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Intrauterine obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816002/maternal-body-mass-index-relation-with-infant-respiratory-symptoms-and-infections
#1
Ashley Rajappan, Anna Pearce, Hazel M Inskip, Janis Baird, Sarah R Crozier, Cyrus Cooper, Keith M Godfrey, Graham Roberts, Jane S A Lucas, Katharine C Pike
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is increasingly prevalent in many westernized countries. Many studies report associations between maternal obesity and childhood wheeze or asthma but few have considered maternal obesity in relation to respiratory infections or symptoms other than wheeze during infancy. This study assesses the relationship between maternal BMI and reported wheeze, cough and respiratory infections during the first year of life. METHODS: In 2799 mother-child pairs, we examined the relations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain and reported offspring wheeze, prolonged cough, lower respiratory tract infection, croup, and ear infection before age 1 year, along with reported diarrhea or vomiting...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768569/tissue-cell-stress-response-to-obesity-and-its-interaction-with-late-gestation-diet
#2
Vivek Saroha, Neele S Dellschaft, Duane H Keisler, David S Gardner, Helen Budge, Sylvain P Sebert, Michael E Symonds
Intrauterine growth restriction in late pregnancy can contribute to adverse long-term metabolic health in the offspring. In the present study we used an animal (sheep) model of maternal dietary manipulation in late pregnancy, combined with exposure of the offspring to a low-activity, obesogenic environment after weaning, to characterise the effects on glucose homeostasis. Dizygotic twin-pregnant sheep were either fed to 60% of requirements (nutrient restriction (R)) or fed ad libitum (~140% of requirements (A)) from 110 days gestation until term (~147 days)...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754153/insulin-resistance-in-a-cohort-of-5-15%C3%A2-year-old-children-in-urban-sri-lanka
#3
V P Wickramasinghe, C Arambepola, P Bandara, M Abeysekera, S Kuruppu, P Dilshan, B S Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: South Asian populations develop insulin resistance from a young age. Poor intrauterine growth and increased rates of post natal growth predisposes to develop insulin resistance later in life. This study identifies insulin resistance and relation to birth weight among a group of 5-15 year old children of urban Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross sectional descriptive study, using two-stage probability proportionate cluster sampling technique. After a 12 h overnight fast, blood was drawn for fasting blood glucose and insulin...
July 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740412/prevalence-of-diabetes-and-obesity-in-association-with-prematurity-and-growth-restriction
#4
REVIEW
Gretchen Kopec, Prem S Shekhawat, Maroun J Mhanna
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is when fetuses and newborn infants have not reached their true growth potential as genetically defined. Fetuses with IUGR develop in a less than ideal environment that leads to epigenetic changes and marks infants' metabolism for the rest of their lives. Epigenetic changes affect insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and lead to insulin resistance and ultimately to a metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of illnesses that raise one's risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and ischemic heart disease, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727889/clinical-assessment-of-uterine-contractions
#5
REVIEW
Wayne R Cohen
The assessment of uterine contractions is important in clinical decision-making, but the precise role for appraising contractions remains controversial. Four clinical approaches to assessing contractions are available: manual palpation; intrauterine pressure determination; external tocodynamometry; and electrohysterography. Palpation is inexpensive and harmless but requires the constant bedside presence of a trained observer. Intrauterine pressure measurement is considered the most sensitive and specific technique, and has become the standard by which other methods are judged; however, its quantitative measurements are not always precise or reproducible...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723888/association-between-supraclavicular-brown-adipose-tissue-composition-at-birth-and-adiposity-gain-from-birth-to-6-months-age
#6
Sonja Entringer, Jerod Rasmussen, Dan M Cooper, Satoru Ikenoue, Feizal Waffarn, Steven G Potkin, Pathik D Wadhwa, Claudia Buss
BACKGROUND: Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) is associated with higher energy expenditure and lower adiposity in adults. However, the relationship between BAT composition and adiposity in early life is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that brown fat composition at birth is prospectively associated with adiposity gain during the first six months of postnatal life. METHODS: N=35 healthy infants were followed prospectively from intrauterine life and birth through 6 months age...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707000/inducing-maternal-inflammation-promotes-leptin-production-in-offspring-but-does-not-improve-allergic-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-rhinitis
#7
Atsuko Imai, Keiko Satoi, Eka Fujimoto, Kazuto Sato
AIMS: The intrauterine environment is considered to affect immunological development in fetus, leading to an increased risk of developing allergy. In particular, maternal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration might regulate the development of allergic disease in offspring. Several studies have shown that being obese relates to a higher prevalence of allergic diseases compared to normal weight. The present study explored the effects of inducing maternal inflammation with LPS before pregnancy on body weight, physical composition including body fat, adipokine production, and pathology of allergic rhinitis in offspring...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693985/cardiovascular-risk-markers-among-obese-women-using-the-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-system-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Lucimara Facio Nobre Zueff, Anderson Sanches de Melo, Carolina S Vieira, Wellington P Martins, Rui A Ferriani
According to international guidelines, women with obesity without other comorbidities can safely use any hormonal contraceptive (HC). However, limited information is available about contraceptive safety for women with obesity since obesity is an exclusion criterion of most contraceptive clinical trials. As such little is known about the possible risks of HC exposure for women with obesity without comorbidities. One way to assess possible long-term risks in this population, even prior to the development of any clinical disease, is to measure alterations in subclinical atherosclerosis markers...
July 7, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676524/in-utero-vitamin-d-deficiency-predisposes-offspring-to-long-term-adverse-adipose-tissue-effects
#9
Anthony Michael Belenchia, Sarah Ashley Johnson, Mark R Ellersieck, Cheryl Susan Rosenfeld, Catherine Ann Peterson
The fetal period represents an important window of susceptibility for later obesity and metabolic disease. Maternal Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) during pregnancy is a global concern that may have long-lasting consequences on offspring metabolic health. We sought to determine whether a VDD in utero environment affects fetal adipose tissue development and offspring metabolic disease predisposition in adulthood. Furthermore, we sought to explore the extent to which the VDD intrauterine environment interacts with genetic background or postnatal environment to influence metabolic health...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636758/fetal-overnutrition-and-offspring-insulin-resistance-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-the-exploring-perinatal-outcomes-among-children-epoch-study
#10
K A Sauder, C W Hockett, B M Ringham, D H Glueck, D Dabelea
AIMS: To examine the associations of intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and obesity with offspring insulin resistance, β-cell function and oral disposition index in a longitudinal observational study of ethnically diverse offspring. METHODS: A total of 445 offspring who were exposed (n=81) or not exposed (n=364) to maternal diabetes in utero completed two fasting blood measurements at mean (sd) ages of 10.5 (1.5) and 16.5 (1.2) years, respectively, and an oral glucose tolerance test at the second visit...
June 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588000/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-fetal-growth-and-the-expression-of-placental-fatty-acid-transporters
#11
Kui Ye, Li Li, Dan Zhang, Yi Li, Hai Qing Wang, Han Lin Lai, Chuan Lai Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of maternal high-fat diet induced obesity on fetal growth and the expression of placental nutrient transporters. METHODS: Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy high-fat (HF) diet feeding, while rats in the control group were fed with normal (CON) diet. Diet induced obesity (DIO) rats and diet induced obesity resistant (DIR) rats were selected according to body weight gain over this period. After copulation, the CON rats were divided into two groups: switched to HF diet (CON-HF group) or maintained on the CON diet (CON-CON group)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586472/maternal-consumption-of-artificially-sweetened-beverages-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-growth-through-7-years-of-age-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Yeyi Zhu, Sjurdur F Olsen, Pauline Mendola, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Shristi Rawal, Stefanie N Hinkle, Edwina H Yeung, Jorge E Chavarro, Louise G Grunnet, Charlotta Granström, Anne A Bjerregaard, Frank B Hu, Cuilin Zhang
Background: Artificial sweeteners are widely replacing caloric sweeteners. Data on long-term impact of artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption during pregnancy on offspring obesity risk are lacking. We prospectively investigated intake of ASBs and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) during pregnancy in relation to offspring growth through age 7 years among high-risk children born to women with gestational diabetes. Methods: In a prospective study of 918 mother-singleton child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort, maternal dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire during pregnancy...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560298/successful-treatment-of-low-grade-endometrial-cancer-in-premenopausal-women-with-an-aromatase-inhibitor-after-failure-with-oral-or-intrauterine-progesterone
#13
Alli Straubhar, Andrew P Soisson, Mark Dodson, Elise Simons
INTRODUCTION: Young women with endometrial intraepithelial hyperplasia or low-grade endometrial carcinoma are potential candidates for conservative fertility sparing therapy utilizing progesterone rather than hysterectomy. High-dose progesterone treatment is associated with 55-80% initial response but high relapse rates. Using aromatase inhibitors in conjunction with high-dose progesterone has largely been unstudied. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: Three obese premenopausal women with endometrial cancer failed to respond to oral or intrauterine progesterone as first line therapy...
August 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544142/discordant-phenotypes-in-monozygotic-twins-with-16p11-2-microdeletions-including-the-sh2b1-gene
#14
Lin Li, Linhuan Huang, Shaobin Lin, Yanmin Luo, Qun Fang
A 200∼240 kb SH2B1-containing deletion region on 16p11.2 is associated with early-onset obesity and developmental delay. Here, we describe monozygotic twin brothers with discordant clinical presentations. Intrauterine fetal growth restriction was present in both twins. Additionally, twin A exhibited coarctation of aorta, left ventricular noncompaction, atrial septal defect, pericardial effusion, left hydronephrosis, and moderate developmental delay, whereas twin B exhibited single umbilical artery. Chromosome microarray analysis was performed on both twins and their parents...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509412/-three-hits-hypothesis-for-developmental-origins-of-health-and-diseases-in-view-of-cardiovascular-abnormalities
#15
REVIEW
Xiang Li, Mengshu Zhang, Xinghua Pan, Zhice Xu, Miao Sun
"Fetal Origins of Adult Diseases" (FOAD) or "Barker hypothesis," also known as the developmental origins of health and diseases (DoHaD), was initially proposed by David Barker in the 1980s. Progress in past 2 to 3 decades demonstrated that many adult disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others, could be linked to poor development resulting from in utero insults. Utero-environments play a critical role in fetal development. Because the placenta and umbilical cord are the only important connections between the fetus and mother in the uterus, this review pays special attention to recent research and progress in the study of the relationship between those tissues and FOAD...
June 1, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493861/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-and-neuropsychological-development-in-pre-school-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Maribel Casas, Joan Forns, David Martínez, Mònica Guxens, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Jesus Ibarluzea, Nerea Lertxundi, Mario Murcia, Marisa Rebagliato, Adonina Tardon, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BackgroundMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity may impair infant neuropsychological development, but it is unclear whether intrauterine or confounding factors drive this association.MethodsWe assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with neuropsychological development in 1,827 Spanish children. At 5 years, cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed using McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms using the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test...
June 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467127/markers-of-obesity-and-growth-in-preeclamptic-and-normotensive-pregnant-women
#17
S Kharb, J Bala, S Nanda
The objective of the study was to analyse leptin, IGF-1, Apo A, lipoproteins, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in maternal sera and venous umbilical cord sera of newborn babies of 25 preeclamptics (group II), and 25 normotensive pregnant women (group I) as markers of obesity and growth in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. Apo A I and II levels were estimated by competitive immunoassay using direct chemiluminiscence technology. Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), leptin and IGF-1 were analysed by ELISA. Maternal and cord blood levels of homocysteine, folic acid, lipid profile (namely, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C), Haem oxygenase 1 were higher in preeclamptic women as compared to normotensive pregnant women...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460045/large-reduction-in-adiponectin-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-large-for-gestational-age-newborns
#18
Tove Lekva, Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland, Annika E Michelsen, Camilla Margrethe Friis, Pål Aukrust, Jens Bollerslev, Tore Henriksen, Thor Ueland
Context: Fetuses exposed to an obese intrauterine environment are more likely to be born large-for-gestational age (LGA) and are at increased risk of obesity in childhood and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as adults, but which factors that influence the intrauterine environment is less clear. Objective: To investigate the association between circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin, measured multiple times during pregnancy, and birth weight and prevalence of LGA or small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454694/review-on-intrauterine-programming-consequences-in-rodent-models-of-mild-diabetes-and-mild-fat-overfeeding-are-not-mild
#19
A Jawerbaum, V White
An adverse intrauterine programming occurs in diabetes and obesity as the consequence of an adverse maternal environment that affects the appropriate fetoplacental development and growth. Experimental models of diabetes and fat overfeeding have provided relevant tools to address putative mechanisms of the adverse intrauterine programming. The current knowledge far extends from the original thoughts of the resulting intrauterine programming of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases to a full range of alterations that affect multiple tissues, organs, and systems that will compromise the long-life health of the offspring...
April 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443479/melatonin-improves-mitochondrial-respiration-in-syncytiotrophoblasts-from-placentas-of-obese-women
#20
Kayla E Ireland, Alina Maloyan, Leslie Myatt
Maternal obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress but decreased placental mitochondrial respiration and expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I to V. Melatonin acts as an antioxidant and prevents oxidative stress-induced changes in cytotrophoblasts. Placentas were collected at term by cesarean delivery from obese (first trimester body mass index [BMI] ≥30, n = 10) or lean (BMI < 25, n = 6) women. Cytotrophoblasts were isolated and allowed to syncytialize for 72 hours with or without melatonin (0...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
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