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Intrauterine obesity

Marlon E Cerf
Programming is triggered through events during critical developmental phases that alter offspring health outcomes. High fat programming is defined as the maintenance on a high fat diet during fetal and/or early postnatal life that induces metabolic and physiological alterations that compromise health. The maternal nutritional status, including the dietary fatty acid composition, during gestation and/or lactation, are key determinants of fetal and postnatal development. A maternal high fat diet and obesity during gestation compromises the maternal metabolic state and, through high fat programming, presents an unfavorable intrauterine milieu for fetal growth and development thereby conferring adverse cardiac outcomes to offspring...
November 13, 2018: Medicina
Michelle L MacKintosh, Emma J Crosbie
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To assess the most recent high-quality evidence for endometrial cancer prevention strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer. Weight cycling and weight gain in middle age are risk factors for endometrial cancer. Bariatric surgery reduces the risk of endometrial cancer by up to 81% in obese women who attain and maintain a normal weight. Combined oral contraceptives provide durable protection against endometrial cancer for 30 years or more...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Y Q Lee, C E Collins, A Gordon, K M Rae, K G Pringle
Evidence from animal models indicates that exposure to an obesogenic or hyperglycemic intrauterine environment adversely impacts offspring kidney development and renal function. However, evidence from human studies has not been evaluated systematically. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesize current research in humans that has examined the relationship between gestational obesity and/or diabetes and offspring kidney structure and function. Systematic electronic database searches were conducted of five relevant databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Scopus)...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Amanda P Pedroso, Ana P S Dornellas, Adriana P de Souza, Josias F Pagotto, Lila M Oyama, Cláudia M O Nascimento, Jelena Klawitter, Uwe Christians, Alexandre K Tashima, Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro
PURPOSE: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been shown to induce the programming of metabolic disturbances and obesity, associated with hypothalamic derangements. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of IUGR on the protein and metabolite profiles of the hypothalamus of adult female rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were mated and either had ad libitum access to food (control group) or received only 50% of the control intake (restricted group) during the whole pregnancy...
November 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Joséphine Grange, Manon Chatellier, Marie-Thérèse Chevé, Anne Paumier, Claudine Launay-Bourillon, Guillaume Legendre, Marion Olivier, Guillaume Ducarme
OBJECTIVE: To identify the predictors of intrauterine balloon tamponade (IUBT) failure for persistent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal delivery. DESIGN: Retrospective case-series in five maternity units in a perinatal network. SETTING: All women who underwent IUBT for persistent PPH after vaginal delivery from January 2011 to December 2015 in these hospitals. METHODS: All maternity apply the same management policy for PPH...
2018: PloS One
Margie H Davenport, Victoria L Meah, Stephanie-May Ruchat, Gregory A Davies, Rachel J Skow, Nick Barrowman, Kristi B Adamo, Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Frances Sobierajski, Laurel Riske, Marina James, Amariah J Kathol, Megan Nuspl, Andree-Anne Marchand, Taniya S Nagpal, Linda G Slater, Ashley Weeks, Ruben Barakat, Michelle F Mottola
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the relationship between maternal prenatal exercise and birth complications, and neonatal and childhood morphometric, metabolic and developmental outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review with random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies of all designs were eligible (except case studies and reviews) if published in English, Spanish or French, and contained information on the relevant population (pregnant women without contraindication to exercise), intervention (subjective/objective measures of frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of exercise, alone ('exercise-only') or in combination with other intervention components (eg, dietary; 'exercise+cointervention')), comparator (no exercise or different frequency, intensity, duration, volume, type or trimester of exercise) and outcomes (preterm birth, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, low birth weight (<2500 g), high birth weight (>4000 g), small for gestational age, large for gestational age, intrauterine growth restriction, neonatal hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis (cord blood pH, base excess), hyperbilirubinaemia, Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admittance, shoulder dystocia, brachial plexus injury, neonatal body composition (per cent body fat, body weight, body mass index (BMI), ponderal index), childhood obesity (per cent body fat, body weight, BMI) and developmental milestones (including cognitive, psychosocial, motor skills))...
November 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Jin-Ran Chen, Oxana P Lazarenko, Haijun Zhao, Alexander W Alund, Kartik Shankar
Intrauterine or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD) has substantial influences on adult offspring health; however, studies of HFD-induced maternal obesity on regulation of adult offspring bone formation are sparse. Here, we investigated the effects of HFD-induced maternal obesity on both fetal and adult offspring skeletal development. We found that HFD-induced maternal obesity significantly decreased fetal skeletal development, but enhanced fetal osteoblastic cell senescence signaling and significantly increased the expression of inflammatory factors of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in osteo-progenitors...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
María Victoria Bazzano, Gisela Belén Sarrible, Nora Martinez, Martín Berón de Astrada, Evelin Mariel Elia
Obesity is a metabolic disorder that predisposes to numerous diseases and has become a major global public health concern. Cafeteria diet (CAF) is the animal model used for the study of obesity that more closely reflects Western diet habits. Previously, we described that CAF administration for 60 days induces obesity in female rats and their fetuses develop macrosomia. Given that, in our model, rats are not genetically modified and that obese mothers were fed standard chow during pregnancy, the aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that obesity alters the intrauterine environment prior to pregnancy, and this may explain the exacerbated fetal weight gain...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Emma C Johns, Fiona C Denison, Jane E Norman, Rebecca M Reynolds
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disturbance during pregnancy. The prevalence is rising and correlates with the increase in maternal obesity over recent decades. The etiology of GDM is complex, with genetic and environmental factors implicated in mechanistic and epidemiological studies. GDM begets important short- and long-term health risks for the mother, developing fetus, and offspring. This includes the high likelihood of subsequent maternal type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and possible adverse cardiometabolic phenotypes in the offspring...
November 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Michelle L MacKintosh, Abigail E Derbyshire, Rhona J McVey, James Bolton, Mahshid Nickkho-Amiry, Catherine L Higgins, Martyna Kamieniorz, Philip W Pemberton, Bilal H Kirmani, Babur Ahmed, Akheel A Syed, Basil J Ammori, Andrew G Renehan, Henry C Kitchener, Emma J Crosbie
Obesity is the strongest risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC). To inform targeted screening and prevention strategies, we assessed the impact of obesity and subsequent bariatric surgery-induced weight loss on endometrial morphology and molecular pathways implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis. Blood and endometrial tissue were obtained from women with class III-IV obesity (body mass index ≥40kg/m2 and ≥50kg/m2 , respectively) immediately prior to gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy, and at two and 12 months' follow up...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Corina Lesseur, Jia Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herein, we summarize existent epidemiological studies relating adverse maternal metabolic environments of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes and placental DNA methylation. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies have evaluated associations between intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes and/or maternal glucose levels and DNA methylation at candidate metabolic genes as well as in epigenome-wide studies. Some of the genomic regions more consistently associated include lipid-related genes (LPL and PPARGC1A), the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and imprinted genes...
September 28, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Ashley Graul, Elise Wilson, Emily Ko, Ashley F Haggerty, Helen Reed, Nathanael Koelper, Sarah H Kim
•Endometrial hyperplasia/carcinoma regression rates with LNG-IUS were examined by BMI.•Morbidly obese patients with EH/EHA/EC are more likely to progress.•Despite addition of oral progesterone to LNG-IUS, morbid obesity increases the odds of progression.
November 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Asokan Devarajan, Namakkal S Rajasekaran, Claire Valburg, Ekambaram Ganapathy, Snehal Bindra, William A Freije
Intrauterine growth restriction leads to adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Animal models have shown that combined intrauterine and early postnatal calorie restriction (IPCR) ameliorates these sequelae in adult life. The mechanism by which IPCR protects against adult onset disease is not understood. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative process, recycles cellular constituents and eliminates damaged organelles, proteins, and oxidants. In this study, we hypothesized that IPCR could regulate autophagy in the liver of male rat offspring...
September 21, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Linda A Barbour, Teri L Hernandez
There is increasing recognition that maternal glucose concentrations lower than those previously used for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and targeted for treatment can result in excess fetal growth. Yet, mothers with GDM who appear to have optimal glycemic control and mothers with obesity and normal glucose tolerance still have a significantly increased risk for delivering infants who are large for gestational age, or even more importantly, who have increased adiposity at birth. What is less appreciated is that in addition to glucose, maternal lipids are also substrates for fetal fat accretion and that placental lipases can hydrolyze maternal triglycerides (TGs) to free fatty acids for fetal-placental availability...
October 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Susana Santos, Claire Monnereau, Janine F Felix, Liesbeth Duijts, Romy Gaillard, Vincent W V Jaddoe
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are associated with an increased risk of obesity in offspring. It remains unclear whether maternal adiposity also affects organ fat, which has important adverse cardiometabolic health consequences and whether the associations reflect intrauterine causal mechanisms. We examined the associations of parental pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain with general, abdominal, pericardial, and liver fat in 10-year-old children...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Severi Luoto, Indrikis Krams, Markus J Rantala
Women's capacity for sexual fluidity is at least as interesting a phenomenon from the point of view of evolutionary biology and behavioral endocrinology as exclusively homosexual orientation. Evolutionary hypotheses for female nonheterosexuality have failed to fully account for the existence of these different categories of nonheterosexual women, while also overlooking broader data on the causal mechanisms, physiology, ontogeny, and phylogeny of female nonheterosexuality. We review the evolutionary-developmental origins of various phenotypes in the female sexual orientation spectrum using the synergistic approach of Tinbergen's four questions...
September 18, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Anitha Pitchika, Kendra Vehik, Sandra Hummel, Jill M Norris, Ulla M Uusitalo, Jimin Yang, Suvi M Virtanen, Sibylle Koletzko, Carin Andrén Aronsson, Anette-G Ziegler, Andreas Beyerlein
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between different forms of, and potential pathways between, maternal diabetes and childhood obesity at different ages. METHODS: Prospective cohort data from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, which was composed of 5,324 children examined from 0.25 to 6 years of age, were analyzed. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses taking into account potential confounders and effect modifiers such as maternal prepregnancy BMI and birth weight z scores were performed...
September 2018: Obesity
Kiichiro Furuya, Keiichi Kumasawa, Hitomi Nakamura, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Tadashi Kimura
Recently, advanced maternal age (AMA) has increased in Western countries because of late marriage and advances in assisted reproductive technology. One major complication of AMA is hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). While clinical investigations into human AMA have been reported, there has been limited information obtained from basic research. In this investigation, we established the AMA mouse model using aged pregnant ICR mice. We demonstrated that the phenotypes of aged pregnant ICR mice reflect the same characteristics as human AMA...
September 13, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Ramkumar Mohan, Daniel C Baumann, Emilyn U Alejandro
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 (T2D) diabetes is a major health concern in the United States and around the world. T2D is a complex disease characterized by pancreatic β-cell failure in association with obesity and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Although several genes associated with T2D have been identified, it is speculated that genetic variants account for only less than 10% of the risk for this disease. A strong body of data from both human epidemiological and animal studies shows that fetal nutrient factors in utero confer significant susceptibility to T2D...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Maki Kawasaki, Naoko Arata, Yoshihiro Ogawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes and obesity during childhood, puberty, and adulthood have become more common. This trend presents a global problem in terms of public health and health economics. Associations between intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia, obesity, and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) in offspring have been reported in populations at high risk of diabetes such as Pima Indians, but these associations have not been established in other groups. In this review, we summarize the evidence on obesity and AGT in the offspring of mothers with diabetes...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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