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Obesity gut

Maoyang Lu, Zhao Wang
The human gut microbiota is a huge ecosystem that provides lots of functions for host development, immune system, and metabolism. Gut microbiota is linked to lots of diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), irritable bowel syndrome, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies, however, have noted the relationship between aging and microbiota; the connection between aging and microbiota remains largely to be researched. In this review, recent research findings are summarized on the role of gut microbiota in aging processes with emphasis on therapeutic potential of microbiome-targeted interventions in antiaging medicine...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sarah J C Craig, Daniel Blankenberg, Alice Carla Luisa Parodi, Ian M Paul, Leann L Birch, Jennifer S Savage, Michele E Marini, Jennifer L Stokes, Anton Nekrutenko, Matthew Reimherr, Francesca Chiaromonte, Kateryna D Makova
Gut and oral microbiota perturbations have been observed in obese adults and adolescents; less is known about their influence on weight gain in young children. Here we analyzed the gut and oral microbiota of 226 two-year-olds with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Weight and length were measured at seven time points and used to identify children with rapid infant weight gain (a strong risk factor for childhood obesity), and to derive growth curves with innovative Functional Data Analysis (FDA) techniques. We showed that growth curves were associated negatively with diversity, and positively with the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio, of the oral microbiota...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vandana Sharma, Jamie Smolin, Jonamani Nayak, Julio E Ayala, David A Scott, Scott N Peterson, Hudson H Freeze
Mannose is an important monosaccharide for protein glycosylation in mammals but is an inefficient cellular energy source. Using a C57BL6/J mouse model of diet-induced obesity, we show that mannose supplementation of high-fat-diet-fed mice prevents weight gain, lowers adiposity, reduces liver steatosis, increases endurance and maximal O2 consumption, and improves glucose tolerance. Mannose-supplemented mice have higher fecal energy content, suggesting reduced caloric absorption by the host. Mannose increases the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio in the gut microbiota, a signature associated with the lean phenotype...
September 18, 2018: Cell Reports
William P Martin, Neil G Docherty, Carel W Le Roux
Cardiovascular and renal disease accounts for a substantial proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is associated with improved long-term cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Areas covered: All major case-control, cohort, and randomized controlled trial studies of bariatric surgery in adults with T2DM were screened and data on prespecified cardiovascular and renal outcomes collated. Bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, albuminuria and progressive chronic kidney disease...
September 19, 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Jie Yin, Yuying Li, Hui Han, Shuai Chen, Jing Gao, Gang Liu, Xin Wu, Jinping Deng, Qifang Yu, Xingguo Huang, Rejun Fang, Tiejun Li, Russel J Reiter, Dong Zhang, Congrui Zhu, Guoqiang Zhu, Wenkai Ren, Yulong Yin
Melatonin has been shown to improve lipid metabolism and gut microbiota communities in animals and humans; however, it remains to know whether melatonin prevents obesity through gut microbiota. Here, we found that high fat diet promoted the lipid accumulation and intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in mice, while oral melatonin supplementation alleviated the lipid accumulation, and reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis, including the diversity of intestinal microbiota, relative abundances of Bacteroides and Alistipes, and functional profiling of microbial communities, such as energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Helen J Dranse, Ashlee Zheng, André M Comeau, Morgan G I Langille, Brian A Zabel, Christopher J Sinal
Chemerin is an adipocyte derived signalling molecule (adipokine) that serves as a ligand activator of Chemokine-like receptor 1(CMKLR1). Chemerin/CMKLR1 signalling is well established to regulate fundamental processes in metabolism and inflammation. The composition and function of gut microbiota has also been shown to impact the development of metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we assessed the microbiome composition of fecal samples isolated from wildtype, chemerin, or CMKLR1 knockout mice using Illumina-based sequencing...
2018: PeerJ
Mon H Tun, Hein M Tun, Justin J Mahoney, Theodore B Konya, David S Guttman, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm R Sears, Jeffrey R Brook, Wendy Lou, Tim K Takarao, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
BACKGROUND: Emerging links between household cleaning products and childhood overweight may involve the gut microbiome. We determined mediating effects of infant gut microbiota on associations between home use of cleaning products and future overweight. METHODS: From the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort, we tested associations between maternal report of cleaning product use and overweight at age 3, and whether associations were mediated by microbial profiles of fecal samples in 3- to 4-month-old infants...
September 17, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Ennio Avolio, Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Antonino De Lorenzo, Laura Di Renzo, Raffaella Alò, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Marcello Canonaco
Emerging studies are beginning to suggest that emotional states together with healthful measures constitute pertinent features of our lifestyle in which bad eating habits but more importantly what our gut has to host are causing great concern. It is well known that humans have established mutual relationships with a wide array of colonized microbes (collectively called gut microbiota) consisting of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses. The gut microbiota has exhibited a notable ability of communicating with the brain via a two-way system that includes the vagus nerve, immune sites, and a number of neurotransmitters...
September 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ipek Acar, Alper Cetinkaya, Incilay Lay, Esin Ileri-Gurel
OBJECTIVES: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), the major sensor of extracellular Ca2+ , is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Although the essential ligand of CaSR is calcium, its activity can be regulated by aromatic L-amino acids. The expression of CaSR on enteroendocrine cells suggests that CaSR functions as a physiological amino acid sensor for gut hormone release. Here, we investigated the effects of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) on rat glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and insulin secretion, and the role of CaSR in this mechanism in vivo...
September 17, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Paik Seong Lim, Yu-Kang Chang, Tsai-Kun Wu
BACKGROUND: In hemodialysis (HD) patients, impaired gut barrier and alteration in microbiota in the gut is thought to increase the risk of bacterial translocation and chronic inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase reactant that mediates immune responses triggered by microbial products. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between circulating levels of LBP, and various metabolic and inflammatory markers in HD patients. Besides, we also aim to determine its relationship among -patients with different body mass index...
September 14, 2018: Blood Purification
Chifei Kang, Derek LeRoith, Emily J Gallagher
The rates of obesity and diabetes are increasing worldwide while the age of onset for both obesity and diabetes are decreasing steadily. Obesity and diabetes are associated with multiple factors that contribute to the increased risk of a number of different cancers, including breast cancer. These factors are hyperinsulinemia, elevated insulin-like growth factors, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines, inflammatory cytokines and the gut microbiome. In this review we discuss the current understanding of the complex signaling pathways underlying these multiple factors involved in the obesity/diabetes-breast cancer link, with a focus particularly on the roles of insulin / IGF system and dyslipidemia in pre-clinical breast cancer models...
September 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Amirsalar Samkani, Mads J Skytte, Mads N Thomsen, Arne Astrup, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Jens F Rehfeld, Thure Krarup, Steen B Haugaard
Postprandial responses to food are highly dependent on the macronutrient composition of the diet. We investigated the acute effects of transition from the recommended moderately high carbohydrate (HC) diet towards a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, lipemia, and appetite-regulating hormones in non-diabetic adults. Fourteen subjects, including five males (Mean ± SD: age 62 ± 6.5; BMI 32 ± 7.6 kg/m²; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) 40 ± 3.0 mmol/mol; HOMA2-IR 2...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Agnieszka D Truax, Liang Chen, Jason W Tam, Ning Cheng, Hao Guo, A Alicia Koblansky, Wei-Chun Chou, Justin E Wilson, W June Brickey, Alex Petrucelli, Rongrong Liu, Daniel E Cooper, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Vincent B Young, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra, R Balfour Sartor, Stephanie A Montgomery, Rosalind A Coleman, Jenny P-Y Ting
In addition to high-fat diet (HFD) and inactivity, inflammation and microbiota composition contribute to obesity. Inhibitory immune receptors, such as NLRP12, dampen inflammation and are important for resolving inflammation, but their role in obesity is unknown. We show that obesity in humans correlates with reduced expression of adipose tissue NLRP12. Similarly, Nlrp12-/- mice show increased weight gain, adipose deposition, blood glucose, NF-κB/MAPK activation, and M1-macrophage polarization. Additionally, NLRP12 is required to mitigate HFD-induced inflammasome activation...
September 12, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Hengameh Sadeghi, Suzanne Devkota, Fayyaz S Sutterwala
Innate pattern recognition receptors have been implicated in the obesity-associated imbalance of gut microbiota. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Truax et al. (2018) report that NLRP12 prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity by maintaining beneficial short-chain fatty acid-producing microbiota.
September 12, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Nuha Alwardat, Laura Di Renzo, Antonino De Lorenzo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Yuanyuan Li
Nutrition is the most important environmental factor that can influence early developmental processes through regulation of epigenetic mechanisms during pregnancy and neonatal periods. Maternal diets or nutritional compositions contribute to the establishment of the epigenetic profiles in the fetus that have a profound impact on individual susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders in the offspring later in life. Obesity is considered a global epidemic that impairs human life quality and also increases risk of development of many human diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
X Jia, L Jia, L Mo, S Yuan, X Zheng, J He, V Chen, Q Guo, L Zheng, Q Yuan, X Xu, X Zhou
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is a risk factor for periodontitis, and current therapeutics against PMO prevent the aggravated alveolar bone loss of periodontitis in estrogen-deficient women. Gut microbiota is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for PMO. Berberine extracted from Chinese medicinal plants has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes via regulating gut microbiota. Here, we hypothesize that berberine ameliorates periodontal bone loss by improving the intestinal barriers by regulating gut microbiota under an estrogen-deficient condition...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Cristina Campoy, Daniel Campos, Tomás Cerdó, Estefanía Diéguez, José Antonio García-Santos
While a wide knowledge exists on the effects of breast milk or infant formula on growth and infant development, less attention has been paid to the importance of complementary feeding (CF). This review focuses on current recommendations for optimal introduction of CF in healthy full-term European infants and discusses the potential impact of this type of feeding on health outcomes. Overall, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended at least for 4 months and preferable for 6 months, followed by the introduction of CF alongside breast milk; infants' nutrient requirements must meet the differences between nutrients provided by breast milk and the estimated total needs...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Nikhilesh Joardar, Subhasree Sengupta, Santi P Sinha Babu
The human gut microbiota has been the interest of extensive research in recent years and our knowledge on using the potential capacity of these microbes are growing rapidly. Microorganisms colonized throughout the gastrointestinal tract of human are coevolved through symbiotic relationship and can influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions of an individual. The gut microbes are directly involved in conferring protection against pathogen colonization by inducing direct killing, competing with nutrients and enhancing the response of the gut-associated immune repertoire...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Tien S Dong, Arpana Gupta
Advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics have greatly enhanced our ability to understand the human microbiome. Over the last decade, a growing body of literature has linked nutrition and the environment to the microbiome and is now thought to be an important contributor to overall health. This paper reviews the literature from the past 10 years to highlight the influence of environmental factors such as diet, early life adversity and stress in shaping and modifying our microbiome towards health and disease...
September 6, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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