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Intrauterine obesity

Su-A Kim, Jeong Bae Park
OBJECTIVE: Superimposed pre-eclampsia (SPE) is resolved only with the termination of the pregnancy. Therefore, the risk prediction and prevention is very important. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of patients who develop SPE and their controllable risk factors during mid-trimester. DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 283 pregnant women with chronic hypertension were included for the study. Blood pressure (BP) and body weight were recorded at 10, 20, 24, 28, and 32 weeks of gestation and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Valentina Shaw, Alain C Vandal, Christin Coomarasamy, Alec J Ekeroma
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effectiveness of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in obese women with heavy menstrual bleeding in Counties Manukau Auckland area, New Zealand. METHODS: Prospective observational study in a tertiary teaching hospital. Twenty women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) who agreed to treatment with the LNG-IUS and had a body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg/m(2) were recruited between May and December 2014. The women completed two validated tools (Menstrual Impact Questionnaire and the Pictorial Bleeding Assessment Chart) at recruitment, 6 and 12 months follow-up...
October 3, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Paola Casanello, Bernardo J Krause, José A Castro-Rodríguez, Ricardo Uauy
Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated...
September 28, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Wing Kay Fok, Paul D Blumenthal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years. RECENT FINDINGS: Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG...
September 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Jennifer F Kawwass, Aniket D Kulkarni, Heather S Hipp, Sara Crawford, Dmitry M Kissin, Denise J Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations among underweight body mass index (BMI), pregnancy, and obstetric outcomes among women using assisted reproductive technology (ART). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using national data and log binomial regression. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing IVF in the United States from 2008 to 2013. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Pregnancy outcomes (intrauterine pregnancy, live birth rates) per transfer, miscarriage rate per pregnancy, and low birth weight and preterm delivery rates among singleton and twin pregnancies...
September 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Jennifer K Yee, Guang Han, Juan Vega, Wai-Nang P Lee, Michael G Ross, Mina Desai
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with rapid catch-up growth leads to adult obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that IUGR male rats demonstrated increased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat, but not the visceral fat, during the nursing period prior to the onset of obesity. Young IUGR females do not exhibit the same increase. We further hypothesized that in male IUGR offspring, de novo synthesis is a programmed intrinsic effect that persists to adulthood and does not suppress in response to a high fat diet...
September 22, 2016: Lipids
Su-A Kim, Jeong Bae Park
OBJECTIVE: Superimposed pre-eclampsia (SPE) is resolved only with the termination of the pregnancy. Therefore, the risk prediction and prevention is very important. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of patients who develop SPE and their controllable risk factors during mid-trimester. DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 283 pregnant women with chronic hypertension were included for the study. Blood pressure (BP) and body weight were recorded at 10, 20, 24, 28, and 32 weeks of gestation and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lucyna Ostrowska, Medard Lech, Ewa Stefańska, Marta Jastrzębska-Mierzyńska, Joanna Smarkusz
Obesity in women of reproductive age is a serious concern regarding reproductive health. In many cases of infertility in obese women, reduction of body weight may lead to spontaneous pregnancy, without the need for more specific methods of treatment. Bariatric surgery is safe and is the most effective method for body weight reduction in obese and very obese patients. In practice there are two bariatric techniques; gastric banding, which leads to weight loss through intake restriction, and gastric bypass, leads to weight loss through food malabsorption...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Joseph A Dottino, Vic Hasselblad, Angeles Alvarez Secord, Evan R Myers, Junzo Chino, Laura J Havrilesky
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (IUD) as an endometrial cancer prevention strategy in obese women. METHODS: A modified Markov model was used to compare IUD placement at age 50 with usual care among women with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m) 40 or greater or BMI 30 or greater. The effects of obesity on incidence and survival were incorporated. The IUD was assumed to confer a 50% reduction in cancer incidence over 5 years...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Graham J Burton, Abigail L Fowden, Kent L Thornburg
Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
M Gong, S Antony, R Sakurai, J Liu, M Iacovino, V K Rehan
OBJECTIVE: Although intrauterine nutritional stress is known to result in offspring obesity and metabolic phenotype, the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that compared to the controls, the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of the intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring exhibit to a more adipogenic phenotype. METHODS: A well-established rat model of maternal food restriction (MFR), i...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Laureen M Lopez, Alissa Bernholc, Mario Chen, Thomas W Grey, Conrad Otterness, Carolyn Westhoff, Alison Edelman, Frans M Helmerhorst
BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions around the world. Effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives may be related to metabolic changes in obesity or to greater body mass or body fat. Hormonal contraceptives include oral contraceptives (OCs), injectables, implants, hormonal intrauterine contraception (IUC), the transdermal patch, and the vaginal ring. Given the prevalence of overweight and obesity, the public health impact of any effect on contraceptive efficacy could be substantial...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Worlanyo E Gato, Daniel A Hunter, Shamaya L Whitby, Christopher A Mays, Wilson Yau
BACKGROUND: In recent times, there has been an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) particularly in children. Adipocyte dysfunction provide a critical link between obesity and insulin resistance resulting in diabetes outcome. Further, environmental chemical exposure during early years of life might be a significant contributing factor to the increase in the incidence of T2DM. This study tests the idea that exposure to environmental contaminants (2-aminoanthracene [2AA]) in utero will show effects in the adipose tissue (AT) that signify T2DM vulnerability...
August 12, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
A A Adane, G D Mishra, L R Tooth
OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity, usually associated with the adverse birth outcomes, has been a serious public health concern. Studies examining its effect on the physical and cognitive development of children have only recently emerged and the findings are inconsistent. This review aimed to systematically examine the role of maternal obesity on children's physical and cognitive development using the available evidence. METHODS: The CINAHL, EMBASE, PSYCINFO, PUBMED and SCOPUS databases were searched...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Xiao-Rui Liu, Yu-Na Guo, Chuan-Mei Qin, Xiao-Li Qin, Fei Tao, Fei Su, Fu-Ju Tian, Yan Zhang, Yi Lin
Intrauterine infection is one of the most frequent causes of miscarriage. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) can mimic intrauterine infection. CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption was observed consistently in the NK-cell deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice but not in the wild-type (WT) mice. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of differential pregnancy outcomes, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the placenta and decidua basalis was revealed by RNA-Seq with CpG ODN or control ODN treatment. Common DEGs in the WT and NOD mice were enriched in antimicrobial/antibacterial humoral responses that may be activated as a primary response to bacterial infection...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Julia von Ehr, Frauke von Versen-Höynck
In the last decade, numerous epidemiological, clinical and experimental data show that periconceptional, perinatal and postnatal environment determines the offspring's risk for later-life chronic disease. For this phenomenon, the term "fetal" or "perinatal programming" is used. In exposed offspring already in childhood and early adulthood, metabolic and cardiovascular changes can be observed, leading to obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Nowadays, the mode of conception (e.g., in vitro fertilization), maternal metabolic conditions (e...
October 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Huguette S Brink, Aart Jan van der Lely, Joke van der Linden
Gestational diabetes (GD) is a frequent complication during pregnancy and is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. It is suggested that a disturbing environment for the foetus, such as impaired glucose metabolism during intrauterine life, may result in enduring epigenetic changes leading to increased disease risk in adult life. Hence, early prediction of GD is vital. Current risk prediction models are based on maternal and clinical parameters, lacking a strong predictive value. Adipokines are mainly produced by adipocytes and suggested to be a link between obesity and its cardiovascular complications...
September 2016: Endocrine Connections
Ram Prakash Narayanan, Akheel A Syed
Bariatric surgery is most commonly carried out in women of childbearing age. Whilst fertility rates are improved, pregnancy following bariatric surgery poses several challenges. Whilst rates of many adverse maternal and foetal outcomes in obese women are reduced after bariatric surgery, pregnancy is best avoided for 12-24 months to reduce the potential risk of intrauterine growth retardation. Dumping syndromes are common after bariatric surgery and can present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in pregnancy...
October 2016: Obesity Surgery
Suzanne Phelan
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked with several acute maternal health risks and long-term development of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Intrauterine exposure to GDM similarly increases offspring risk of early-life health complications and later disease. GDM recurrence is common, affecting 40 to 73% of women, and augments associated maternal/fetal/child health risks. Modifiable and independent risk factors for GDM include maternal excessive gestational weight gain and prepregnancy overweight and obesity...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Heno F Lopes, Maria Lúcia Corrêa-Giannella, Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Brent M Egan
The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
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