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Intrauterine obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321032/the-effects-of-prenatal-undernutrition-and-a-high-fat-postnatal-diet-on-central-and-peripheral-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-factors-in-female-rats
#1
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Yiliyasi Mayila, Akira Kuwahara, Minoru Irahara
Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition increase the risk of some peripheral and central metabolic disorders in adulthood. We speculated that disturbances of appetite/metabolic regulatory factors might already have been established in the early stages of life and contribute to obesity later in life. The effects of a high-fat diet on the levels of peripheral and central appetite/metabolic regulatory factors were compared between the offspring of normally nourished dams and those of undernourished dams in the peri-pubertal period...
March 17, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314371/intrauterine-growth-restriction-programs-the-hypothalamus-of-adult-male-rats-integrated-analysis-of-proteomic-and-metabolomic-data
#2
Amanda Paula Pedroso, Adriana Pereira de Souza, Ana Paula Segantine Dornellas, Lila Missae Oyama, Cláudia Maria Oller Nascimento, Gianni Mara Silva Santos, José C Rosa, Ricardo Pimenta Bertolla, Jelena Klawitter, Uwe Christians, Alexandre Keiji Tashima, Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro
Programming of hypothalamic functions regulating energy homeostasis may play a role in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)-induced adulthood obesity. The present study investigated the effects of IUGR on the hypothalamus proteome and metabolome of adult rats submitted to 50% protein-energy restriction throughout pregnancy. Proteomic and metabolomic analyzes were performed by data independent acquisition mass spectrometry and multiple reaction monitoring, respectively. At age 4 months, the restricted rats showed elevated adiposity, increased leptin and signs of insulin resistance...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292470/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-antioxidant-defense-mechanisms-in-the-human-placenta
#3
LaShauna Evans, Leslie Myatt
INTRODUCTION: Maternal obesity creates an adverse intrauterine environment, negatively impacts placental respiration, is associated with a higher incidence of pregnancy complications and programs the offspring for disease in adult life in a sexually dimorphic manner. We defined the effect of maternal obesity and fetal sex on pro- and anti-oxidant status in placenta and placental mitochondria. METHODS: Placental villous tissue was collected at term via c-section prior to labor from four groups of patients based on fetal sex and prepregnancy/1st trimester body mass index: lean - BMI 22...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281382/elevated-glycemia-and-brain-glucose-utilization-predict-bdnf-lowering-since-early-life
#4
Maria Angela Guzzardi, Elena Sanguinetti, Antonietta Bartoli, Alessandra Kemeny, Daniele Panetta, Piero A Salvadori, Silvia Burchielli, Patricia Iozzo
Obesity and diabetes associate with neurodegeneration. Brain glucose and BDNF are fundamental in perinatal development. BDNF is related to brain health, food intake and glucose metabolism. We characterized the relationship between glycemia and/or brain glucose utilization (by (18)FDG-PET during fasting and glucose loading), obesity and BDNF in 4-weeks old (pre-obese) and 12-weeks old (obese) Zucker fa/fa rats, and their age-matched fa/+ controls. In 75 human infants, we assessed cord blood BDNF and glucose levels, appetite regulating hormones, body weight and maternal factors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264723/developmental-pathways-to-adiposity-begin-before-birth-and-are-influenced-by-genotype-prenatal-environment-and-epigenome
#5
Xinyi Lin, Ives Yubin Lim, Yonghui Wu, Ai Ling Teh, Li Chen, Izzuddin M Aris, Shu E Soh, Mya Thway Tint, Julia L MacIsaac, Alexander M Morin, Fabian Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Seang Mei Saw, Michael S Kobor, Michael J Meaney, Keith M Godfrey, Yap Seng Chong, Joanna D Holbrook, Yung Seng Lee, Peter D Gluckman, Neerja Karnani
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an escalating health problem worldwide, and hence the causes underlying its development are of primary importance to public health. There is growing evidence that suboptimal intrauterine environment can perturb the metabolic programing of the growing fetus, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity in later life. However, the link between early exposures in the womb, genetic susceptibility, and perturbed epigenome on metabolic health is not well understood...
March 7, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218737/effects-of-fetal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet-or-maternal-hyperglycemia-on-l-arginine-and-nitric-oxide-metabolism-in-lung
#6
C Grasemann, R Herrmann, J Starschinova, M Gertsen, M R Palmert, H Grasemann
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Alterations in the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) metabolism contribute to diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and airway dysfunction. The impact of early-life exposures on the L-arginine/NO metabolism in lung later in life is not well understood. The objective of this work was to study the effects of intrauterine exposures to maternal hyperglycemia and high-fat diet (HFD) on pulmonary L-arginine/NO metabolism in mice. METHODS: We used two murine models of intrauterine exposures to maternal (a) hyperglycemia and (b) HFD to study the effects of these exposures on the L-arginine/NO metabolism in lung in normal chow-fed offspring...
February 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160500/il-10-expression-in-macrophages-from-neonates-born-from-obese-mothers-is-suppressed-by-il-4-and-lps-inf%C3%AE
#7
Francisca Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Viviana Arroyo-Jousse, Gustavo Soto-Carrasco, Paola Casanello, Ricardo Uauy, Bernardo J Krause, José A Castro-Rodríguez
Obese women offspring have a higher risk of developing chronic diseases associated with an altered immune function. We aim to determine, in neonatal monocyte-derived macrophages, whether maternal obesity is associated with an altered expression and DNA methylation of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes, along with a higher pro-inflammatory response. Cord blood from newborns of obese (Ob) and lean (control) women were obtained at delivery. Monocytes were isolated and differentiated into macrophages, in which M1 (LPS/IFNγ) and M2 (IL-4) polarization were assayed...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147241/prolonged-use-of-the-etonogestrel-implant-and-levonorgestrel-intrauterine-device-2-years-beyond-food%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-drug-administration-approved-duration
#8
Colleen McNicholas, Erin Swor, Leping Wan, Jeffrey F Peipert
BACKGROUND: The subdermal contraceptive implant and the 52-mg levonorgestrel intrauterine device are currently Food and Drug Administration approved for 3 and 5 years of use, respectively. Limited available data suggested both of these methods are effective beyond that time. Demonstration of prolonged effectiveness will improve the cost-effectiveness of the device, and potentially patient continuation and satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the contraceptive implant and the 52-mg hormonal intrauterine device in women using the method for 2 years beyond the current Food and Drug Administration-approved duration...
January 29, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140761/healthcare-provider-attitudes-regarding-contraception-for-women-with-obesity
#9
Tara C Jatlaoui, Lauren B Zapata, Kathryn M Curtis, Suzanne G Folger, Polly A Marchbanks, Michele G Mandel, Denise J Jamieson
BACKGROUND: Whether providers who regularly provide family planning services consider contraceptive methods as unsafe for women with obesity is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed questionnaire responses received from December 2009 to March 2010 from 635 office-based physicians and 1323 Title X clinic providers delivering family planning services, who were randomly sampled (response rate 65%) before the release of national evidence-based contraception guidelines. We examined provider and clinical setting characteristics and clinic patient demographics for association with provider misconceptions about safety of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), or intrauterine devices (IUDs) for women with obesity...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099786/labor-intervention-and-outcomes-in-women-who-are-nulliparous-and-obese-comparison-of-nurse-midwife-to-obstetrician-intrapartum-care
#10
Nicole S Carlson, Elizabeth J Corwin, Nancy K Lowe
BACKGROUND: Women who are obese have slower labors than women of normal weight, and show reduced response to interventions designed to speed labor progress like oxytocin augmentation and artificial rupture of membranes. The optimal labor management for these women has not been described. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared 2 propensity score-matched groups of women (N = 360) who were healthy, nulliparous, spontaneously laboring, and obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) )...
January 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093573/impact-of-lifestyle-intervention-for-obese-women-during-pregnancy-on-maternal-metabolic-and-inflammatory-markers
#11
K M Renault, E M Carlsen, S Hædersdal, L Nilas, N J Secher, J Eugen-Olsen, D Cortes, S F Olsen, T I Halldorsson, K Nørgaard
BACKGROUND: Offspring of obese mothers have increased risk of developing obesity and related short and long-term disease. The cause is multifactorial and may partly be explained by the unfavorable intrauterine environment. Intervention during pregnancy leading to a healthier lifestyle among obese may alter this. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of lifestyle intervention on markers of maternal metabolism and inflammation in 'the TOP (Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women)-study', a randomized controlled trial...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070801/a-comparison-of-sexual-function-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-whose-mothers-had-pcos-during-their-pregnancy-period-with-those-without-pcos
#12
Mahsa Noroozzadeh, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Mahnaz Bahri Khomami, Fereidoun Azizi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women during reproductive ages. Clinical symptoms associated with PCOS, such as hirsutism, acne, alopecia, obesity, and infertility, may lead to emotional morbidity and then impaired sexual function in those affected. During intrauterine development, the fetus may program the development of diseases during adulthood. In this study, we aimed to examine sexual function in women with PCOS, exposed to maternal androgen excess during their prenatal life compared to non-exposed PCOS patients...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063465/maternal-obesity-in-the-rat-impairs-male-offspring-aging-of-the-testicular-antioxidant-defence-system
#13
Claudia J Bautista, Guadalupe L Rodríguez-González, Angélica Morales, Consuelo Lomas-Soria, Fabiola Cruz-Pérez, Luis A Reyes-Castro, Elena Zambrano
A high-fat diet during intrauterine development predisposes offspring (F1) to phenotypic alterations, such as lipid synthesis imbalance and increased oxidative stress, causing changes in male fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy and lactation on antioxidant enzymes in the F1 testes. Female Wistar rats (F0) were fed either a control (C, 5% fat) or an obesogenic (MO, maternal obesity, 25% fat) diet from weaning and throughout subsequent pregnancy and lactation...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049748/maternal-nutrition-opportunities-in-the-prevention-of-gestational-diabetes
#14
Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Tinu Mary Samuel, Jörg Spieldenner
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is currently defined as glucose intolerance that is of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study, including 25 000 nondiabetic pregnant women in 15 centers across the world, reported that an average of 17.8% of pregnancies are affected by GDM and its frequency can be as high as 25.5% in some countries, based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Nevertheless, true global prevalence estimates of GDM are currently lacking due to the high level of heterogeneity in screening approaches, diagnostic criteria, and differences in the characteristics of the populations that were studied...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024805/review-placental-mitochondrial-function-and-structure-in-gestational-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Olivia Holland, Marloes Dekker Nitert, Linda A Gallo, Meliha Vejzovic, Joshua J Fisher, Anthony V Perkins
The aetiology of many gestational disorders is still unknown. However, insufficient trans-placental nutrient and oxygen transfer due to abnormal placentation is characteristic of several pathologies, and may alter the function of placental mitochondria. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that respond to a wide range of stimuli - such as physiological changes in cellular energy demands or various pathologies - by reshaping via fusion or fission, increasing/decreasing in number, altering oxidative phosphorylation, and signalling cellular functions such as apoptosis...
December 14, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009530/maternal-cortisol-during-pregnancy-and-infant-adiposity-a-prospective-investigation
#16
Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Jerod M Rasmussen, Karen Lindsay, Daniel L Gillen, Dan M Cooper, Pathik D Wadhwa
CONTEXT: Glucocorticoids play a key role during intrauterine development in cellular growth and differentiation. Evidence suggests that exposure to inappropriate concentrations of glucocorticoids during sensitive developmental periods may produce alterations in physiological systems that impact obesity risk. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the magnitude and stage-of-gestation specific association of maternal cortisol concentrations during pregnancy with infant adiposity...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984850/development-of-endometrioid-adenocarcinoma-despite-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-system-a-case-report-with-discussion-and-review-of-the-rcog-bsge-guideline-on-the-management-of-endometrial-hyperplasia
#17
A C L van der Meer, L S Hanna
Obesity is a significant risk factor for the development of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. More conservative prevention and management strategies are attractive due to the increased surgical risk and complication rates associated with obesity. The Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS, Mirena) has been shown to reduce the risk of developing endometrial cancer. The recent joint Green Top Guideline on the Management of Endometrial Hyperplasia published by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) with the British Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (BSGE) recommends the LNG-IUS for the medical management of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia...
February 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981358/associations-of-maternal-bmi-and-insulin-resistance-with-the-maternal-metabolome-and-newborn-outcomes
#18
Victoria Sandler, Anna C Reisetter, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Michael Nodzenski, Robert D Stevens, Olga Ilkayeva, Lynn P Lowe, Boyd E Metzger, Christopher B Newgard, Denise M Scholtens, William L Lowe
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Maternal obesity increases the risk for large-for-gestational-age birth and excess newborn adiposity, which are associated with adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring, probably due to effects mediated through the intrauterine environment. We aimed to characterise the maternal metabolic milieu associated with maternal BMI and its relationship to newborn birthweight and adiposity. METHODS: Fasting and 1 h serum samples were collected from 400 European-ancestry mothers in the Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study who underwent an OGTT at ∼28 weeks gestation and whose offspring had anthropometric measurements at birth...
March 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939483/sex-differences-in-early-growth-during-the-first-three-years-of-life-in-offspring-from-mothers-with-pregnancy-induced-hypertension
#19
Takashi Mitsui, Hisashi Masuyama, Takeshi Eguchi, Shoko Tamada, Eriko Eto, Kei Hayata, Yuji Hiramatsu
OBJECTIVES: Newborns born to mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) are thought to be at high risk for lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity and hypertension, in adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal study of 78 pregnant women with PIH and their newborns, who visited Okayama University Hospital from 2009 to 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We investigated the change in growth of offspring born to mothers with PIH and compared it with the standard growth curve in Japanese to examine whether there was rapid catch-up growth during the first 3years of life...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928443/pre-and-post-natal-risk-and-determination-of-factors-for-child-obesity
#20
L M Trandafir, O R Temneanu
Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers' pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with foetal macrosomia and childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
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