomized-control-trial
#1
Ryotaro Bouchi, Yujiro Nakano, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Liraglutide, an analogue of human glucagon-like peptide 1, reduces cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, it has still been unknown by which mechanisms liraglutide could reduce cardiovascular events. Type 2 diabetic patients with insulin treatment were enrolled in this randomized, open-label, comparative study. Participants were randomly assigned to liraglutide plus insulin (liraglutide group) and insulin treatment (control group) at 1:1 allocation. Primary endpoint was the change in viscera fat are (VFA, cm(2)) at 24 weeks...
December 3, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915473/urine-proteomics-in-the-era-of-mass-spectrometry
#2
REVIEW
Ashley Beasley-Green
With the technological advances of mass spectrometry (MS)-based platforms, clinical proteomics is one of the most rapidly growing areas in biomedical research. Urine proteomics has become a popular subdiscipline of clinical proteomics because it is an ideal source for the discovery of noninvasive disease biomarkers. The urine proteome offers a comprehensive view of the local and systemic physiology since the proteome is primarily composed of proteins/peptides from the kidneys and plasma. The emergence of MS-based proteomic platforms as prominent bioanalytical tools in clinical applications has enhanced the identification of protein-based urinary biomarkers...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914268/anti-adhesive-antimicrobial-peptide-coating-prevents-catheter-associated-infection-in-a-mouse-urinary-infection-model
#3
Kai Yu, Joey C Y Lo, Mei Yan, Xiaoqiang Yang, Donald E Brooks, Robert E W Hancock, Dirk Lange, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent one of the most common hospital acquired infections with significant economic consequences and increased patient morbidity. CAUTIs often start with pathogen adhesion and colonization on the catheter surface followed by biofilm formation. Current strategies to prevent CAUTIs are insufficiently effective and antimicrobial coatings based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold promise in curbing CAUTIs. Here we report an effective surface tethering strategy to prepare AMP coatings on polyurethane (PU), a common biomedical plastic used for catheter manufacture, by using an anti-adhesive hydrophilic polymer coating...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902468/synthesis-of-a-cell-penetrating-peptide-modified-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-and-mri-detection-of-bladder-cancer
#4
Chen Ding, Kaijie Wu, Weiyi Wang, Zhenfeng Guan, Lei Wang, Xinyang Wang, Rong Wang, Li Liu, Jinhai Fan
Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract for which the accurate measurement of minimal residual disease is critical to treatment and determining prognosis. Although cystoscope examination and voided urine cytology remain the current standard of care for detecting residual disease, these approaches are limited by mechanical trauma and lack sensitivity. To develop a new accurate noninvasive method, we developed a novel contrast agent where the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles is functionalized with a bladder cancer-specific fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled cell penetrating peptide (CPP)-polyarginine peptides (R11) for active targeting and imaging...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898998/nutritional-supplementation-for-hip-fracture-aftercare-in-older-people
#5
REVIEW
Alison Avenell, Toby O Smith, James P Curtain, Jenson Cs Mak, Phyo K Myint
BACKGROUND: Older people with hip fractures are often malnourished at the time of fracture, and subsequently have poor food intake. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2000, and previously updated in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To review the effects (benefits and harms) of nutritional interventions in older people recovering from hip fracture. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, trial registers and reference lists...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888009/a-novel-approach-for-the-chromatographic-purification-and-peptide-mass-fingerprinting-of-urinary-free-light-chains
#6
Bhupesh C Mali, Shamkant B Badgujar, Kunal K Shukla, Paresh B Bhanushali
We describe a chromatographic approach for the purification of urinary free light chains (FLCs) viz., lambda free light chains (λ-FLCs) and kappa free light chains (κ-FLCs). Isolated urinary FLCs were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS). The relative molecular masses of λ-FLC and κ-FLC are 22,933.397 and 23,544.336Da respectively. Moreover, dimer forms of each FLC were also detected in mass spectrum which corresponds to 45,737.747 and 47,348.028Da respectively for λ-FLCs and κ-FLCs...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862254/hk2-proximal-tubule-epithelial-cells-synthesize-and-secrete-plasma-proteins-predominantly-through-the-apical-surface
#7
Ke-Wei Zhao, Elsa J Brochmann Murray, Samuel S Murray
Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) are known to reabsorb salts and small plasma proteins filtered through Bowman's capsule. Following acute kidney injury, PTECs assume some characteristics of hepatocytes in producing various plasma proteins. We now demonstrate that even at a resting state, a PTEC cell line, HK2 expresses mRNAs for and synthesizes and secretes plasma proteins in a complex with complement C3, an α2 -macroglobulin family chaperone, including albumin, transferrin, α1 -antitrypsin, α1 -antichymotrypsin, α2 -HS-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, C1-inhibitor, secreted phosphoprotein-24, and insulin-like growth factor-1...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853882/the-protective-effect-of-human-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-on-renal-damage-during-cardiac-surgery
#8
Takahiro Moriyama, Shintaro Hagihara, Toko Shiramomo, Misaki Nagaoka, Shohei Iwakawa, Yuichi Kanmura
PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the critical complications after cardiac surgery. In the kidney, angiotensin II (Ang II) is formed by independent mechanisms, and activity of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system contributes to the progression of kidney damage. Although atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) exerts protective effects against renal injury by inhibiting the RAAS, the mechanisms of this effect have not been completely clarified. We investigated how human ANP (hANP) could prevent renal damage induced by cardiopulmonary bypass...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843814/dimeric-and-trimeric-fusion-proteins-generated-with-fimbrial-adhesins-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Víctor M Luna-Pineda, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda, Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova, Zeus Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Sara A Ochoa, Carmen Maldonado-Bernal, Vicenta Cázares-Domínguez, Leticia Moreno-Fierros, José Arellano-Galindo, Rigoberto Hernández-Castro, Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main etiologic agent. Fimbriae assembled on the bacterial surface are essential for adhesion to the urinary tract epithelium. In this study, the FimH, CsgA, and PapG adhesins were fused to generate biomolecules for use as potential target vaccines against UTIs. The fusion protein design was generated using bioinformatics tools, and template fusion gene sequences were synthesized by GenScript in the following order fimH-csgA-papG-fimH-csgA (fcpfc) linked to the nucleotide sequence encoding the [EAAAK]5 peptide...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821778/siderophore-vaccine-conjugates-protect-against-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-urinary-tract-infection
#10
Laura A Mike, Sara N Smith, Christopher A Sumner, Kathryn A Eaton, Harry L T Mobley
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Whereas most infections are isolated cases, 1 in 40 women experience recurrent UTIs. The rise in antibiotic resistance has complicated the management of chronic UTIs and necessitates new preventative strategies. Currently, no UTI vaccines are approved for use in the United States, and the development of a highly effective vaccine remains elusive. Here, we have pursued a strategy for eliciting protective immunity by vaccinating with small molecules required for pathogenesis, rather than proteins or peptides...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806112/the-clinical-and-biochemical-predictors-of-bone-mass-in-preterm-infants
#11
Justyna Czech-Kowalska, Edyta Czekuc-Kryskiewicz, Pawel Pludowski, Katarzyna Zaniuk, Maciej Jaworski, Anna Łuba, Karolina Grzybowska, Krystyna Piłat, Anna Dobrzanska
BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease of prematurity still occurs in preterm infants, although a significant improvement in neonatal care has been observed in recent decades. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the precise technique for assessing bone mineral content (BMC) in preterm infants, but is not widely available. AIM: To investigate the clinical and biochemical parameters, including bone metabolism markers as potential predictors of BMC, in preterm infants up to 3 months corrected age (CA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803400/excess-visceral-adipose-tissue-worsens-the-vascular-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Akira Kurozumi, Yosuke Okada, Tadashi Arao, Yoshiya Tanaka
Objective Visceral fat obesity and metabolic syndrome correlate with atherosclerosis in part due to insulin resistance and various other factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between vascular endothelial dysfunction and excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods In 71 T2DM patients, the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) was measured using an Endo-PAT 2000, and VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured via CT. We also measured various metabolic markers, including high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-AN)...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792191/tomato-juice-consumption-modifies-the-urinary-peptide-profile-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-induced-hepatic-steatosis
#13
Gala Martín-Pozuelo, Rocío González-Barrio, Gonzalo G Barberá, Amaya Albalat, Javier García-Alonso, William Mullen, Harald Mischak, María Jesús Periago
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in Western countries, with a high prevalence, and has been shown to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), etc. Tomato products contain several natural antioxidants, including lycopene-which has displayed a preventive effect on the development of steatosis and CVD. Accordingly, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of tomato juice consumption on the urinary peptide profile in rats with NAFLD induced by an atherogenic diet and to identify potential peptide biomarkers for diagnosis...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759333/a-trifunctional-modular-biomaterial-coating-nonadhesive-to-bacteria-chlorhexidine-releasing-and-tissue-integrating
#14
Jelmer Sjollema, Heidrun Keul, Henny van der Mei, René Dijkstra, Minie Rustema-Abbing, Joop de Vries, Ton Loontjens, Ton Dirks, Henk Busscher
Various potential anti-infection strategies can be thought of for biomaterial implants and devices. Permanent, tissue-integrated implants such as artificial joint prostheses require a different anti-infection strategy than, for instance, removable urinary catheters. The different requirements set to biomaterials implants and devices in different clinical applications call for tailor-made strategies. Here, a modular coating-concept for biomaterials is reported, which in its full, trifunctional form comprises nonadhesiveness to bacteria and antimicrobial release, combined with enhanced tissue integration characteristics...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753974/os-12-01-arb-and-ccb-longest-combination-treatment-on-ambulatory-and-home-bp-in-hypertension-with-atrial-fibrillation-multicenter-study-on-time-of-dosing-acrobat
#15
Kazuomi Kario, Satoshi Hoshide
OBJECTIVE: It has been long believed that there is a close association between hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there have been few studies on the impact of antihypertensive medication in hypertensives with AF. To investigate whether the timing of the antihypertensive drug administration influences blood pressure (BP) level and biomarkers to hypertensives with AF. DESIGN AND METHOD: The present study was a multicentered, prospective, randomized, open-labelled clinical trial to investigate the difference in the effect of telmisartan/amlodipine combination tablets on BP levels and BP variability using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and home BP between the morning administration and the bedtime administration in hypertensives with paroxysmal AF...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753201/the-effect-of-liraglutide-on-renal-function-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Bernt J von Scholten, Frederik Persson, Signe Rosenlund, Peter Hovind, Jens Faber, Tine W Hansen, Peter Rossing
AIMS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria, cardiorenal morbidity and mortality are high despite multifactorial treatment. Short-term reduction in albuminuria is considered suggestive of long-term renoprotective effects. We evaluated the renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide on top of multifactorial care, including renin-angiotensin-system (RAS)-inhibition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial including patients with type 2 diabetes and persistent albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/min/1...
October 17, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750262/the-obestatin-ghrelin-ratio-and-ghrelin-genetics-in-adult-celiac-patients-before-and-after-a-gluten-free-diet-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-and-healthy-individuals
#17
Francesco Russo, Guglielmina Chimienti, Michele Linsalata, Caterina Clemente, Antonella Orlando, Giuseppe Riezzo
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin levels and obestatin/ghrelin ratio have been proposed as activity markers in ulcerative colitis, but no data are available in celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aims were as follows: (a) to assess obestatin and ghrelin concentrations in adult active CD patients, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-d), and healthy controls (HC) in relation to intestinal permeability; (b) to evaluate the ghrelin-obestatin profile in CD patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet (GFD); and (c) to establish the impact of ghrelin genetics...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746437/somatostatin-secreting-pheochromocytoma-mimicking-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Hiroyuki Hirai, Sanae Midorikawa, Shinichi Suzuki, Hironobu Sasano, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Hiroaki Satoh
We herein present the findings of a 42-year-old woman with either adrenal pheochromocytoma or intraadrenal paraganglioma that simultaneously secreted somatostatin, thus mimicking insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pheochromocytoma was clinically diagnosed based on scintigraphy, elevated catecholamine levels, and finally a histopathological analysis of resected specimens. The patient had diabetic ketosis, requiring 40 U insulin for treatment. Following laparoscopic adrenalectomy, insulin therapy was discontinued and the urinary c-peptide levels changed from 5...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721847/refractory-and-resistant-hypertension-antihypertensive-treatment-failure-versus-treatment-resistance
#19
David A Calhoun
Resistant hypertension has for many decades been defined as difficult-to-treat hypertension in order to identify patients who may benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic considerations. Recently, the term "refractory hypertension" has been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure, that is, patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximal treatment. Early studies of this phenotype indicate that it is uncommon, affecting less than 5% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686150/proteome-profiling-of-urinary-exosomes-identifies-alpha-1-antitrypsin-and-h2b1k-as-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-for-urothelial-carcinoma
#20
Shih-Yi Lin, Chao-Hsiang Chang, His-Chin Wu, Ching-Chan Lin, Kai-Po Chang, Chi-Rei Yang, Chi-Ping Huang, Wu-Huei Hsu, Chiz-Tzung Chang, Chao-Jung Chen
MALDI-TOF spectrometry has not been used for urinary exosome analysis. We used it for determining UC biomarkers. From 2012 to 2015, we enrolled 129 consecutive patients with UC and 62 participants without UC. Exosomes from their urine were isolated, and analyzed through MALDI-TOF spectrometry. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of another 122 UC and 26 non-UC tissues was conducted to verify the discovered biomarkers. Two peaks at m/z 5593 (fragmented peptide of alpha-1-antitrypsin; sensitivity, 50.4%; specificity, 96...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
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