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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726167/early-increased-bradykinin-1-receptor-contributes-to-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-ischemic-stroke-in-type-1-diabetic-rats
#1
Hongfei Sang, Zhongming Qiu, Jin Cai, Wenya Lan, Linjie Yu, Hao Zhang, Min Li, Yi Xie, Ruibing Guo, Ruidong Ye, Xinfeng Liu, Ling Liu, Renliang Zhang
Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a major complication of ischemic stroke and further deteriorates neurological outcomes. Bradykinin 1 receptor (B1R) has been proven to mediate vasculo-toxicity in various experimental models. However, its role in the development of HT after stroke remains unclear. We detected the B1R expression in brain tissues with or without HT in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) with type 1 diabetes, showing higher B1R expression in the hemorrhagic areas than the ischemic tissues...
July 19, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725968/microglial-mediated-pdgf-cc-activation-increases-cerebrovascular-permeability-during-ischemic-stroke
#2
Enming Joseph Su, Chunzhang Cao, Linda Fredriksson, Ingrid Nilsson, Christina Stefanitsch, Tamara K Stevenson, Juanjuan Zhao, Margret Ragsdale, Yu-Yo Sun, Manuel Yepes, Chia-Yi Kuan, Ulf Eriksson, Dudley K Strickland, Daniel A Lawrence, Li Zhang
Treatment of acute ischemic stroke with the thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can significantly improve neurological outcomes; however, thrombolytic therapy is associated with an increased risk of intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Previously, we demonstrated that during stroke tPA acting on the parenchymal side of the neurovascular unit (NVU) can increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and ICH through activation of latent platelet-derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC) and signaling by the PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα)...
July 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722240/an-mri-hyperintense-acute-reperfusion-marker-is-related-to-elevated-peripheral-monocyte-count-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#3
Zurab Nadareishvili, Marie Luby, Richard Leigh, Jignesh Shah, John K Lynch, Amie W Hsia, Richard T Benson, Lawrence L Latour
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute ischemic stroke as a hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Although activated leukocytes, including monocytes, are the main source of MMPs, limited data exist to support relationship between leukocyte activation and BBB disruption in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes with BBB disruption detected as HARM (+) in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710023/transient-brain-hypothermia-reduces-the-reperfusion-injury-of-delayed-tissue-plasminogen-activator-and-extends-its-therapeutic-time-window-in-a-focal-embolic-stroke-model
#4
Mohammadreza Zarisfi, Fatemeh Allahtavakoli, Mahsa Hassanipour, Mohammad Khaksari, Hossain Rezazadeh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Mohammad Mohsen Taghavi
It has been reported that restriction of reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy in ischemic stroke may reduce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) adverse effects and extend its time window. We examined whether shortIt has been reported that restriction of reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy in ischemic stroke may reduce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) adverse effects and extend its time window. We examined whether short-term and mild local brain cooling can prevent hyperemia and/or adverse effects of delayed tPA in rat embolic stroke model...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706113/pd-l1-programmed-death-ligand-1-protects-against-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage-induced-brain-injury
#5
Ranran Han, Jiaying Luo, Yanchao Shi, Yang Yao, Junwei Hao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a neurologically destructive stroke, for which no valid treatment is available. This preclinical study examined the therapeutic effect of PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1), a B7 family member and a ligand for both PD-1 (programmed death 1) and B7-1 (CD80), in a murine ICH model. METHODS: ICH was induced by injecting autologous blood into 252 male C57BL/6 and Rag1(-/-) mice. One hour later, ICH mice were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle, PD-L1, or anti-PD-L1 antibody...
July 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705822/focal-low-and-global-high-permeability-predict-the-possibility-risk-and-location-of-hemorrhagic-transformation-following-intra-arterial-thrombolysis-therapy-in-acute-stroke
#6
Y Li, Y Xia, H Chen, N Liu, A Jackson, M Wintermark, Y Zhang, J Hu, B Wu, W Zhang, J Tu, Z Su, G Zhu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The contrast volume transfer coefficient (K(trans)), which reflects blood-brain barrier permeability, is influenced by circulation and measurement conditions. We hypothesized that focal low BBB permeability values can predict the spatial distribution of hemorrhagic transformation and global high BBB permeability values can predict the likelihood of hemorrhagic transformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 106 patients with hemispheric stroke who received intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment...
July 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699024/transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-astrocytes-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-heat-stroke
#7
Bing Niu, Tao Zhang, Huaiqiang Hu, Bingzhen Cao
Heat-stroke is a serious form of hyperthermia with high mortality, and can induce severe central nervous system disorders. The neurovascular unit (NVU), which consists of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons, controls blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral blood flow, and maintains the proper functioning of neuronal circuits. However, the detailed function of each BBB component in heat-stroke remains unknown. In order to interpret alterations caused by heat stress, we performed transcriptome comparison of neuron and astrocyte primary cultures after heat treatment...
July 11, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690765/novel-therapeutic-effects-of-leonurine-on-ischemic-stroke-new-mechanisms-of-bbb-integrity
#8
Qiu-Yan Zhang, Zhi-Jun Wang, De-Miao Sun, Ying Wang, Peng Xu, Wei-Jun Wu, Xin-Hua Liu, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Leonurine (also named SCM-198), a compound extracted from Herba leonuri, was effective on the prevention of various cardiovascular and brain diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible therapeutic potential of SCM-198 against ischemia reperfusion injury and underlying mechanisms. In the in vivo transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rat model, we found that treatment with SCM-198 could decrease infarct volume and improve neurological deficit by protecting against blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684970/the-effects-of-chunghyul-dan-an-agent-of-korean-medicine-on-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Won-Woo Choi, Kyungjin Lee, Beom-Joon Lee, Seong-Uk Park, Jung-Mi Park, Chang-Nam Ko, Youngmin Bu
Chunghyul-Dan (CHD) is the first choice agent for the prevention and treatment of stroke at the Kyung Hee Medical Hospital. To date, CHD has been reported to have beneficial effects on brain disease in animals and humans, along with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological effects of CHD on a traumatic brain injury (TBI) mouse model to explore the possibility of CHD use in patients with TBI. The TBI mouse model was induced using the controlled cortical impact method...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684457/pericortical-enhancement-on-delayed-postgadolinium-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-images-in-normal-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease
#10
W M Freeze, R S Schnerr, W M Palm, J F Jansen, H I Jacobs, E I Hoff, F R Verhey, W H Backes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breakdown of BBB integrity occurs in dementia and may lead to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. We assessed whether extravasation of gadolinium chelate could be visualized on delayed postcontrast FLAIR images in older individuals with and without cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four individuals participated in this study (15 with Alzheimer disease, 33 with mild cognitive impairment, and 26 with normal cognition)...
July 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684305/emerging-roles-of-protein-kinases-in-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation
#11
REVIEW
Sun-Hwa Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Neuroinflammation is mediated by resident central nervous system glia, neurons, peripherally derived immune cells, blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory mediators secreted from these cells. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein kinases have been one of the most exploited therapeutic targets in the current pharmacological research, especially in studies on cancer and inflammation...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680530/mir-let7a-controls-the-cell-death-and-tight-junction-density-of-brain-endothelial-cells-under-high-glucose-condition
#12
Juhyun Song, So Ra Yoon, Oh Yoen Kim
Hyperglycemia-induced stress in the brain of patients with diabetes triggers the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), leading to diverse neurological diseases including stroke and dementia. Recently, the role of microRNA becomes an interest in the research for deciphering the mechanism of brain endothelial cell damage under hyperglycemia. Therefore, we investigated whether mircoRNA Let7A (miR-Let7A) controls the damage of brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells against high glucose condition. Cell viability, cell death marker expressions (p-53, Bax, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase), the loss of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and claudin-5), proinflammatory response (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrite production were confirmed using MTT, reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and Griess reagent assay...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669009/neuroprotective-effects-of-at1-receptor-antagonists-after-experimental-ischemic-stroke-what-is-important
#13
Juraj Culman, Toni Jacob, Sven O Schuster, Kjell Brolund-Spaether, Leonie Brolund, Ingolf Cascorbi, Yi Zhao, Peter Gohlke
The present study conducted in rats defines the requirements for neuroprotective effects of systemically administered AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in acute ischaemic stroke. The inhibition of central effects to angiotensin II (ANG II) after intravenous (i.v.) treatment with candesartan (0.3 and 3 mg/kg) or irbesartan and losartan (3 and 30 mg/kg) was employed to study the penetration of these ARBs across the blood-brain barrier. Verapamil and probenecid were used to assess the role of the transporters, P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-related protein 2, in the entry of losartan and irbesartan into the brain...
July 2, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664465/slc-and-abc-transporters-expression-localization-and-species-differences-at-the-blood-brain-and-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barriers
#14
Marilyn E Morris, Vivian Rodriguez-Cruz, Melanie A Felmlee
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) separate the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the systemic circulation and represent a barrier to the uptake of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics into the brain. For compounds whose passive diffusion is limited due to their ionization or hydrophilicity, membrane transporters can facilitate their uptake across the BBB or BCSFB. Members of the solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding case (ABC) families are present on these barriers...
June 29, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659439/fortifying-the-bbb-border-control-by-increasing-regulators
#15
Huimahn Alex Choi
Treatment with exogenous regulatory T cells fortifies the blood-brain barrier after tissue plasminogen activator therapy in models of acute ischemic stroke.
June 28, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655813/neurovascular-unit-protection-from-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-radical-containing-nanoparticles-in-mice
#16
Hisayuki Hosoo, Aiki Marushima, Yukio Nagasaki, Aki Hirayama, Hiromu Ito, Sandra Puentes, Arnela Mujagic, Hideo Tsurushima, Wataro Tsuruta, Kensuke Suzuki, Hirofumi Matsui, Yuji Matsumaru, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reperfusion therapy by mechanical thrombectomy is used to treat acute ischemic stroke. However, reactive oxygen species generation after reperfusion therapy causes cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, which aggravates cerebral infarction. There is limited evidence for clinical efficacy in stroke for antioxidants. Here, we developed a novel core-shell type nanoparticle containing 4-amino-4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticles [RNPs]) and investigated its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and confer neuroprotection...
June 27, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655601/the-effect-of-monascin-on-hematoma-clearance-and-edema-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#17
Juan Wang, Gaiqing Wang, Jinying Yi, Yi Xu, Shuna Duan, Tong Li, Xin-Gang Sun, Liang Dong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a particularly devastating form of stroke with high mortality and morbidity. Hematomas are the primary cause of neurologic deficits associated with ICH. The products of hematoma are recognized as neurotoxins and the main contributors to edema formation and tissue damage after ICH. Finding a means to efficiently promote absorption of hematoma is a novel clinical challenge for ICH. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), had been shown that, can take potential roles in the endogenous hematoma clearance...
June 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653212/higher-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-associated-with-higher-white-matter-hyperintensities-burden
#18
Yue Li, Man Li, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qinglei Shi, Shuna Yang, Huimin Fan, Wei Qin, Lei Yang, Junliang Yuan, Tao Jiang, Wenli Hu
The pathogenesis of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is incompletely understood but blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may play a key role. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between BBB permeability and the severity of WMH burden. Consecutive participants without symptomatic stroke history presented for physical examination were recruited in this cross-sectional study and divided into three WMH burden groups according to total Fazekas scores. They received dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging to measure BBB permeability, and received Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
July 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646795/offsetting-the-impact-of-smoking-and-e-cigarette-vaping-on-the-cerebrovascular-system-and-stroke-injury-is-metformin-a-viable-countermeasure
#19
Mohammad A Kaisar, Heidi Villalba, Shikha Prasad, Taylor Liles, Ali Ehsan Sifat, Ravi K Sajja, Thomas J Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Recently published in vitro and in vivo findings strongly suggest that BBB impairment and increased risk for stroke by tobacco smoke (TS) closely resemble that of type-2 diabetes (2DM) and develop largely in response to common key modulators such oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and alterations of the endogenous antioxidative response system (ARE) regulated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury...
June 17, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645333/sac-1004-a-vascular-leakage-blocker-reduces-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-suppressing-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-inflammation
#20
Haiying Zhang, Joon Ha Park, Sony Maharjan, Jeong Ae Park, Kyu-Sung Choi, Hyojin Park, Yoonjeong Jeong, Ji Hyeon Ahn, In Hye Kim, Jae-Chul Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, In-Kyu Lee, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Young-Myeong Kim, Young-Ger Suh, Moo-Ho Won, Young-Guen Kwon
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and inflammation are critical events in ischemic stroke, contributing to aggravated brain damage. The BBB mainly consists of microvascular endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions to protect the brain from blood-borne substances. Thus, the maintenance of BBB integrity may be a potential target for neuroprotection. Sac-1004, a pseudo-sugar derivative of cholesterol, enhances the endothelial barrier by the stabilization of the cortical actin ring...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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