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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446746/peripheral-blood-akap7-expression-as-an-early-marker-for-lymphocyte-mediated-post-stroke-blood-brain-barrier-disruption
#1
Grant C O'Connell, Madison B Treadway, Ashley B Petrone, Connie S Tennant, Noelle Lucke-Wold, Paul D Chantler, Taura L Barr
Our group recently identified 16 genes whose peripheral blood expression levels are differentially regulated in acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the early expression levels of any of these 16 genes are predictive for post-stroke blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Transcriptional expression levels of candidate genes were measured in peripheral blood sampled from ischemic stroke patients at emergency department admission, and BBB permeability was assessed at 24 hour follow up via perfusion-weighted imaging...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446207/memory-is-preserved-in-older-adults-taking-at1-receptor-blockers
#2
Jean K Ho, Daniel A Nation
BACKGROUND: Prior work suggests that some but not all antihypertensive treatments may benefit cognition and risk for Alzheimer's disease, independent of stroke. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been highlighted as one antihypertensive drug class that may confer greatest benefit. METHODS: The participants comprised 1626 nondemented adults, aged 55-91 years, recruited from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative sites. Three groups were compared: ARB users (HTN-ARBs), other antihypertensive drug users (HTN-Other), and normotensives...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445478/delayed-histochemical-alterations-within-the-neurovascular-unit-due-to-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-experimental-treatment-with-neurotrophic-factors
#3
Dominik Michalski, Roman Pitsch, Deepu R Pillai, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Felix Schlachetzki, Wolfgang Härtig
Current stroke therapy is focused on recanalizing strategies, but neuroprotective co-treatments are still lacking. Modern concepts of the ischemia-affected neurovascular unit (NVU) and surrounding penumbra emphasize the complexity during the transition from initial damaging to regenerative processes. While early treatment with neurotrophic factors was shown to result in lesion size reduction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) stabilization, cellular consequences from these treatments are poorly understood. This study explored delayed cellular responses not only to ischemic stroke, but also to an early treatment with neurotrophic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441414/regional-early-and-progressive-loss-of-brain-pericytes-but-not-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-adult-mice-with-disrupted-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling
#4
Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Zhen Zhao, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439518/diabetes-adult-neurogenesis-and-brain-remodeling-new-insights-from-rodent-and-zebrafish-models
#5
REVIEW
Anne-Claire Dorsemans, David Couret, Anaïs Hoarau, Olivier Meilhac, Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Nicolas Diotel
The prevalence of diabetes rapidly increased during the last decades in association with important changes in lifestyle. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are well-known for inducing deleterious effects on physiologic processes, increasing for instance cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, retinopathy and foot ulceration. Interestingly, diabetes also impairs brain morphology and functions such as (1) decreased neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation and cell survival), (2) decreased brain volumes, (3) increased blood-brain barrier leakage, (4) increased cognitive impairments, as well as (5) increased stroke incidence and worse neurologic outcomes following stroke...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439253/secondary-hematoma-expansion-and-perihemorrhagic-edema-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-from-bench-work-to-practical-aspects
#6
REVIEW
Krista Lim-Hing, Fred Rincon
Intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) represent about 10-15% of all strokes per year in the United States alone. Key variables influencing the long-term outcome after ICH are hematoma size and growth. Although death may occur at the time of the hemorrhage, delayed neurologic deterioration frequently occurs with hematoma growth and neuronal injury of the surrounding tissue. Perihematoma edema has also been implicated as a contributing factor for delayed neurologic deterioration after ICH. Cerebral edema results from both blood-brain barrier disruption and local generation of osmotically active substances...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433650/long-noncoding-rna-malat1-is-a-potent-autophagy-inducer-protecting-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-induced-injury-by-sponging-mir-26b-and-upregulating-ulk2-expression
#7
Zhijun Li, Jing Li, Na Tang
Brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is the initial stage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which results in a poor prognosis in ischemic stroke patients. Autophagy has been shown to have protective effects on BMECs against cerebral ischemic insults. However, molecular mechanism of BMEC autophagy during I/R is unclear. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new factors involved in cell autophagy. LncRNA Malat1 is one of the most highly upregulated I/R or OGD/R-responsive endothelial lncRNA and plays a protective role in BMECs against cerebral ischemic insults...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428179/adamts13-controls-vascular-remodeling-by-modifying-vwf-reactivity-during-stroke-recovery
#8
Haochen Xu, Yongliang Cao, Xing Yang, Ping Cai, Lijing Kang, Ximin Zhu, Haiyu Luo, Lu Lu, Lixiang Wei, Xiaofei Bai, Yuanbo Zhu, Bing-Qiao Zhao, Wenying Fan
Angiogenic response is essential for ischemic brain repair. However, the mechanisms leading to postischemic neovascularization have not been established, and no therapies have been identified. The VWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 is required for endothelial tube formation in vitro However, there is currently no in vivo evidence supporting a function of ADAMTS13 in angiogenesis. Here we show that mice deficient in ADAMTS13 exhibited significantly reduced neovascularization, brain capillary perfusion, pericyte and smooth muscle cell coverage on microvessels, expression of the tight junction and basement membrane proteins, and accelerated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and extravascular deposits of serum proteins in the peri-infarct cortex at 14 days after stroke...
April 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415790/hyperglycemia-via-activation-of-thromboxane-a2-receptor-impairs-the-integrity-and-function-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#9
Zhihong Zhao, Jue Hu, Xiaoping Gao, Hui Liang, Haiya Yu, Suosi Liu, Zhan Liu
Diabetes is one of high risk factors for cardio- and cerebra-vascular diseases, including stroke, atherosclerosis and hypertension. This study was conducted to elucidate whether and how thromboxane receptor (TPr) activation contributes to blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in diabetes. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were cultured. The levels of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) at Ser1177 (p-eNOS) and Akt at Ser473 (p-Akt) were assayed by western blot. Exposure of HBMECs to either high glucose (HG) or thromboxane A2 (TxA2) mimetic U46619, significantly reduced p-eNOS and p-Akt...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407815/acute-symptomatic-peri-lead-edema-33%C3%A2-hours-after-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-a-case-report
#10
Nathan B Schoen, Walter J Jermakowicz, Corneliu C Luca, Jonathan R Jagid
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic peri-lead edema is a rare complication of deep brain stimulation that has been reported to develop 4 to 120 days postoperatively. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the case of a 63-year-old Hispanic man with an 8-year history of Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral placement of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation leads and presented with acute, symptomatic, unilateral, peri-lead edema just 33 hours after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: We document a thorough radiographic time course showing the evolution of these peri-lead changes and their regression with steroid therapy, and discuss the therapeutic implications of these findings...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398169/paving-the-way-towards-complex-blood-brain-barrier-models-using-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Karin Lauschke, Lise Frederiksen, Vanessa J Hall
A tissue with great need to be modelled in vitro is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a tight barrier that covers all blood vessels in the brain and separates the brain microenvironment from the blood system. It consists of three cell types (neurovascular unit (NVU)) that contribute to the unique tightness and selective permeability of the BBB and has been shown to be disrupted in many diseases and brain disorders, such as, vascular dementia, stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Given the progress that pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have made in the last two decades, it is now possible to produce many cell types from the BBB and even partially recapitulate this complex tissue in vitro...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393932/anti-high-mobility-group-box-1-hmgb1-antibody-inhibits-hemorrhage-induced-brain-injury-and-improved-neurological-deficits-in-rats
#12
Dengli Wang, Keyue Liu, Hidenori Wake, Kiyoshi Teshigawara, Shuji Mori, Masahiro Nishibori
As one of the most lethal stroke subtypes, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is acknowledged as a serious clinical problem lacking effective treatment. Available evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the progression of ICH-induced secondary brain injury. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous and abundant nonhistone DNA-binding protein, and is also an important proinflammatory molecule once released into the extracellular space from the nuclei...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392840/elucidation-of-exosome-migration-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-model-in-vitro
#13
Claire C Chen, Linan Liu, Fengxia Ma, Chi W Wong, Xuning E Guo, Jenu V Chacko, Henry P Farhoodi, Shirley X Zhang, Jan Zimak, Aude Ségaliny, Milad Riazifar, Victor Pham, Michelle A Digman, Egest J Pone, Weian Zhao
The delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a major challenge in part due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recently, cell-derived vesicles, particularly exosomes, have emerged as an attractive vehicle for targeting drugs to the brain, but whether or how they cross the BBB remains unclear. Here, we investigated the interactions between exosomes and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in vitro under conditions that mimic the healthy and inflamed BBB in vivo...
December 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382161/edaravone-encapsulated-agonistic-micelles-rescue-ischemic-brain-tissue-by-tuning-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#14
Qu Jin, Yu Cai, Sihan Li, Haoran Liu, Xingyu Zhou, Chunqiang Lu, Xihui Gao, Jun Qian, Jun Zhang, Shenghong Ju, Cong Li
Thrombolysis has been a standard treatment for ischemic stroke. However, only 2-7% patients benefit from it because the thrombolytic agent has to be injected within 4.5 h after the onset of symptoms to avoid the increasing risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. As the only clinically approved neuroprotective drug, edaravone (EDV) rescues ischemic brain tissues by eradicating over-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) without the limitation of therapeutic time-window. However, EDV's short circulation half-life and inadequate cerebral uptake attenuate its therapeutic efficacy...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379220/long-term-consumption-of-fermented-rooibos-herbal-tea-offers-neuroprotection-against-ischemic-brain-injury-in-rats
#15
Olusiji Akinrinmade, Sylvester Omoruyi, Daneel Dietrich, Okobi Ekpo
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, affecting about 240 people a day in South Africa and leaving survivors with residual disabilities. At the moment, there is no clinically approved neuroprotective product for stroke but the consumption of plant polyphenols has been suggested to offer some protection against stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term consumption of fermented rooibos herbal tea (FRHT) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in adult male Wistar rats...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378621/response-of-the-cerebral-vasculature-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Arjang Salehi, John H Zhang, Andre Obenaus
The critical role of the vasculature and its repair in neurological disease states is beginning to emerge particularly for stroke, dementia, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, tumors and others. However, little attention has been focused on how the cerebral vasculature responds following traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI often results in significant injury to the vasculature in the brain with subsequent cerebral hypoperfusion, ischemia, hypoxia, hemorrhage, blood-brain barrier disruption and edema. The sequalae that follow TBI result in neurological dysfunction across a host of physiological and psychological domains...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378105/effect-of-magnolol-on-cerebral-injury-and-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
Xiaoyan Liu, Xiaoling Chen, Yuanjun Zhu, Kewei Wang, Yinye Wang
Magnolol, a neolignan compound isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Magnolia officinalis, has a potentially therapeutic influence on ischemic stroke. Previous studies have demonstrated that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are involved in the pathogeneses of stroke. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro studies were designed to investigate the effects of magnolol on I-R-induced neural injury and BBB dysfunction. In cerebral I-R model of mice, cerebral infarct volumes, brain water content, and the exudation of Evans blue were significantly reduced by intravenous injection with magnolol at the doses of 1...
April 4, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351960/pathogenesis-of-white-matter-changes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-diseases-beyond-vessel-intrinsic-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Anne Joutel, Hugues Chabriat
Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) are a leading cause of age and hypertension-related stroke and dementia. The salient features of SVDs visible on conventional brain magnetic resonance images include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on T2-weighted images, small infarcts, macrohemorrhages, dilated perivascular spaces, microbleeds and brain atrophy. Among these, WMHs are the most common and often the earliest brain tissue changes. Moreover, over the past two decades, large population- and patient-based studies have established the clinical importance of WMHs, notably with respect to cognitive and motor disturbances...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351417/the-choroid-plexus-as-a-site-of-damage-in-hemorrhagic-and-ischemic-stroke-and-its-role-in-responding-to-injury
#19
REVIEW
Jianming Xiang, Lisa J Routhe, D Andrew Wilkinson, Ya Hua, Torben Moos, Guohua Xi, Richard F Keep
While the impact of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes on the blood-brain barrier has been extensively studied, the impact of these types of stroke on the choroid plexus, site of the blood-CSF barrier, has received much less attention. The purpose of this review is to examine evidence of choroid plexus injury in clinical and preclinical studies of intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. It then discusses evidence that the choroid plexuses are important in the response to brain injury, with potential roles in limiting damage...
March 28, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345376/lessons-from-metabonomics-on-the-neurobiology-of-stroke
#20
Mahim I Qureshi, Panagiotis A Vorkas, Alexander P Coupland, I Harri Jenkins, Elaine Holmes, Alun H Davies
The application of metabonomic science to interrogate stroke permits the study of metabolite entities, small enough to cross the blood-brain barrier, that provide insight into neuronal dysfunction, and may serve as reservoirs of biomarker discovery. This systematic review examines the applicability of metabolic profiling in ischemic stroke research. Six human studies utilizing metabolic profiling to analyze biofluids from ischemic stroke patients have been included, employing (1)H-NMR and/or mass spectrometry to analyze plasma, serum, and/or urine in a targeted or untargeted fashion...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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