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Intrauterine obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544142/discordant-phenotypes-in-monozygotic-twins-with-16p11-2-microdeletions-including-the-sh2b1-gene
#1
Lin Li, Linhuan Huang, Shaobin Lin, Yanmin Luo, Qun Fang
A 200∼240 kb SH2B1-containing deletion region on 16p11.2 is associated with early-onset obesity and developmental delay. Here, we describe monozygotic twin brothers with discordant clinical presentations. Intrauterine fetal growth restriction was present in both twins. Additionally, twin A exhibited coarctation of aorta, left ventricular noncompaction, atrial septal defect, pericardial effusion, left hydronephrosis, and moderate developmental delay, whereas twin B exhibited single umbilical artery. Chromosome microarray analysis was performed on both twins and their parents...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509412/-three-hits-hypothesis-for-developmental-origins-of-health-and-diseases-in-view-of-cardiovascular-abnormalities
#2
REVIEW
Xiang Li, Mengshu Zhang, Xinghua Pan, Zhice Xu, Miao Sun
"Fetal Origins of Adult Diseases" (FOAD) or "Barker hypothesis," also known as the developmental origins of health and diseases (DoHaD), was initially proposed by David Barker in the 1980s. Progress in past 2 to 3 decades demonstrated that many adult disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others, could be linked to poor development resulting from in utero insults. Utero-environments play a critical role in fetal development. Because the placenta and umbilical cord are the only important connections between the fetus and mother in the uterus, this review pays special attention to recent research and progress in the study of the relationship between those tissues and FOAD...
May 16, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493861/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-and-neuropsychological-development-in-pre-school-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Maribel Casas, Joan Forns, David Martínez, Mònica Guxens, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Jesus Ibarluzea, Nerea Lertxundi, Mario Murcia, Marisa Rebagliato, Adonina Tardon, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may impair infant neuropsychological development, but it is unclear if intrauterine or confounding factors drive this association. METHODS: We assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with neuropsychological development in 1,827 Spanish children. At 5 years, cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed using McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms using the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467127/markers-of-obesity-and-growth-in-preeclamptic-and-normotensive-pregnant-women
#4
S Kharb, J Bala, S Nanda
The objective of the study was to analyse leptin, IGF-1, Apo A, lipoproteins, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in maternal sera and venous umbilical cord sera of newborn babies of 25 preeclamptics (group II), and 25 normotensive pregnant women (group I) as markers of obesity and growth in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. Apo A I and II levels were estimated by competitive immunoassay using direct chemiluminiscence technology. Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), leptin and IGF-1 were analysed by ELISA. Maternal and cord blood levels of homocysteine, folic acid, lipid profile (namely, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C), Haem oxygenase 1 were higher in preeclamptic women as compared to normotensive pregnant women...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460045/large-reduction-in-adiponectin-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-large-for-gestational-age-newborns
#5
Tove Lekva, Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland, Annika E Michelsen, Camilla Margrethe Friis, Pål Aukrust, Jens Bollerslev, Tore Henriksen, Thor Ueland
Context: Fetuses exposed to an obese intrauterine environment are more likely to be born large-for-gestational age (LGA) and are at increased risk of obesity in childhood and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as adults, but which factors that influence the intrauterine environment is less clear. Objective: To investigate the association between circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin, measured multiple times during pregnancy, and birth weight and prevalence of LGA or small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454694/review-on-intrauterine-programming-consequences-in-rodent-models-of-mild-diabetes-and-mild-fat-overfeeding-are-not-mild
#6
A Jawerbaum, V White
An adverse intrauterine programming occurs in diabetes and obesity as the consequence of an adverse maternal environment that affects the appropriate fetoplacental development and growth. Experimental models of diabetes and fat overfeeding have provided relevant tools to address putative mechanisms of the adverse intrauterine programming. The current knowledge far extends from the original thoughts of the resulting intrauterine programming of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases to a full range of alterations that affect multiple tissues, organs, and systems that will compromise the long-life health of the offspring...
April 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443479/melatonin-improves-mitochondrial-respiration-in-syncytiotrophoblasts-from-placentas-of-obese-women
#7
Kayla E Ireland, Alina Maloyan, Leslie Myatt
Maternal obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress but decreased placental mitochondrial respiration and expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I to V. Melatonin acts as an antioxidant and prevents oxidative stress-induced changes in cytotrophoblasts. Placentas were collected at term by cesarean delivery from obese (first trimester body mass index [BMI] ≥30, n = 10) or lean (BMI < 25, n = 6) women. Cytotrophoblasts were isolated and allowed to syncytialize for 72 hours with or without melatonin (0...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#8
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420257/gestational-diabetes-management-using-smart-mobile-telemedicine
#9
Mercedes Rigla, Iñaki Martínez-Sarriegui, Gema García-Sáez, Belén Pons, Maria Elena Hernando
Gestational diabetes (GDM) burden has been increasing progressively over the past years. Knowing that intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes confers high risk for macrosomia as well as for future type 2 diabetes and obesity of the offspring, health care organizations try to provide effective control in spite of the limited resources. Artificial-intelligence-augmented telemedicine has been proposed as a helpful tool to facilitate an efficient widespread medical assistance to GDM. The aim of the study we present was to test the feasibility and acceptance of a mobile decision-support system for GDM, developed in the seventh framework program MobiGuide Project, which includes computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines, access to data from the electronic health record as well as from glucose, blood pressure, and activity sensors...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404581/maternal-and-postnatal-high-fat-diet-consumption-programs-energy-balance-and-hypothalamic-melanocortin-signaling-in-nonhuman-primate-offspring
#10
Elinor L Sullivan, Heidi M Rivera, Cadence A True, Juliana G Franco, Karalee Baquero, Tyler A Dean, Jeanette C Valleau, Diana L Takahashi, Tim Frazee, Genevieve Hanna, Melissa A Kirigiti, Leigh Ann A Bauman, Kevin L Grove, Paul Kievit
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption during pregnancy decreased fetal body weight and impacted development of hypothalamic melanocortin neural circuitry in nonhuman primate offspring. We investigated whether these impairments during gestation persisted in juvenile offspring and examined the interaction between maternal and early postnatal HFD consumption. Adult dams consumed either a control diet (CTR, 15% calories from fat) or a high saturated-fat diet (HFD, 37% calories from fat) during pregnancy. Offspring were weaned onto a CTR or HFD at approximately 8 months of age...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390661/ambient-air-pollution-and-low-birth-weight-are-some-women-more-vulnerable-than-others
#11
Nadja Westergaard, Ulrike Gehring, Rémy Slama, Marie Pedersen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term (TLBW, <2500g among infants born ≥37 completed weeks of gestation), a maker of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and suggest that some subgroups of pregnant women who are smoking, of low or high body-mass index (BMI), low socioeconomic status (SES) or asthma are more vulnerable towards the effect of ambient air pollution...
April 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376503/cord-blood-metabolome-is-highly-associated-with-birth-weight-but-less-predictive-for-later-weight-development
#12
Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Marie Standl, Hans Demmelmair, Joachim Heinrich, Berthold Koletzko, Elisabeth Thiering
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. METHODS: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA), polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform...
2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368446/dysregulation-of-placental-mirna-in-maternal-obesity-is-associated-with-pre-and-post-natal-growth
#13
Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Alexandra Bonmatí, Francisco-Jose Ortega, Josep-Maria Mercader, Marta Guindo-Martínez, David Torrents, Anna Prats-Puig, Jose-Maria Martinez-Calcerrada, Francis DE Zegher, Lourdes Ibáñez, Jose-Manuel Fernandez-Real, Abel Lopez-Bermejo, Judit Bassols
Context: Human placenta exhibits a specific miRNA expression pattern. Some of these miRNAs are dysregulated in pregnancy disorders like preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, and are potential biomarkers for these pathologies. Objective: To study the placental miRNA profile in pregnant women with pregestational (preOB) or gestational obesity (gestOB) and explore the associations of placental miRNAs dysregulated in maternal obesity with pre- and post-natal growth...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366413/adverse-effects-of-female-obesity-and-interaction-with-race-on-reproductive-potential
#14
REVIEW
Barbara Luke
Across the reproductive spectrum, obesity is associated with greater risks for adverse health outcomes, including higher rates of infertility, subfertility, early pregnancy loss, fetal deaths and stillbirths, congenital anomalies, and pregnancy complications. The excess reproductive morbidity associated with obesity may increase with longer duration, making the current trends among children and young adults particularly critical in terms of their future reproductive potential. Obese women have a lower chance of pregnancy following in vitro fertilization (IVF), require higher dosages of gonadotropins, and have reduced rates of implantation, clinical intrauterine gestation, and live birth rates and increased rates of pregnancy loss, as well as greater risks for prematurity and preeclampsia even when stratified by plurality...
April 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366035/the-relationship-between-maternal-body-composition-in-early-pregnancy-and-foetal-mid-thigh-soft-tissue-thickness-in-the-third-trimester-in-a-high-risk-obstetric-population
#15
Breffini Anglim, Nadine Farah, Clare O'Connor, Niamh Daly, Mairead M Kennelly, Michael J Turner
Maternal obesity is an emerging challenge in contemporary obstetrics. To date there has been no study analysing the relationship between specific maternal body composition measurements and foetal soft-tissue measurements. The aim of this study was to determine whether measurement of maternal body composition at booking predicts foetal soft-tissue trajectories in the third trimester. We analysed the relationship between foetal thigh in the third trimester and both maternal BMI and body composition using the Tanita digital scales in the first trimester...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350823/cluster-analysis-to-estimate-the-risk-of-preeclampsia-in-the-high-risk-prediction-and-prevention-of-preeclampsia-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-predo-study
#16
Pia M Villa, Pekka Marttinen, Jussi Gillberg, A Inkeri Lokki, Kerttu Majander, Maija-Riitta Ordén, Pekka Taipale, Anukatriina Pesonen, Katri Räikkönen, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346921/bacterial-colonization-of-the-newborn-gut-immune-development-and-prevention-of-disease
#17
W Allan Walker
We now know that the fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment but is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut which cross the placenta and infiltrate the amniotic fluid. This exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life, and it has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Cross talk with colonizing bacteria in the developing neonatal intestine helps in the initial adaptation of the infant to extrauterine life, particularly in acquiring immune homeostasis, and provides protection against disease expression (e...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321032/the-effects-of-prenatal-undernutrition-and-a-high-fat-postnatal-diet-on-central-and-peripheral-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-factors-in-female-rats
#18
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Yiliyasi Mayila, Akira Kuwahara, Minoru Irahara
Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition increase the risk of some peripheral and central metabolic disorders in adulthood. We speculated that disturbances of appetite/metabolic regulatory factors might already have been established in the early stages of life and contribute to obesity later in life. The effects of a high-fat diet on the levels of peripheral and central appetite/metabolic regulatory factors were compared between the offspring of normally nourished dams and those of undernourished dams in the peri-pubertal period...
March 17, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314371/intrauterine-growth-restriction-programs-the-hypothalamus-of-adult-male-rats-integrated-analysis-of-proteomic-and-metabolomic-data
#19
Amanda P Pedroso, Adriana P Souza, Ana P S Dornellas, Lila M Oyama, Cláudia M O Nascimento, Gianni M S Santos, José C Rosa, Ricardo P Bertolla, Jelena Klawitter, Uwe Christians, Alexandre K Tashima, Eliane B Ribeiro
Programming of hypothalamic functions regulating energy homeostasis may play a role in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)-induced adulthood obesity. The present study investigated the effects of IUGR on the hypothalamus proteome and metabolome of adult rats submitted to 50% protein-energy restriction throughout pregnancy. Proteomic and metabolomic analyzes were performed by data independent acquisition mass spectrometry and multiple reaction monitoring, respectively. At age 4 months, the restricted rats showed elevated adiposity, increased leptin and signs of insulin resistance...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292470/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-antioxidant-defense-mechanisms-in-the-human-placenta
#20
LaShauna Evans, Leslie Myatt
INTRODUCTION: Maternal obesity creates an adverse intrauterine environment, negatively impacts placental respiration, is associated with a higher incidence of pregnancy complications and programs the offspring for disease in adult life in a sexually dimorphic manner. We defined the effect of maternal obesity and fetal sex on pro- and anti-oxidant status in placenta and placental mitochondria. METHODS: Placental villous tissue was collected at term via c-section prior to labor from four groups of patients based on fetal sex and prepregnancy/1st trimester body mass index: lean - BMI 22...
March 2017: Placenta
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