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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214071/lipocalin-2-a-master-mediator-of-intestinal-and-metabolic-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Alexander R Moschen, Timon E Adolph, Romana R Gerner, Verena Wieser, Herbert Tilg
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is released by various cell types and is an attractive biomarker of inflammation, ischemia, infection, and kidney damage. Both intestinal and metabolic inflammation, as observed in obesity and related disorders, are associated with increased LCN2 synthesis. While LCN2 in the intestinal tract regulates the composition of the gut microbiota and shows anti-inflammatory activities, it also exhibits proinflammatory activities in other experimental settings...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214040/reinforcement-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-by-arabinoxylans-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial-arabinoxylans-in-gut-barrier
#2
Bouke N Salden, Freddy J Troost, Ellen Wilms, Pilar Truchado, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Dietmar H Pieper, Ruy Jáuregui, Massimo Marzorati, Tom van de Wiele, Sam Possemiers, Ad A Masclee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic diseases are associated with alterations in microbial composition and impaired gut barrier. Previous in vitro and animal studies have shown that arabinoxylans (AX) have the potential to modulate gut microbiota and gut barrier and therefore could have a protective role. Primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AX on intestinal permeability. Secondary aims included the effect of AX on gene transcription and protein expression of tight junctions (TJ), intestinal microbiota composition and activity, immune response and metabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213172/diet-induced-obesity-gut-microbiota-and-bone-including-alveolar-bone-loss
#3
REVIEW
Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Obesity is a major risk factor for several pathologies, including jaw bone resorption. The underlying mechanisms involved in pathological conditions resulting from obesity include chronic systemic inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have indicated the importance of the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity, only a few studies have established a relationship between obesity, gut microbiota and status of the jaw bone...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212306/metabolic-effects-of-berries-with-structurally-diverse-anthocyanins
#4
John Overall, Sierra A Bonney, Mickey Wilson, Arnold Beermann, Mary H Grace, Debora Esposito, Mary Ann Lila, Slavko Komarnytsky
Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content) on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210913/dietary-and-commercialized-fructose-sweet-or-sour
#5
REVIEW
Aslihan Yerlikaya, Tuncay Dagel, Christopher King, Masanari Kubawara, Miguel A Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Adrian Covic, Jacek Manitius, Alan A Sag, Mehmet Kanbay
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are main health problems of modern life in the twenty-first century. Alarming ratios of global prevalence lead to conduct more and more researches about etiological factors and pathogenesis. Disease mechanism is elementary for advancing more efficient and practicable treatment methods. Concurrent increase in both fructose consumption with Western diet and metabolic syndrome has revealed fructose hypothesis that suggests fructose as one of etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, etc...
February 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#6
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202625/gut-microbiota-promotes-obesity-associated-liver-cancer-through-pge2-mediated-suppression-of-antitumor-immunity
#7
Tze Mun Loo, Fumitaka Kamachi, Yoshihiro Watanabe, Shin Yoshimoto, Hiroaki Kanda, Yuriko Arai, Yaeko Nakajima-Takagi, Atsushi Iwama, Tomoaki Koga, Yukihiko Sugimoto, Takayuki Ozawa, Masaru Nakamura, Miho Kumagai, Koichi Watashi, Makoto M Taketo, Tomohiro Aoki, Shuh Narumiya, Masanobu Oshima, Makoto Arita, Eiji Hara, Naoko Ohtani
Obesity increases the risk of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, the precise molecular mechanisms through which obesity promotes HCC development are still unclear. Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota may influence liver diseases by transferring its metabolites and components. Here, we show that the hepatic translocation of obesity-induced lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a Gram positive gut microbial component, promotes HCC development by creating a tumor-promoting microenvironment...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202005/impact-of-gut-hormone-fgf-19-on-type-2-diabetes-and-mitochondrial-recovery-in-a-prospective-study-of-obese-diabetic-women-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#8
Lucia Martinez de la Escalera, Ioannis Kyrou, Jana Vrbikova, Voitech Hainer, Petra Sramkova, Martin Fried, Milan K Piya, Sudhesh Kumar, Gyanendra Tripathi, Philip G McTernan
BACKGROUND: The ileal-derived hormone, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), may promote weight loss and facilitate type-2 diabetes mellitus remission in bariatric surgical patients. We investigated the effect of different bariatric procedures on circulating FGF-19 levels and the resulting impact on mitochondrial health in white adipose tissue (AT). METHODS: Obese and type-2 diabetic women (n = 39, BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing either biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP), or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) participated in this ethics approved study...
February 16, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199741/melatonin-prevents-obesity-through-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#9
Pengfei Xu, Jialin Wang, Fan Hong, Sheng Wang, Xi Jin, Tingting Xue, Li Jia, Yonggong Zhai
Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197336/embracing-the-gut-microbiota-the-new-frontier-for-inflammatory-and-infectious-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Lieke Wj van den Elsen, Hazel C Poyntz, Laura S Weyrich, Wayne Young, Elizabeth E Forbes-Blom
The gut microbiota provides essential signals for the development and appropriate function of the immune system. Through this critical contribution to immune fitness, the gut microbiota has a key role in health and disease. Recent advances in the technological applications to study microbial communities and their functions have contributed to a rapid increase in host-microbiota research. Although it still remains difficult to define a so-called 'normal' or 'healthy' microbial composition, alterations in the gut microbiota have been shown to influence the susceptibility of the host to different diseases...
January 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196965/genomic-microdiversity-of-bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-underlying-differential-strain-level-responses-to-dietary-carbohydrate-intervention
#11
Guojun Wu, Chenhong Zhang, Huan Wu, Ruirui Wang, Jian Shen, Linghua Wang, Yufeng Zhao, Xiaoyan Pang, Xiaojun Zhang, Liping Zhao, Menghui Zhang
The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95) of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196086/nopal-feeding-reduces-adiposity-intestinal-inflammation-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiota-and-metabolism-in-high-fat-fed-rats
#12
Sofia Moran-Ramos, Xuan He, Elizabeth L Chin, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres, Carolyn M Slupsky, Helen E Raybould
Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193513/the-importance-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-controlling-food-intake-and-regulating-energy-balance
#13
M P Monteiro, R L Batterham
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the key interface between ingested nutrients and the body, plays a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. Gut-derived signals convey information regarding incoming nutrients to the brain, initiating changes in eating behavior and energy expenditure, to maintain energy balance. Here we review hormonal, neural and nutrient signals emanating from the GI tract and evidence for their role in controlling feeding behavior. Mechanistic studies that have utilized pharmacological and/or transgenic approaches targeting an individual hormone/mediator have yielded somewhat disappointing bodyweight changes, often leading to the hormone/mediator in question being dismissed as a potential obesity therapy...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192102/role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity-and-obesity-related-metabolic-dysfunction
#14
Kristien E Bouter, Daniël H van Raalte, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
The potential role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of various human diseases has attracted massive attention in the last decade. As such, the intestinal microbiota has been advanced as an important partaker in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, amongst others. Experiments in animal models have produced evidence for a causal role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of obesity and insulin resistance. However, with a few exceptions such causal relation is lacking for humans...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185763/bariatric-surgery-attenuates-colitis-in-an-obese-murine-model
#15
Shiri Li, Alessio Vinci, Judith Behnsen, Chunmei Cheng, Stefan Jellbauer, Manuela Raffatellu, Kyle M Sousa, Robert Edwards, Ninh T Nguyen, Michael J Stamos, Alessio Pigazzi
BACKGROUND: Obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represent chronic inflammatory conditions. Bariatric surgery improves some obesity-related co-morbidities, but the effects of bariatric surgery on IBD have not been well studied. OBJECTIVES: To examine if bariatric surgery may attenuate colitis in an obese murine model of IBD and study the mechanisms underlying the postsurgical amelioration of intestinal inflammation. SETTING: University of California Irvine, Department of Surgery and Microbiology laboratories...
December 20, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180212/kodo-millet-whole-grain-and-bran-supplementation-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-derangements-in-a-lipid-profile-inflammatory-status-and-gut-bacteria-in-mice
#16
Siddhartha M Sarma, Pragyanshu Khare, Sneha Jagtap, Dhirendra P Singh, Ritesh K Baboota, Koteswaraiah Podili, Ravneet K Boparai, Jaspreet Kaur, Kamlesh K Bhutani, Mahendra Bishnoi, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi
The protective role of kodo millet whole grain and bran supplementation in diet induced obesity has not been investigated. Here we have studied the role of kodo millet supplementation in age matched Swiss albino mice that were randomly divided into groups and fed their respective diets for 16 weeks. A high fat diet increased weight gain, reduced glucose tolerance, increased serum lipids, altered hepatic and adipocyte gene expression and caused dysbiosis in the intestinal beneficial bacteria. Kodo millet supplementation did not affect weight gain but it improved glucose tolerance and prevented an increase in the serum cholesterol and lipid parameters (P ≤ 0...
February 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179566/human-and-rat-gut-microbiome-composition-is-maintained-following-sleep-restriction
#17
Shirley L Zhang, Lei Bai, Namni Goel, Aubrey Bailey, Christopher J Jang, Frederic D Bushman, Peter Meerlo, David F Dinges, Amita Sehgal
Insufficient sleep increasingly characterizes modern society, contributing to a host of serious medical problems. Loss of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurological and cognitive impairments. Shifts in gut microbiome composition have also been associated with the same pathologies; therefore, we hypothesized that sleep restriction may perturb the gut microbiome to contribute to a disease state. In this study, we examined the fecal microbiome by using a cross-species approach in both rat and human studies of sleep restriction...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178559/bariatric-surgery-restores-gut-brain-signaling-to-reduce-fat-intake
#18
Stephanie Caligiuri, Paul J Kenny
Hankir and colleagues (2017) show that gastric bypass surgery in rats enhances the sensitivity of cells in the gut to dietary lipids. In turn, these cells signal to stimulate dopamine neurotransmission in the striatum to inhibit fat consumption. The findings have important implications for the development of non-invasive therapeutics for obesity.
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176229/charting-the-maternal-and-infant-microbiome-what-is-the-role-of-diabetes-and-obesity-in-pregnancy
#19
REVIEW
Sirtaj Singh, Margaret R Karagas, Noel T Mueller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence on whether diabetes, obesity, and related metabolic derangements during pregnancy are associated with the maternal and infant microbiomes, and to identify gaps in the literature and offer guidance on future research on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: We found circumstantial evidence from four observational studies that the maternal gut microbiome was associated with either pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, and/or related metabolic biomarkers in pregnancy; we did not identify any studies that examined whether the vaginal microbiome varied according to these metabolic parameters...
February 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174773/dietary-fibre-based-scfa-mixtures-promote-both-protection-and-repair-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-in-a-caco-2-cell-model
#20
Tingting Chen, Choon Young Kim, Amandeep Kaur, Lisa Lamothe, Maliha Shaikh, Ali Keshavarzian, Bruce R Hamaker
Impaired gut barrier function plays an important role in the development of many diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and in HIV infection. Dietary fibres have been shown to improve intestinal barrier function through their fermentation products, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the effects of individual SCFAs have been studied. Here, different SCFA mixtures representing possible compositions from fibre fermentation products were studied for protective and reparative effects on intestinal barrier function...
February 8, 2017: Food & Function
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