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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812989/small-smart-fast-and-cheap-microchip-based-sensors-to-estimate-air-pollution-exposures-in-rural-households
#1
Ajay Pillarisetti, Tracy Allen, Ilse Ruiz-Mercado, Rufus Edwards, Zohir Chowdhury, Charity Garland, L Drew Hill, Michael Johnson, Charles D Litton, Nicholas L Lam, David Pennise, Kirk R Smith
Over the last 20 years, the Kirk R. Smith research group at the University of California Berkeley-in collaboration with Electronically Monitored Ecosystems, Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, and other academic institutions-has developed a suite of relatively inexpensive, rugged, battery-operated, microchip-based devices to quantify parameters related to household air pollution. These devices include two generations of particle monitors; data-logging temperature sensors to assess time of use of household energy devices; a time-activity monitoring system using ultrasound; and a CO₂-based tracer-decay system to assess ventilation rates...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812640/five-palaeobiological-laws-needed-to-understand-the-evolution-of-the-living-biota
#2
Charles R Marshall
The foundations of several disciplines can be expressed as simple quantitative laws, for example, Newton's laws or the laws of thermodynamics. Here I present five laws derived from fossil data that describe the relationships among species extinction and longevity, species richness, origination rates, extinction rates and diversification. These statements of our palaeobiological knowledge constitute a dimension largely hidden from view when studying the living biota, which are nonetheless crucial to the study of evolution and ecology even for groups with poor or non-existent fossil records...
May 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812248/building-a-community-of-health-professionals-to-establish-a-shared-learning-experience-in-psychiatry-and-substance-use-disorders-for-health-professions-students
#3
Andrew Muzyk, Kathryn Andolsek, Patricia Mullan, Christine Tew, Charles Sanders, Anne Derouin, Brigit Carter, Shelley Holmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812047/selected-missense-mutations-impair-frataxin-processing-in-friedreich-ataxia
#4
Elisia Clark, Jill S Butler, Charles J Isaacs, Marek Napierala, David R Lynch
OBJECTIVE: Frataxin (FXN) is a highly conserved mitochondrial protein. Reduced FXN levels cause Friedreich ataxia, a recessive neurodegenerative disease. Typical patients carry GAA repeat expansions on both alleles, while a subgroup of patients carry a missense mutation on one allele and a GAA repeat expansion on the other. Here, we report that selected disease-related FXN missense mutations impair FXN localization, interaction with mitochondria processing peptidase, and processing. METHODS: Immunocytochemical studies and subcellular fractionation were performed to study FXN import into the mitochondria and examine the mechanism by which mutations impair FXN processing...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812038/should-patients-with-frozen-shoulder-be-screened-for-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Ori Safran, Madi El-Haj, Gil Leibowitz, Shaul Beyth, Zohar Furman, Charles Milgrom, Leonid Kandel
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic frozen shoulder (nontraumatic) is commonly encountered in patients between the ages of 35 and 60 years in general orthopaedic practice. While the prevalence of frozen shoulder among the general population is estimated to be between 2% and 4%, a significantly higher prevalence of 10% to 22% has been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus. Since diabetic patients are more prone to develop frozen shoulder than nondiabetics, the question arises as to whether patients diagnosed as having idiopathic frozen shoulder are at greater risk to develop diabetes mellitus and should be routinely screened for this condition...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811991/systematic-review-of-the-outcomes-of-surgical-treatment-of-prostate-metastases-to-the-spine
#6
REVIEW
Michelle J Clarke, Camilo A Molina, Daryl R Fourney, Charles G Fisher, Ziya L Gokaslan, Meic H Schmidt, Laurence D Rhines, Michael G Fehlings, Ilya Laufer, Shreyaskumar R Patel, Y Raja Rampersaud, Jeremy Reynolds, Dean Chou, Chetan Bettegowda, Ehud Mendel, Michael H Weber, Daniel M Sciubba
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVE: Surgical decompression and reconstruction of symptomatic spinal metastases has improved the quality of life in cancer patients. However, most data has been collected on cohorts of patients with mixed tumor histopathology. We systematically reviewed the literature for prognostic factors specific to the surgical treatment of prostate metastases to the spine. METHODS: A systemic review of the literature was conducted to answer the following questions: Question 1...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811692/experimental-validation-of-antidiabetic-and-antioxidant-potential-of-cassia-tora-l-an-indigenous-medicinal-plant
#7
Vishnu Kumar, Ranjana Singh, Farzana Mahdi, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Raj Kumar Singh
The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Cassia tora (C. tora) seeds extract against streptozotocin induced diabetes in experimental rats to scientifically validate its use against diabetes. Ethanolic extract of C. tora seeds extract and standard drug (glibenclamide) prepared in aqueous gum acacia (2 %, w/v) suspension and fed orally to streptozotocin induced male adult diabetic rats of Charles Foster strain for 15 days. Biochemical parameters in normal, diabetic control, standard (600 μg/kg bw p...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811656/phageterm-a-tool-for-fast-and-accurate-determination-of-phage-termini-and-packaging-mechanism-using-next-generation-sequencing-data
#8
Julian R Garneau, Florence Depardieu, Louis-Charles Fortier, David Bikard, Marc Monot
The worrying rise of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is leading to a renewed interest in bacteriophages as a treatment option. Novel sequencing technologies enable description of an increasing number of phage genomes, a critical piece of information to understand their life cycle, phage-host interactions, and evolution. In this work, we demonstrate how it is possible to recover more information from sequencing data than just the phage genome. We developed a theoretical and statistical framework to determine DNA termini and phage packaging mechanisms using NGS data...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811615/coherent-tunneling-in-an-algan-aln-gan-heterojunction-captured-through-an-analogy-with-a-mos-contact
#9
Yannick Baines, Julien Buckley, Jérôme Biscarrat, Gennie Garnier, Matthew Charles, William Vandendaele, Charlotte Gillot, Marc Plissonnier
Due to their wide band gaps, III-N materials can exhibit behaviors ranging from the semiconductor class to the dielectric class. Through an analogy between a Metal/AlGaN/AlN/GaN diode and a MOS contact, we make use of this dual nature and show a direct path to capture the energy band diagram of the nitride system. We then apply transparency calculations to describe the forward conduction regime of a III-N heterojunction diode and demonstrate it realizes a tunnel diode, in contrast to its regular Schottky Barrier Diode designation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811569/transcriptional-response-to-stress-is-pre-wired-by-promoter-and-enhancer-architecture
#10
Anniina Vihervaara, Dig Bijay Mahat, Michael J Guertin, Tinyi Chu, Charles G Danko, John T Lis, Lea Sistonen
Programs of gene expression are executed by a battery of transcription factors that coordinate divergent transcription from a pair of tightly linked core initiation regions of promoters and enhancers. Here, to investigate how divergent transcription is reprogrammed upon stress, we measured nascent RNA synthesis at nucleotide-resolution, and profiled histone H4 acetylation in human cells. Our results globally show that the release of promoter-proximal paused RNA polymerase into elongation functions as a critical switch at which a gene's response to stress is determined...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811555/identification-of-novel-micrornas-in-the-sheep-heart-and-their-regulation-in-heart-failure
#11
Lee Lee Wong, Miriam T Rademaker, Eng Leng Saw, Kar Sheng Lew, Leigh J Ellmers, Christopher J Charles, Arthur Mark Richards, Peipei Wang
Study of microRNA (miRNAs) using sheep models is limited due to lack of miRNA information. We therefore investigated oar-miRNAs and their regulation in an ovine model of heart failure (HF). Left ventricular (LV) tissue was collected from normal (Cont), HF (LV pacing @ ~220bpm for 13-days) and HF-recovery sheep (HF-R, 26-days after pacing cessation). MiRNA expression was profiled using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and miRNA array, and validated by stem-loop qPCR. Detected sequences were mapped against the ovine genome (Oar v4...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811507/global-mapping-of-mirna-target-interactions-in-cattle-bos-taurus
#12
Troels K H Scheel, Michael J Moore, Joseph M Luna, Eiko Nishiuchi, John Fak, Robert B Darnell, Charles M Rice
With roles in development, cell proliferation and disease, micro-RNA (miRNA) biology is of great importance and a potential therapeutic target. Here we used cross-linking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and ligation of miRNA-target chimeras on the Argonaute (AGO) protein to globally map miRNA interactions in the cow. The interactome is the deepest reported to date. miRNA targeting principles are consistent with observations in other species, but with expanded pairing rules. Experimental mapping robustly predicted functional miR-17 regulatory sites...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811476/lyn-and-fyn-function-as-molecular-switches-that-control-immunoreceptors-to-direct-homeostasis-or-inflammation
#13
Sanae Ben Mkaddem, Amaya Murua, Héloise Flament, Dimitri Titeca-Beauport, Carine Bounaix, Luca Danelli, Pierre Launay, Marc Benhamou, Ulrich Blank, Eric Daugas, Nicolas Charles, Renato C Monteiro
Immunoreceptors can transduce either inhibitory or activatory signals depending on ligand avidity and phosphorylation status, which is modulated by the protein kinases Lyn and Fyn. Here we show that Lyn and Fyn control immune receptor signaling status. SHP-1 tyrosine 536 phosphorylation by Lyn activates the phosphatase promoting inhibitory signaling through the immunoreceptor. By contrast, Fyn-dependent phosphorylation of SHP-1 serine 591 inactivates the phosphatase, enabling activatory immunoreceptor signaling...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811353/the-omeract-rheumatoid-arthritis-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-scoring-system-updated-recommendations-by-the-omeract-mri-in-arthritis-working-group
#14
Mikkel Østergaard, Charles G Peterfy, Paul Bird, Frédérique Gandjbakhch, Daniel Glinatsi, Iris Eshed, Espen A Haavardsholm, Siri Lillegraven, Pernille Bøyesen, Bo Ejbjerg, Violaine Foltz, Paul Emery, Harry K Genant, Philip G Conaghan
OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scoring system (RAMRIS), evaluating bone erosion, bone marrow edema/osteitis, and synovitis, was introduced in 2002, and is now the standard method of objectively quantifying inflammation and damage by MRI in RA trials. The objective of this paper was to identify subsequent advances and based on them, to provide updated recommendations for the RAMRIS. METHODS: MRI studies relevant for RAMRIS and technical and scientific advances were analyzed by the OMERACT MRI in Arthritis Working Group, which used these data to provide updated considerations on image acquisition, RAMRIS definitions, and scoring systems for the original and new RA pathologies...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811337/first-person-dougall-norris
#15
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Dougall Norris is co-first author on 'An improved Akt reporter reveals intra- and intercellular heterogeneity and oscillations in signal transduction', published in Journal of Cell Science. Dougall is a PhD student in the Metabolic Systems Biology Group at The University of Sydney Charles Perkins Centre in Australia, where his project focuses on live-cell imaging, multiplexing fluorescent constructs and imaging modalities, coupled with powerful computational analysis...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811257/auditory-conflict-and-congruence-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#16
Camilla N Clark, Jennifer M Nicholas, Jennifer L Agustus, Christopher J D Hardy, Lucy L Russell, Emilie V Brotherhood, Katrina M Dick, Charles R Marshall, Catherine J Mummery, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jason D Warren
Impaired analysis of signal conflict and congruence may contribute to diverse socio-emotional symptoms in frontotemporal dementias, however the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Here we addressed this issue in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n=19) and semantic dementia (SD; n=10) relative to healthy older individuals (n=20). We created auditory scenes in which semantic and emotional congruity of constituent sounds were independently probed; associated tasks controlled for auditory perceptual similarity, scene parsing and semantic competence...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810981/thermoregulatory-response-to-exercise-after-exertional-heat-stroke
#17
Emmanuel Sagui, Sophie Beighau, Arnaud Jouvion, Julie Trichereau, Delphine Cornet, René Charles Berthelot, Frédéric Canini, Laurent Grélot
BACKGROUND: After one episode of exertional heat stroke (EHS), risk factors must be identified to determine the potential for subsequent episodes. One of these risk factors, core body temperature (Tco) kinetics during strenuous exercise, may be a surrogate marker suggestive of impaired thermoregulation. This study aimed to determine the kinetics of increases in Tco among military subjects who had a history of EHS. METHODS: Forty subjects (38 males, mean age 28.4 ± 4...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810837/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-pazopanib-combined-with-bevacizumab-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-or-other-advanced-tumors
#18
Sylvie Négrier, David Pérol, Rastislav Bahleda, Antoine Hollebecque, Etienne Chatelut, Helen Boyle, Philippe Cassier, Séverine Metzger, Ellen Blanc, Jean-Charles Soria, Bernard Escudier
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) directed therapies are being used in a large number of advanced tumors. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is highly dependent on the VEGF pathway; VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and humanized VEGF monoclonal antibody have been registered for clinical use in advanced renal cell carcinoma. The VEGFR TKI, pazopanib, with a rather manageable toxicity profile, was preferred to sunitinib by mRCC patients. We investigate the combination of pazopanib and bevacizumab to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in mRCC and other advanced solid tumors...
August 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810262/fetal-sheep-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-functional-and-structural-maturation
#19
Julia J Müller, Matthias Schwab, Charles R Rosenfeld, Iwa Antonow-Schlorke, Peter W Nathanielsz, Florian Rakers, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
BACKGROUND: Fetal blood pressure increases during late gestation; however, the underlying vascular mechanisms are unclear. Knowledge of the maturation of resistance arteries is important to identify the mechanisms and vulnerable periods for the development of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. METHODS: We determined the functional and structural development of fetal sheep mesenteric resistance arteries using wire myography and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Media mass and distribution of myosin heavy-chain isoforms showed no changes between 0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810215/continuous-operation-of-thermophilic-food-waste-digestion-with-side-stream-ammonia-stripping
#20
Wei Zhang, Sonia Heaven, Charles J Banks
Digesters fed on food waste (high nitrogen content) were operated successfully over an extended period using sidestream biogas stripping to control total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) below inhibitory concentrations. This is the first time biogas stripping has been used to achieve stable thermophilic operation with undiluted substrate of this type. Stripping columns operated batch-wise treated the equivalent of 1.7-4.1% of digester contents daily at pH >10 and 70°C, with no detrimental effect on digestion. TKN removal was 54%, with potential to recover 3...
August 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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