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Intrauterine obesity

Linda A Barbour, Teri L Hernandez
There is increasing recognition that maternal glucose concentrations lower than those previously used for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and targeted for treatment can result in excess fetal growth. Yet, mothers with GDM who appear to have optimal glycemic control and mothers with obesity and normal glucose tolerance still have a significantly increased risk for delivering infants who are large for gestational age, or even more importantly, who have increased adiposity at birth. What is less appreciated is that in addition to glucose, maternal lipids are also substrates for fetal fat accretion and that placental lipases can hydrolyze maternal triglycerides (TGs) to free fatty acids for fetal-placental availability...
September 17, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Susana Santos, Claire Monnereau, Janine F Felix, Liesbeth Duijts, Romy Gaillard, Vincent W V Jaddoe
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are associated with an increased risk of obesity in offspring. It remains unclear whether maternal adiposity also affects organ fat, which has important adverse cardiometabolic health consequences and whether the associations reflect intrauterine causal mechanisms. We examined the associations of parental pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain with general, abdominal, pericardial, and liver fat in 10-year-old children...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Severi Luoto, Indrikis Krams, Markus J Rantala
Women's capacity for sexual fluidity is at least as interesting a phenomenon from the point of view of evolutionary biology and behavioral endocrinology as exclusively homosexual orientation. Evolutionary hypotheses for female nonheterosexuality have failed to fully account for the existence of these different categories of nonheterosexual women, while also overlooking broader data on the causal mechanisms, physiology, ontogeny, and phylogeny of female nonheterosexuality. We review the evolutionary-developmental origins of various phenotypes in the female sexual orientation spectrum using the synergistic approach of Tinbergen's four questions...
September 18, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Anitha Pitchika, Kendra Vehik, Sandra Hummel, Jill M Norris, Ulla M Uusitalo, Jimin Yang, Suvi M Virtanen, Sibylle Koletzko, Carin Andrén Aronsson, Anette-G Ziegler, Andreas Beyerlein
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between different forms of, and potential pathways between, maternal diabetes and childhood obesity at different ages. METHODS: Prospective cohort data from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, which was composed of 5,324 children examined from 0.25 to 6 years of age, were analyzed. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses taking into account potential confounders and effect modifiers such as maternal prepregnancy BMI and birth weight z scores were performed...
September 2018: Obesity
Kiichiro Furuya, Keiichi Kumasawa, Hitomi Nakamura, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Tadashi Kimura
Recently, advanced maternal age (AMA) has increased in Western countries because of late marriage and advances in assisted reproductive technology. One major complication of AMA is hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). While clinical investigations into human AMA have been reported, there has been limited information obtained from basic research. In this investigation, we established the AMA mouse model using aged pregnant ICR mice. We demonstrated that the phenotypes of aged pregnant ICR mice reflect the same characteristics as human AMA...
September 13, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Ramkumar Mohan, Daniel C Baumann, Emilyn U Alejandro
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 (T2D) diabetes is a major health concern in the United States and around the world. T2D is a complex disease characterized by pancreatic β-cell failure in association with obesity and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Although several genes associated with T2D have been identified, it is speculated that genetic variants account for only less than 10% of the risk for this disease. A strong body of data from both human epidemiological and animal studies shows that fetal nutrient factors in utero confer significant susceptibility to T2D...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Maki Kawasaki, Naoko Arata, Yoshihiro Ogawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes and obesity during childhood, puberty, and adulthood have become more common. This trend presents a global problem in terms of public health and health economics. Associations between intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia, obesity, and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) in offspring have been reported in populations at high risk of diabetes such as Pima Indians, but these associations have not been established in other groups. In this review, we summarize the evidence on obesity and AGT in the offspring of mothers with diabetes...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Giuliana Valerio, Claudio Maffeis, Giuseppe Saggese, Maria Amalia Ambruzzi, Antonio Balsamo, Simonetta Bellone, Marcello Bergamini, Sergio Bernasconi, Gianni Bona, Valeria Calcaterra, Teresa Canali, Margherita Caroli, Francesco Chiarelli, Nicola Corciulo, Antonino Crinò, Procolo Di Bonito, Violetta Di Pietrantonio, Mario Di Pietro, Anna Di Sessa, Antonella Diamanti, Mattia Doria, Danilo Fintini, Roberto Franceschi, Adriana Franzese, Marco Giussani, Graziano Grugni, Dario Iafusco, Lorenzo Iughetti, Adima Lamborghini, Maria Rosaria Licenziati, Raffaele Limauro, Giulio Maltoni, Melania Manco, Leonardo Marchesini Reggiani, Loredana Marcovecchio, Alberto Marsciani, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Anita Morandi, Giuseppe Morino, Beatrice Moro, Valerio Nobili, Laura Perrone, Marina Picca, Angelo Pietrobelli, Francesco Privitera, Salvatore Purromuto, Letizia Ragusa, Roberta Ricotti, Francesca Santamaria, Chiara Sartori, Stefano Stilli, Maria Elisabeth Street, Rita Tanas, Giuliana Trifiró, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Andrea Vania, Elvira Verduci, Eugenio Zito
The Italian Consensus Position Statement on Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents integrates and updates the previous guidelines to deliver an evidence based approach to the disease. The following areas were reviewed: (1) obesity definition and causes of secondary obesity; (2) physical and psychosocial comorbidities; (3) treatment and care settings; (4) prevention.The main novelties deriving from the Italian experience lie in the definition, screening of the cardiometabolic and hepatic risk factors and the endorsement of a staged approach to treatment...
July 31, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Jin Ran Chen, Oxana P Lazarenko, HaiJun Zhao, Alexander W Alund, Kartik Shankar
Intrauterine or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD) have substantial influences on adult offspring health; however, studies of HFD-induced maternal obesity on regulation of adult offspring bone formation are sparse. Here, we investigated the effects of HFD-induced maternal obesity on both fetal and adult offspring skeletal development. We found that HFD-induced maternal obesity significantly decreased fetal skeletal development, but enhanced fetal osteoblastic cell senescence signaling and significantly increased the expression of inflammatory factors of the senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in osteo-progenitors...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Hiroto Bushita, Shujie Liu, Takafumi Ohta, Yuichi Ito, Kazutoshi Saito, Yuko Nukada, Naohiro Ikeda, Osamu Morita
Recent studies suggest that diets supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil provide potential health benefits in preventing or managing obesity. However, available safety information about reproductive and developmental toxicities of ALA-DAG oil is limited. This study was conducted to clarify the effect, if any, of ALA-DAG oil on embryo-fetal development, following maternal exposure during the critical period of major organogenesis. ALA-DAG oil was administered via gavage to pre-mated female Sprague Dawley rats from gestation day 6 through 19, at dose levels of 0, 1...
July 27, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Anitha Pitchika, Manja Jolink, Christiane Winkler, Sandra Hummel, Nadine Hummel, Jan Krumsiek, Gabi Kastenmüller, Jennifer Raab, Olga Kordonouri, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler, Andreas Beyerlein
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure to an intrauterine hyperglycaemic environment has been suggested to increase the offspring's later risk for being overweight or having metabolic abnormalities, but conclusive evidence for pregnancies affected by maternal type 1 diabetes is still lacking. This study aims to analyse the relationship between maternal type 1 diabetes and the offspring's metabolic health and investigate whether birthweight and/or changes in the offspring's metabolome are in the potential pathway...
July 14, 2018: Diabetologia
Kathryn V Dalrymple, Julia Martyni-Orenowicz, Angela C Flynn, Lucilla Poston, Majella O'Keeffe
Evidence suggests that adverse nutritional exposures during in utero development may contribute to heightened risk of obesity in childhood. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment by manipulation of diet and/or physical activity, which may result in favourable health benefits for the child. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether antenatal lifestyle interventions in pregnant women, aimed at modifying diet and/or physical activity, and lead to a reduction in measures of offspring obesity in early childhood...
July 1, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Yeukai T M Mangwiro, James S M Cuffe, Jessica F Briffa, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Andrew J Jefferies, Sogand Hosseini, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, Mary E Wlodek
KEY POINTS: The placental insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is critical for normal fetoplacental growth, which is dysregulated following several pregnancy perturbations including uteroplacental insufficiency and maternal obesity. We report that the IGF system was altered in placentae of mothers born growth restricted compared to normal birth weight mothers, with maternal diet- and fetal sex-specific responses. Additionally, we report increased body weight and plasma IGF1 concentrations in fetuses from chow-fed normal birth weight mothers that exercised prior to and continued during pregnancy compared to sedentary mothers...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Gernot Desoye
The placenta plays a key role in sustaining fetal growth and development. Due to its position between mother and fetus, it is exposed to changes in the intrauterine environment in both circulations. The relative influence of changes in those circulations depends on the period of gestation. Early in pregnancy, maternal influences prevail and may affect the complex biological processes characteristic for this pregnancy period, such as placentation, early cell differentiation, and spiral artery remodeling. It is still unclear whether the placenta early in pregnancy is a friend or foe for the fetus...
July 2018: Diabetes Care
K Ferenc, P Pietrzak, M Wierzbicka, P Matyba, E Grzesiuk, Z Gajewski, R Zabielski
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) leads to increased predisposition to metabolic syndrome in adult life but the mechanisms remain obscure. Considering a significant number of functional similarities, IUGR piglets appear to be a good model to study the development of this syndrome in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructure and proteomic profile of the liver in IUGR pig neonates to discover early markers of predisposition to obesity and insulin resistance. In our study intestine and liver tissue samples were investigated in 7 day old IUGR and normal body weight (NBW) littermate piglets using histometry, mass spectrometry, in-tissue cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Máté Durst, Katalin Könczöl, Tamás Balázsa, Mark D Eyre, Zsuzsanna E Tóth
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dysfunction in reward-related aspects of feeding, and consequent overeating in humans, is a major contributor to obesity. Intrauterine undernutrition and overnutrition are among the predisposing factors, but the exact mechanism of how overeating develops is still unclear. Consummatory behavior is regulated by the medial shell (mSh) of the accumbens nucleus (Nac) through direct connections with the rostral part of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Our aim was to investigate whether an altered Nac-LHA circuit may underlie hyperphagic behavior...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Qinghua Xia, Hui Cai, Yong-Bing Xiang, Peng Zhou, Honglan Li, Gong Yang, Yu Jiang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Zheng, Wang-Hong Xu
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with subsequent risks of obesity and certain chronic diseases, but evidence for the associations is limited for the Chinese population. METHODS: In this study we analyzed data from two population-based prospective cohort studies, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study, to examine the associations between LBW and the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. Birth weight was self-reported at baseline; anthropometric measurements were made at study enrollment...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Badhma Valaiyapathi, Barbara Gower, Ambika P Ashraf
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in children is disturbingly increasing in parallel with increasing childhood obesity. Better knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of type 2 DM in children is paramount to devise an effective management plan. OBJECTIVE: Discuss the pathophysiology of type 2 DM in children and adolescents Methods and results: This is a comprehensive review of the literature on this topic. Type 2 DM in childhood is viewed as a continuum of insulin resistance (IR) which is determined by an underlying genetic predisposition, intrauterine environment, excessive food consumption, continued rapid weight gain, and poor lifestyle...
June 7, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Daniela Zanetti, Emmi Tikkanen, Stefan Gustafsson, James R Priest, Stephen Burgess, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Low birthweight has been associated with a higher risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. The Barker hypothesis posits that intrauterine growth restriction resulting in lower birthweight is causal for these diseases, but causality is difficult to infer from observational studies. METHODS: We performed regression analyses to assess associations of birthweight with cardiovascular disease and T2D in 237 631 individuals from the UK Biobank...
June 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
Brianna M Lyttle Schumacher, Anne Marie Z Jukic, Anne Z Steiner
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between antimüllerian hormone (AMH), a measure of ovarian reserve, and miscarriage among naturally conceived pregnancies. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Women (n = 533), between 30 and 44 years of age with no known history of infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or endometriosis who conceived naturally. INTERVENTION(S): None...
June 2018: Fertility and Sterility
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