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Obesity gut

Ozren Stojanović, Silas Kieser, Mirko Trajkovski
Adipose tissues play an essential role in regulating the metabolic homeostasis and can be found in almost all parts of the body. Excessive adiposity leads to obesity and can contribute to metabolic and other disorders. Adipocytes show remarkable plasticity in their function, which can be pushed toward energy storage, or energy expenditure-a `browning' of fat. Browning is controlled by the cellular milieu of the adipose tissue, with sympathetic innervation and by immune responses as key integrators of the signals that promote browning...
July 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
María Florencia Zacarías, María Carmen Collado, Carlos Gómez-Gallego, Heini Flinck, Janne Aittoniemi, Erika Isolauri, Seppo Salminen
The obesity epidemic is a global challenge, and the velocity of propagation is high in the population at reproductive age. Overweight and obesity during pregnancy have been associated with high birth weight and an increased risk of childhood obesity, reinforcing the risk of other non-communicable diseases. Obesity involves chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. New biomarkers for early detection of obesity risk are urgently required. The aim of this study was to identify the connection between pregestational BMI (pre-BMI) status and inflammatory biomarkers during the third trimester of pregnancy and their association with intestinal microbiota composition...
2018: PloS One
Charikleia Stefanaki, Flora Bacopoulou, Athanasios Michos
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant proportion of adolescents exhibit abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence, and impaired glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism is aggravated by the existing osteosarcopenia not only in obese but also in overweight youth. Biochemical inflammation, derived from glucose metabolism dysregulation, in combination with increased stress levels lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, also known as ROS, which seem to afflict the integrity of the gastrointestinal wall, gut mucosa, and commensal, intestinal gut microflora...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Ruth K Dudek-Wicher, Adam Junka, Marzenna Bartoszewicz
The gut microbiota acts as a real organ. It exerts important metabolic functions, and regulates the inflammatory response by stimulating the immune system. Gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) has been linked to important human diseases and inflammation-related disorders. The symbiotic interactions between resident microorganisms and the gastrointestinal tract significantly contribute to maintaining gut homeostasis. The present review summarizes our knowledge regarding the impact of different antibiotics causing such long-term consequences as decreased microbial diversity, modulation of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Clostridium difficile overgrowth , and increased expansion of the opportunistic pathogens Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia spp...
2018: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Christian L Roth, Julia von Schnurbein, Clinton Elfers, Anja Moss, Martin Wabitsch
BACKGROUND: We tested whether leptin treatment affects secretion of satiety-related gut peptides and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a regulator of energy homeostasis downstream of hypothalamic leptin signaling. METHODS: We report the case of a morbidly obese 14.7-year-old girl with a novel previously reported homozygous leptin gene mutation, in whom hormone secretion was evaluated in 30-min intervals for 10 h (07.30-17.30) to assess BDNF, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY) secretion before as well as 11 and 46 weeks after start of metreleptin treatment...
July 11, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Chun Chen, Li-Jun You, Qiang Huang, Xiong Fu, Bin Zhang, Rui-Hai Liu, Chao Li
Increasing evidence indicates that gut microbiota is an important factor in mediating the development of metabolic disorders, especially type 2 diabetes. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of polysaccharides from mulberry fruit on diabetic db/db mice. We observed an inhibition in the body weight increase, a decrease in the blood glucose levels, and an improvement in glucose tolerance. Furthermore, our data showed increased enzymatic activities as evidenced by parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT)...
July 11, 2018: Food & Function
Xinwei Jiang, Xusheng Li, Cuijuan Zhu, Jianxia Sun, Linmin Tian, Wei Chen, Weibin Bai
Metabolic syndrome develops to several related chronic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, fatty liver disease. Diseases are outcomes of various cells dysfunction, which are especially acting with a network in metabolic syndrome. Anthocyanins are natural edible pigments widely existed in dark-colored fruits, vegetables, and grains. Epidemiological investigation and nutritional intervention of anthocyanins have exhibited broad-spectrum biological effects that benefit patients with metabolic syndrome related chronic diseases...
July 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Patrice D Cani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Gut
Xuefeng Gao, Meirong Zhang, Junmian Xue, Jiandong Huang, Rihong Zhuang, Xiaolin Zhou, Huayue Zhang, Qiang Fu, Yi Hao
Background: The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the development of obesity, but the influence of gender remains elusive. Using a large cohort of Chinese adults, our study aimed to identify differences in gut microbiota as a function of body mass index (BMI) and investigate gender specific features within these differences. Methods: Five hundred fifty-one participants were categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese, based on their BMI. Fecal microbiome composition was profiled via 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Catherine Hornby, Susan P Mollan, Hannah Botfield, Michael W OʼReilly, Alexandra J Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Traditional risk factors associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) include obesity, weight gain, and female sex. The incidence of IIH is increasing and yet the underlying trigger and the fueling pathological mechanisms are still poorly understood. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, and neurosurgery literature was made. RESULTS: The facts that implicate sex and obesity in IIH and headache are examined...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Changliang Jing, Zhiguo Wen, Ping Zou, Yuan Yuan, Weiran Jing, Yiqiang Li, Chengsheng Zhang
This study investigated the potential health benefits of two different species of black legume [ Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. and Glycine max (L.) Merr.] on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 20% (w/w) black legume for 12 weeks, and the effects on weight gain, serum lipid levels, liver histology, gut fermentation, and microbiome profile were examined. Consumption of black legumes improved the blood lipid profile and increased fecal propionate and butyrate contents; this was accompanied by a reduction in hepatic steatosis and adipocyte size...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Guannan Huang, Joella Xu, Dunpeng Cai, Shi-You Chen, Tamas Nagy, Tai L Guo
Despite various hypothesized benefits of dietary isoflavone genistein (GEN) from soy-based products, many questions surrounding GEN's immunotoxic effects, especially during perinatal exposure, have yet to be answered. The objective of the study was to determine if there existed a sex specific effect of GEN on type 1 diabetes (T1D) following perinatal exposure. We exposed offspring of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice to GEN per oral at a physiological dose (20 mg/kg body weight) from embryonic day 7 to postnatal day (PND) 21...
July 5, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Priscilla Samuel, Keith T Ayoob, Bernadene A Magnuson, Ursula Wölwer-Rieck, Per Bendix Jeppesen, Peter J Rogers, Ian Rowland, Rebecca Mathews
Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted and purified from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant, a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family that is native to South America, where it has been used for its sweet properties for hundreds of years. With continued increasing rates of obesity, diabetes, and other related comorbidities, in conjunction with global public policies calling for reductions in sugar intake as a means to help curb these issues, low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs, also known as high-potency sweeteners) such as stevia are gaining interest among consumers and food manufacturers...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Maria R C de Godoy
The prominent incidence of overweight and obese pet animals not only results in higher morbidity and mortality, but also poses a threat for the quality of life, longevity, and well-being of dogs and cats. To date, strategies to prevent BW gain or to induce weight loss have had modest success in the pet population. In part, due to the complexity and the multifactorial nature of this disease, which involves pet-human interaction, environmental and dietary factors, and an intertwined metabolic process that still is not fully understood...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Cathie Martin
Background: The challenges of achieving global food security have become more demanding as scientists have realized that not only calorie content but also food composition and colonic microbial content impact our health and well-being, dramatically. The ways that the nutrients we consume affect our health are highly complex due to the diversity of what we eat, the varying digestibility of what we eat, the changing composition and functioning of each individual's gut microbiota, the differences in absorption and bioavailability of the nutrients we eat, the differences in responses between individuals to what they eat and the multi-fold mechanisms of action that nutrients have on our health...
July 6, 2018: Annals of Botany
Seung Yeon Lee, Jong Hwan Sung
Hepatic steatosis is a process of abnormal lipid deposition within the liver cells, often caused by excessive alcohol uptake or obesity. A conventional in vitro model for hepatic steatosis uses a liver cell culture, treated with fatty acids and measures accumulation of lipids within the cells. This model does not recapitulate the complex process of absorption and metabolism of digestive lipids. Here, we introduce a gut-liver chip, which mimics the gut-absorption and hepatic metabolism in a microfluidic chip...
July 7, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Keerati Wanchai, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Wannipa Tunapong, Titikorn Chunchai, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Siriporn Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
The relationship between gut dysbiosis and obesity is currently acknowledged to be a health topic which causes low-grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance and may damage the kidney.  Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) has been shown as a transporter responsible for renal handling of gut microbiota products which involved in the progression of metabolic disorder.  This study investigated the effect of probiotic supplementation on kidney function, renal Oat3 function, inflammation, ER stress and apoptosis in obese insulin-resistant rats...
July 6, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Hiroaki Masuzaki, Chisayo Kozuka, Shiki Okamoto, Masato Yonamine, Hideaki Tanaka, Michio Shimabukuro
Chronic overconsumption of animal fats causes a variety of health problems including diabetes mellitus and obesity disease. Underlying molecular mechanisms encompass leptin resistance, decrease in rewarding effects of physical activities, xanthine oxidase-induced oxidative stress in vasculature and peripheral tissue, impaired activation of incretin signaling, deviation in food preference and dysbiosis of gut microbiota. Based on our clinical observation that dairy intake of brown rice effectively ameliorates body weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance / insulin resistance and dependence on fatty foods in obese, pre-diabetic men, a line of research on brown rice (rice bran)-derived γ-oryzanol in mice experiments, cultured cells and human clinical trials is underway in our laboratory...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Hongshan Wang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Shanshan Wang, Heng Li, Zhenming Lu, Jinsong Shi, Zhenghong Xu
The gut microbiota is considered to be associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) is widely used as a natural additive, and its effect on promoting fat metabolism has been reported. Here, we performed a 11-week study on C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with/without MOS supplementation, and the results showed that MOS could attenuate high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome, including slower body weight gain, lowered serum lipids and reduced insulin resistance...
July 5, 2018: Food & Function
Klodian Dhana, Jess Haines, Gang Liu, Cuilin Zhang, Xiaobin Wang, Alison E Field, Jorge E Chavarro, Qi Sun
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between an overall maternal healthy lifestyle (characterized by a healthy body mass index, high quality diet, regular exercise, no smoking, and light to moderate alcohol intake) and the risk of developing obesity in offspring. DESIGN: Prospective cohort studies of mother-child pairs. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) and Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 24 289 GUTS participants aged 9-14 years at baseline who were free of obesity and born to 16 945 NHSII women...
July 4, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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