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Intrauterine obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009862/effects-of-dietary-alpha-linolenic-acid-enriched-diacylglycerol-oil-on-embryo-fetal-development-in-rats
#1
Hiroto Bushita, Shujie Liu, Takafumi Ohta, Yuichi Ito, Kazutoshi Saito, Yuko Nukada, Naohiro Ikeda, Osamu Morita
Recent studies suggest that diets supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil provide potential health benefits in preventing or managing obesity. However, available safety information about reproductive and developmental toxicities of ALA-DAG oil is limited. This study was conducted to clarify the effect, if any, of ALA-DAG oil on embryo-fetal development, following maternal exposure during the critical period of major organogenesis. ALA-DAG oil was administered via gavage to pre-mated female Sprague Dawley rats from gestation day 6 through 19, at dose levels of 0, 1...
July 12, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008062/associations-of-maternal-type-1-diabetes-with-childhood-adiposity-and-metabolic-health-in-the-offspring-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Anitha Pitchika, Manja Jolink, Christiane Winkler, Sandra Hummel, Nadine Hummel, Jan Krumsiek, Gabi Kastenmüller, Jennifer Raab, Olga Kordonouri, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler, Andreas Beyerlein
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure to an intrauterine hyperglycaemic environment has been suggested to increase the offspring's later risk for being overweight or having metabolic abnormalities, but conclusive evidence for pregnancies affected by maternal type 1 diabetes is still lacking. This study aims to analyse the relationship between maternal type 1 diabetes and the offspring's metabolic health and investigate whether birthweight and/or changes in the offspring's metabolome are in the potential pathway...
July 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962095/can-antenatal-diet-and-lifestyle-interventions-influence-childhood-obesity-a-systematic-review
#3
Kathryn V Dalrymple, Julia Martyni-Orenowicz, Angela C Flynn, Lucilla Poston, Majella O'Keeffe
Evidence suggests that adverse nutritional exposures during in utero development may contribute to heightened risk of obesity in childhood. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment by manipulation of diet and/or physical activity, which may result in favourable health benefits for the child. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether antenatal lifestyle interventions in pregnant women, aimed at modifying diet and/or physical activity, and lead to a reduction in measures of offspring obesity in early childhood...
July 1, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953638/maternal-exercise-in-rats-upregulates-the-placental-igf-system-with-diet-and-sex-specific-responses-minimal-effects-in-mothers-born-growth-restricted
#4
Yeukai Tm Mangwiro, James Sm Cuffe, Jessica F Briffa, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Andrew J Jefferies, Sogand Hosseini, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, Mary E Wlodek
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates fetoplacental growth and plays a role in disease programming. Dysregulation of the IGF-system is implicated in several pregnancy perturbations associated with altered fetal growth, including intrauterine growth restriction and maternal obesity. Limited human studies have demonstrated that maternal exercise enhances fetoplacental growth and decreases cord IGF ligands, which may restore the placental IGF-system in complicated pregnancies. This study investigated the impact maternal exercise has on the placental IGF-system in placentae from mothers born growth restricted and if these outcomes are dependent on maternal diet or fetal sex...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934479/the-human-placenta-in-diabetes-and-obesity-friend-or-foe-the-2017-norbert-freinkel-award-lecture
#5
Gernot Desoye
The placenta plays a key role in sustaining fetal growth and development. Due to its position between mother and fetus, it is exposed to changes in the intrauterine environment in both circulations. The relative influence of changes in those circulations depends on the period of gestation. Early in pregnancy, maternal influences prevail and may affect the complex biological processes characteristic for this pregnancy period, such as placentation, early cell differentiation, and spiral artery remodeling. It is still unclear whether the placenta early in pregnancy is a friend or foe for the fetus...
July 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920475/alterations-in-the-liver-of-intrauterine-growth-retarded-piglets-may-predispose-to-development-of-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-in-later-life
#6
K Ferenc, P Pietrzak, M Wierzbicka, P Matyba, E Grzesiuk, Z Gajewski, R Zabielski
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) leads to increased predisposition to metabolic syndrome in adult life but the mechanisms remain obscure. Considering a significant number of functional similarities, IUGR piglets appear to be a good model to study the development of this syndrome in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructure and proteomic profile of the liver in IUGR pig neonates to discover early markers of predisposition to obesity and insulin resistance. In our study intestine and liver tissue samples were investigated in 7 day old IUGR and normal body weight (NBW) littermate piglets using histometry, mass spectrometry, in-tissue cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907842/reward-representing-d1-type-neurons-in-the-medial-shell-of-the-accumbens-nucleus-regulate-palatable-food-intake
#7
Máté Durst, Katalin Könczöl, Tamás Balázsa, Mark D Eyre, Zsuzsanna E Tóth
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dysfunction in reward-related aspects of feeding, and consequent overeating in humans, is a major contributor to obesity. Intrauterine undernutrition and overnutrition are among the predisposing factors, but the exact mechanism of how overeating develops is still unclear. Consummatory behavior is regulated by the medial shell (mSh) of the accumbens nucleus (Nac) through direct connections with the rostral part of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Our aim was to investigate whether an altered Nac-LHA circuit may underlie hyperphagic behavior...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893042/prospective-cohort-studies-of-birth-weight-and-risk-of-obesity-diabetes-and-hypertension-in-adulthood-among-chinese-population
#8
Qinghua Xia, Hui Cai, Yong-Bing Xiang, Peng Zhou, Honglan Li, Gong Yang, Yu Jiang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Zheng, Wang-Hong Xu
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been associated with subsequent risks of obesity and certain chronic diseases, but evidence for this association is limited for Chinese population. METHODS: We analyzed data from two population-based prospective cohort studies, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study to examine the association. Information on self-reported birth weight was collected at the baseline in-person interview. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the study enrollment...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879890/pathophysiology-of-type-2-diabetes-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
Badhma Valaiyapathi, Barbara Gower, Ambika P Ashraf
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in children is disturbingly increasing in parallel with increasing childhood obesity. Better knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of type 2 DM in children is paramount to devise an effective management plan. OBJECTIVE: Discuss the pathophysiology of type 2 DM in children and adolescents Methods and results: This is a comprehensive review of the literature on this topic. Type 2 DM in childhood is viewed as a continuum of insulin resistance (IR) which is determined by an underlying genetic predisposition, intrauterine environment, excessive food consumption, continued rapid weight gain, and poor lifestyle...
June 7, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875125/birthweight-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-cardiovascular-disease-addressing-the-barker-hypothesis-with-mendelian-randomization
#10
Daniela Zanetti, Emmi Tikkanen, Stefan Gustafsson, James R Priest, Stephen Burgess, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Low birthweight has been associated with a higher risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. The Barker hypothesis posits that intrauterine growth restriction resulting in lower birthweight is causal for these diseases, but causality is difficult to infer from observational studies. METHODS: We performed regression analyses to assess associations of birthweight with cardiovascular disease and T2D in 237 631 individuals from the UK Biobank...
June 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871793/antim%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-as-a-risk-factor-for-miscarriage-in-naturally-conceived-pregnancies
#11
Brianna M Lyttle Schumacher, Anne Marie Z Jukic, Anne Z Steiner
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between antimüllerian hormone (AMH), a measure of ovarian reserve, and miscarriage among naturally conceived pregnancies. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Women (n = 533), between 30 and 44 years of age with no known history of infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or endometriosis who conceived naturally. INTERVENTION(S): None...
June 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863767/extrauterine-growth-restriction-was-associated-with-short-stature-and-thinness-in-very-low-birthweight-infants-at-around-six-years-of-age
#12
Toshimitsu Takayanagi, Akinori Shichijo, Masakazu Egashira, Tomoko Egashira, Tomoko Mizukami
AIM: The effect that intrauterine or extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) had on the build of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants was investigated before Japanese children started school. METHOD: Between 2005 and 2017, the National Hospital Organization, Saga, Japan, carried out preschool checks on 322 children born with a VLBW at approximately six years of age. Growth restriction was defined as being born small for gestational age (SGA) or EUGR if they were born at term...
June 4, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852488/perinatal-origins-of-adult-disease
#13
Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Baptiste Armengaud, Benazir Siddeek, Jean-François Tolsa
Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that the peri-conception period, pregnancy, and infancy are windows of particular sensibility to environmental clues which influence lifelong trajectories across health and disease. Nutrition, stress, and toxins induce epigenetic marks that control long-term gene expression patterns and can be transmitted transgenerationally. Chronic diseases of adulthood such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity thus have early, developmental origins in the perinatal period...
2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850920/clinical-use-of-electrohysterography-during-term-labor-a-systematic-review-on-diagnostic-value-advantages-and-limitations
#14
Marion W C Vlemminx, Chiara Rabotti, M Beatrijs van der Hout-van der Jagt, S Guid Oei
Importance: Real-time electrohysterography (EHG)-based technologies have recently become available for uterine monitoring during term labor. Therefore, obstetricians need to be familiar with the diagnostic value, advantages, and limitations of using EHG. Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the diagnostic value of EHG in comparison to (1) the intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC), (2) the external tocodynamometer (TOCO), and (3) in case of maternal obesity; (4) to evaluate EHG from users' and patients' perspectives; and (5) to assess whether EHG can predict labor outcome...
May 2018: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801514/intrauterine-hyperglycemia-exposure-results-in-intergenerational-inheritance-via-dna-methylation-reprogramming-on-f1-pgcs
#15
Jun Ren, Yi Cheng, Zhen-Hua Ming, Xin-Yan Dong, Yu-Zhong Zhou, Guo-Lian Ding, Hai-Yan Pang, Tanzil Ur Rahman, Rubab Akbar, He-Feng Huang, Jian-Zhong Sheng
BACKGROUND: The existing reports about intergenerational or transgenerational effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia have included both intrauterine and postnatal metabolic exposure factors, while the impact of intrauterine hyperglycemia per se has not been assessed alone. A number of studies suggest DNA methylation reprogramming of gametes plays a crucial role in the metabolic inheritance, but it is unclear when and how DNA methylation patterns are altered when exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia...
May 25, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786159/gestational-dyslipidaemia-and-adverse-birthweight-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
J Wang, D Moore, A Subramanian, K K Cheng, K A Toulis, X Qiu, P Saravanan, M J Price, K Nirantharakumar
BACKGROUND: Low and high birthweight is known to increase the risk of acute and longer-term adverse outcomes, such as stillbirth, infant mortality, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Gestational dyslipidaemia is associated with a numbers of adverse birth outcomes, but evidence regarding birthweight is still inconsistent to reliably inform clinical practice and treatment recommendations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between maternal gestational dyslipidaemia and neonatal health outcomes, namely, birthweight, metabolic factors and inflammatory parameters...
May 21, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764530/influence-of-maternal-adiposity-preterm-birth-and-birth-weight-centiles-on-early-childhood-obesity-in-an-indigenous-australian-pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood-cohort-study
#17
K G Pringle, Y Q Lee, L Weatherall, L Keogh, C Diehm, C T Roberts, S Eades, A Brown, R Smith, E R Lumbers, L J Brown, C E Collins, K M Rae
Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother-child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764256/strategies-for-the-prediction-of-late-preeclampsia
#18
Raquel Mula, Eva Meler, Gerard Albaiges, Ignacio Rodriguez
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate different strategies for the prediction of late preeclampsia. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken. A predictive model including maternal parameters (maternal age, maternal BMI, maternal history of preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction (PE/IUGR) or maternal chronic disease, and maternal arterial pressure) and mean pulsatility index (PI) of uterine Doppler was created. It was evaluated as an independent model in each trimester, considering 11-13...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758496/cord-blood-concentrations-of-leptin-zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-and-adiponectin-and-adiposity-gain-during-the-first-3-mo-of-life
#19
Verônica L V Euclydes, Natalia P Castro, Lourdes R Lima, Cyro Brito, Laisa Ribeiro, Fernanda Agapito Simões, Guaraci Requena, Liania Alves Luzia, Patricia Helen Rondó
OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue development starts in intrauterine life and cytokines are involved in this process. Therefore, understanding the role of cytokines in the fat mass gain of infants is crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates a sex-specific link between cytokines and adipose tissue development. The objective of this study was to assess sex-specific relationships of cord blood concentrations of the cytokines leptin, zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), and adiponectin with infant adiposity during the first 3 mo of life...
March 22, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739495/the-risks-associated-with-obesity-in-pregnancy
#20
Johannes Stubert, Frank Reister, Steffi Hartmann, Wolfgang Janni
BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of all women of childbearing age are overweight or obese. For these women, pregnancy is associated with increased risks for both mother and child. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search of PubMed, with special attention to current population-based cohort studies, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and controlled trials. RESULTS: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes for both mother and child...
April 20, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
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