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Obesity gut

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101843/postprandial-glp-2-levels-are-increased-after-biliopancreatic-diversion-in-diabetic-individuals-with-class-i-obesity-a-prospective-study
#1
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Bruno Geloneze, Elinton Adami Chaim, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a predominantly malabsorptive procedure. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) plays predominantly trophic effects on the gut. A significant increase in GLP-2 after BPD in rats was previously observed, but there are no studies investigating the effect of BPD in GLP-2 levels in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of BPD on the release of GLP-2. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study that evaluated diabetic individuals with class I obesity which underwent BPD (Scopinaro operation) and were followed up for 12 months...
January 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096522/control-of-food-intake-by-gastrointestinal-peptides-mechanisms-of-action-and-possible-modulation-in-the-treatment-of-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Philip Prinz, Andreas Stengel
This review focuses on the control of appetite by food intake-regulatory peptides secreted from the gastrointestinal tract, namely cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and the recently discovered nesfatin-1 via the gut-brain axis. Additionally, we describe the impact of external factors such as intake of different nutrients or stress on the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides. Finally, we highlight possible conservative-physical activity and pharmacotherapy-treatment strategies for obesity as well as surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation and bariatric surgery also altering these peptidergic pathways...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094019/the-first-model-of-keeping-energy-balance-and-optimal-psycho-affective-development-breastfed-infants
#3
REVIEW
Carlo Agostoni, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Ludovica Leone, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Carlo A Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Breastfed infants follow a peculiar growth fashion characterized by a rapid weight gain in the first weeks of life, then followed by a fast decrease in growth rates, a capacity to self-regulate the sense of hungry and satiety, and a minor propensity towards overweight and obesity later on, in parallel with a better neurodevelopmental performance. METHODS: We searched studies investigating the relationship between the feeding mode in infancy and the energy balance, so the possible associations with total energy expenditure and intake regulation...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093508/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-reduces-blood-pressure-and-hypothalamic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-mice
#4
Anne K McGavigan, Zachariah M Henseler, Darline Garibay, Scott D Butler, Sisitha Jayasinghe, Ruth E Ley, Robin L Davisson, Bethany P Cummings
Bariatric surgery, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), causes remarkable improvements in cardiometabolic health, including hypertension remission. However, the mechanisms responsible remain undefined and poorly studied. Therefore, we developed and validated the first murine model of VSG that recapitulates the blood pressure lowering effect of VSG using gold-standard radiotelemetry technology. We used this model to investigate several potential mechanisms, including body weight, brain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and brain inflammatory signaling, all critical contributors to obesity-associated hypertension pathogenesis...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091678/pepsin-egg-white-hydrolysate-modulates-gut-microbiota-in-zucker-obese-rats
#5
Teresa Requena, Marta Miguel, Marta Garcés-Rimón, M Carmen Martínez-Cuesta, Rosina López-Fandiño, Carmen Peláez
There is limited information that relates the intake of food-derived bioactive peptides and the gut microbiota. We have previously described a pepsin hydrolysate of egg white (EWH) that ameliorates fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, while reducing oxidative stress and inflammation markers in obese Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to associate the beneficial effects of EWH with gut microbiota changes in these animals. Obese Zucker rats received daily 750 mg kg(-1) EWH in drinking water for 12 weeks and faeces were analysed for microbial composition and metabolic compounds in comparison with Zucker lean rats and obese controls...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086768/probiotic-mixture-improves-fatty-liver-disease-by-virtue-of-its-action-on-lipid-profiles-leptin-and-inflammatory-biomarkers
#6
Hessah Mohammed Al-Muzafar, Kamal Adel Amin
BACKGROUND: A high fat diet has an essential role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) and is associated with obesity, diabetes, and fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver. Probiotics may be useful in the treatment of steatosis. This study examined the effects of an ingested probiotic formulation on the lipid profiles, liver functions, leptin levels, and inflammatory marker levels of rats with NAFLD that had been induced via high fat and sucrose diet (HFSD)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076766/are-gut-microbes-responsible-for-post-dieting-weight-rebound
#7
Julien Chilloux, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
One of the dieting conundrums in the age of the obesity epidemic is the cycle of weight loss and regain known as the "yo-yo effect." Thaiss et al. (2016) demonstrate that the microbiome plays a key role in this phenomenon and that simple dietary supplementations can reset the weight-rebound clock.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072592/metabolic-syndrome-associated-osteoarthritis
#8
Alice Courties, Jérémie Sellam, Francis Berenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interest in the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype is increasing. Here, we summarize recently published significant findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses confirmed an association between type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis and between cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Recent advances in the study of metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis have focused on a better understanding of the role of metabolic diseases in inducing or aggravating joint damage...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071010/the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-diseases
#9
Iwona Węgielska, Joanna Suliburska
The incidence of metabolic diseases is increasing rapidly all over the world. This situation has led researchers to attempt to explain the pathomechanisms of these disorders and to develop specific recommendations for the prevention and treatment of diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Recent studies show clear evidence of the role of human intestinal microbiota in health and in predispositions to diseases. Gut microbiota affect a number of complex metabolic reactions, significantly altering the functioning of the human body...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#10
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065827/gastric-bypass-surgery-recruits-a-gut-ppar-%C3%AE-striatal-d1r-pathway-to-reduce-fat-appetite-in-obese-rats
#11
Mohammed K Hankir, Florian Seyfried, Constantin A Hintschich, Thi-Ai Diep, Karen Kleberg, Mathias Kranz, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Luis A Tellez, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Jens Teichert, Swen Hesse, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust, Harald S Hansen, Ivan E de Araujo, Ute Krügel, Wiebke K Fenske
Bariatric surgery remains the single most effective long-term treatment modality for morbid obesity, achieved mainly by lowering caloric intake through as yet ill-defined mechanisms. Here we show in rats that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-like rerouting of ingested fat mobilizes lower small intestine production of the fat-satiety molecule oleoylethanolamide (OEA). This was associated with vagus nerve-driven increases in dorsal striatal dopamine release. We also demonstrate that RYGB upregulates striatal dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) expression specifically under high-fat diet feeding conditions...
January 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061687/new-targets-for-drug-treatment-of-obesity
#12
Georgios Valsamakis, Panagiota Konstantakou, George Mastorakos
Antiobesity medical management has shown unsatisfactory results to date in terms of efficacy, safety, and long-term maintenance of weight loss. This poor performance could be attributed to the complexity of appetite regulation mechanisms; the serious drug side effects; and, crucially, the lack of profile-matching treatment strategies and individualized, multidisciplinary follow-up. Nevertheless, antiobesity pharmacotherapy remains a challenging, exciting field of intensive scientific interest. According to the latest studies, the future of bariatric medicine lies in developing drugs acting at multiple levels of the brain-gut axis...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059614/western-diets-gut-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-diseases-are-they-linked
#13
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049662/gut-permeability-is-related-to-body-weight-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-individuals-undergoing-weight-reduction
#14
Antje Damms-Machado, Sandrine Louis, Anna Schnitzer, Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Maryam Basrai, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. OBJECTIVE: We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. DESIGN: Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 43...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045402/inflammatory-mechanisms-linking-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#15
Alan R Saltiel, Jerrold M Olefsky
There are currently over 1.9 billion people who are obese or overweight, leading to a rise in related health complications, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The finding that obesity and metabolic disorder are accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation has fundamentally changed our view of the underlying causes and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We now know that an inflammatory program is activated early in adipose expansion and during chronic obesity, permanently skewing the immune system to a proinflammatory phenotype, and we are beginning to delineate the reciprocal influence of obesity and inflammation...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#16
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041735/beneficial-effects-of-probiotic-cholesterol-lowering-strain-of-enterococcus-faecium-wefa23-from-infants-on-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#17
Fen Zhang, Liang Qiu, Xiongpeng Xu, Zhengqi Liu, Hui Zhan, Xueying Tao, Nagendra P Shah, Hua Wei
The aim of this study was to select probiotic Enterococcus strains which have the potential to improve metabolic syndrome (MS). Ten Enterococcus strains isolated from healthy infants were evaluated for their probiotic properties in vitro, and Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 was selected due to its cholesterol removal ability (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/10(10) cfu), highest glycodeoxycholic acid-hydrolase activity (1.86 ± 0.01 U/mg), and strong adhesion capacity to Caco-2 cells (17.90 ± 0.19%). The safety of E. faecium WEFA23 was verified by acute oral administration in mice, and it was found to have no adverse effects on general health status, bacterial translocation, and gut mucosal histology...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034467/maternal-health-and-the-placental-microbiome
#18
REVIEW
Elise Pelzer, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Over the past decade, the role of the microbiome in regulating metabolism, immune function and behavior in humans has become apparent. It has become clear that the placenta is not a sterile organ, but rather has its own endogenous microbiome. The composition of the placental microbiome is distinct from that of the vagina and has been reported to resemble the oral microbiome. Compared to the gut microbiome, the placental microbiome exhibits limited microbial diversity. This review will focus on the current understanding of the placental microbiota in normal healthy pregnancy and also in disease states including preterm birth, chorioamnionitis and maternal conditions such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia...
December 2, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030376/the-effect-of-obesity-weight-gain-and-weight-loss-on-asthma-inception-and-control
#19
Erick Forno, Juan C Celedón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is ample and growing evidence that obesity increases the risk of asthma and morbidity from asthma. Here, we review recent clinical evidence supporting a causal link between obesity and asthma, and the mechanisms that may lead to 'obese asthma'. RECENT FINDINGS: Although in some children obesity and asthma simply co-occur, those with 'obese asthma' have increased asthma severity, lower quality of life, and reduced medication response. Underlying mechanistic pathways may include anatomical changes of the airways such as obstruction and dysanapsis, systemic inflammation, production of adipokines, impaired glucose-insulin metabolism, altered nutrient levels, genetic and epigenetic changes, and alterations in the airway and/or gut microbiome...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027925/impact-of-prebiotics-on-metabolic-and-behavioral-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Célia Fourrier, Julie Sauvant, Amandine Everard, Lucile Capuron, Patrice D Cani, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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