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Obesity gut

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819768/maternal-obesity-is-associated-with-gut-microbial-metabolic-potential-in-offspring-during-infancy
#1
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruiz, Ruy Jáuregui, Hatim Azaryah, Francisco José Torres-Espínola, Luz García-Valdés, M Teresa Segura, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully understood. Our study aimed to investigate differences in the functions encoded by the microbiome of infants at 18 months of age when the transition from early infant-feeding to solid family foods is established. To investigate the impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index on infants' gut microbiome, faecal samples from infants born to normoweight (n = 21) and obese mothers (n = 18) were analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a functional-inference-based microbiome analysis...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819193/experiments-suggesting-extra-digestive-effects-of-enteral-pancreatic-amylase-and-its-peptides-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-a-pig-model
#2
Stefan G Pierzynowski, Kateryna Goncharova, Peter C Gregory, Björn Weström, Sergiy E Podpryatov, Sergii S Podpriatov, Jarosław Woliński, Hlib Repich, Nils Wierup, Liudmyla Lozinska
The studies presented were designed to highlight the impact of pancreatic enzymes on glycemic control and insulin response. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were monitored after intravenous, oral or direct gut glucose tolerance tests (GTT) in 6 pigs with an intact gastrointestinal tract and in 12 pigs following duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery. In the intact pigs, pancreatic enzymes (Creon®) given orally 1 h prior to the GTT, lowered the blood glucose levels during the oral and meal GTT and reduced the plasma insulin response during the intravenous and meal GTT...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815303/effect-of-barley-supplementation-on-the-fecal-microbiota-caecal-biochemistry-and-key-biomarkers-of-obesity-and-inflammation-in-obese-db-db-mice
#3
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, David A Mills, Kevin Murphy, Giuliana Noratto
PURPOSE: Barley is a low-glycemic index grain that can help diabetic and obese patients. The effect of barley intake depends on the host and the associated gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of barley intake on the fecal microbiota, caecal biochemistry, and key biomarkers of obesity and inflammation. METHODS: Obese db/db mice were fed diets with and without barley during 8 weeks; lean mice were used as lean controls. Fecal microbiota was evaluated using 16S marker gene sequencing in a MiSeq instrument; several markers of caecal biochemistry, obesity, and inflammation were also evaluated using standard techniques...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811552/deregulation-of-transcription-factors-controlling-intestinal-epithelial-cell-differentiation-a-predisposing-factor-for-reduced-enteroendocrine-cell-number-in-morbidly-obese-individuals
#4
Bettina K Wölnerhanssen, Andrew W Moran, Galina Burdyga, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Ralph Peterli, Michael Manz, Miriam Thumshirn, Kristian Daly, Christoph Beglinger, Soraya P Shirazi-Beechey
Morbidly obese patients exhibit impaired secretion of gut hormones that may contribute to the development of obesity. After bariatric surgery there is a dramatic increase in gut hormone release. In this study, gastric and duodenal tissues were endoscopically collected from lean, and morbidly obese subjects before and 3 months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Tissue morphology, abundance of chromogranin A, gut hormones, α-defensin, mucin 2, Na(+)/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) and transcription factors, Hes1, HATH1, NeuroD1, and Ngn3, were determined...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810829/blocking-il-10-signalling-at-the-time-of-immunization-does-not-increase-unwanted-side-effects-in-mice
#5
Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei
BACKGROUND: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. However, IL-10 deficiency leads to autoimmune disease in the gut...
August 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808865/glucagon-like-peptides-1-and-2-are-involved-in-satiety-modulation-after-modified-biliopancreatic-diversion-results-of-a-pilot-study
#6
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of modified biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) on the levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 and correlate them with satiety regulation. METHODS: This is a pilot prospective cohort study that evaluated six mildly obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which underwent modified BPD and were followed-up for 12 months. Levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 after a standard meal tolerance test were determined and correlated with satiety scores obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS)...
August 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807102/bitter-melon-powder-protects-against-obesity-associated-fatty-liver-disease-by-improving-colonic-microenvironment-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#7
Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
This study explored how bitter melon powder (BMP) alters the colonic microenvironment during the development of obesity-associated fatty liver in rats. We observed that BMP effectively inhibited the body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver, ameliorated glucose intolerance, and increased the colon weight after an 8-week treatment compared to that in the high-fat diet (HFD) group. BMP significantly decreased fecal water toxicity towards HT-29 cells, as revealed by the cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay results, and the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in colon mucosa...
August 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805745/insulin-resistance-and-nafld-a-dangerous-liaison-beyond-the-genetics
#8
REVIEW
Melania Manco
Over the last decade, the understanding of the association between insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has dramatically evolved. There is clear understanding that carriers of some common genetic variants, i.e., the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) or the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) are at risk of developing severe forms of NAFLD even in the presence of reduced or absent IR. In contrast, there are obese patients with "metabolic" (non-genetically driven) NAFLD who present severe IR...
August 14, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805670/appetite-and-gut-hormones-response-to-a-putative-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-salacia-chinensis-in-overweight-obese-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Lihong Hao, Yvette Schlussel, Krista Fieselmann, Stephen H Schneider, Sue A Shapses
Animal studies indicate Salacia reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether Salacia Chinensis (SC) reduces appetite in healthy overweight/obese individuals (body mass index 28.8 ±3.6 kg/m²; 32 ± 12 years). Forty-eight participants were fasted overnight and consumed a dose of SC (300 or 500 mg) or placebo with a fixed breakfast meal at each visit...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804483/the-impact-of-western-diet-and-nutrients-on-the-microbiota-and-immune-response-at-mucosal-interfaces
#10
REVIEW
Donjete Statovci, Mònica Aguilera, John MacSharry, Silvia Melgar
Recent findings point toward diet having a major impact on human health. Diets can either affect the gut microbiota resulting in alterations in the host's physiological responses or by directly targeting the host response. The microbial community in the mammalian gut is a complex and dynamic system crucial for the development and maturation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the complex interaction between available nutrients, the microbiota, and the immune system are central regulators in maintaining homeostasis and fighting against invading pathogens at mucosal sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802874/targeting-gastrointestinal-nutrient-sensing-mechanisms-to-treat-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Mariana Norton, Kevin G Murphy
Gut hormones have important roles in the regulation of appetite and glucose homeostasis. Understanding how macronutrient sensing in the gastrointestinal tract modulates gut hormone release may reveal novel pharmacological or dietary approaches to metabolic disease. In this short review we discuss the mechanisms by which the gut senses macronutrients and the products of macronutrient digestion, and their putative utility in treating obesity and related conditions.
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802873/gut-check-on-diabesity-leveraging-gut-mechanisms-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Sarah Will, David C Hornigold, David J Baker, Matthew P Coghlan, Malcolm Mesquita, James L Trevaskis, Jacqueline Naylor
Gut hormones have long been understood to regulate food intake and metabolism. Bariatric surgery significantly elevates circulating gut hormone levels and is proven to affect acute remission of type 2 diabetes before any weight loss is observed. Subsequent weight loss is accrued over weeks to months but is sustained into the long term. Hence, there exists great enthusiasm to recapitulate these changes in gut hormones in the form of novel combination drugs for type 2 diabetes and obesity.
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800407/human-brown-adipose-tissue-function-and-therapeutic-potential-in-metabolic-disease
#13
REVIEW
Padmanabh Shrikant Bhatt, Waljit S Dhillo, Victoria Salem
There has been a resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) over the last decade. Key to this has been our ability to accurately image it, which has improved significantly. The role of BAT in regulating energy expenditure is important, and its pharmacological manipulation may hold therapeutic potential in metabolic disease. There is ample evidence of BAT activation by cold exposure, and pharmacological utilisation of similar pathways, using B3 receptor agonists holds promise since the development of selective agonists with limited cross-reactivity has rekindled interest...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799778/how-important-is-tryptophan-in-human-health
#14
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Paulina Gątarek, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Max Stanley Chartrand, Geir Bjørklund
Tryptophan (Trp) is an amino acid and an essential component of the human diet. It plays a crucial role in many metabolic functions. Clinicians can use Trp levels in the course of diagnosing various metabolic disorders and the symptoms associated with those diseases. Furthermore, supplementation with this amino acid is considered in the treatment of depression and sleep disorders, mainly due to the Trp relationship with the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin. It is also used in helping to resolve cognitive disorders, anxiety, or neurodegenerative diseases...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799667/coadministration-of-isomalto-oligosaccharides-augments-metabolic-health-benefits-of-cinnamaldehyde-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#15
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Pragyanshu Khare, Vandana Bijalwan, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Bacteriostatic properties of a potential anti-obesity agent cinnamaldehyde (CMN) may present untoward effects on the resident gut microbiota. Here, we evaluated whether the combination of Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) with CMN prevents unwanted effects of CMN on gut microbiota and associated metabolic outcomes in HFD-fed mice. Male Swiss albino mice divided into four groups (n = 10), were fed on normal chow, or HFD (58% fat kcal), HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) and HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) + IMOs (1 g kg(-1) ) for 12 weeks...
August 11, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799153/-fungi-in-the-gut-the-gut-mycobiome
#16
Herbert Hof
Many different fungi, including yeasts and molds, can be found in the intestinal tract of humans constituting the gut mycobiome. In case the bacterial flora is altered, the fungal flora may react inversely. By a so-called fungal diet, however, the composition of the mycobiome can hardly be influenced. Whereas some fungi are only transiently present in the gut after oral uptake, others, such as Candida, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, amongst others, are members of the residential, autochthonous gut flora...
August 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797248/the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-to-treat-diabetes-current-challenges-and-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Carel W le Roux, Alexander Kokkinos
Bariatric surgery is emerging as a powerful weapon against severe obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Given its role in metabolic regulation, the gastrointestinal tract constitutes a meaningful target to treat T2DM, especially in light of accumulating evidence that surgery with gastrointestinal manipulations may result in T2DM remission (metabolic surgery). The major mechanisms mediating the weight loss-independent effects of bariatric surgery comprise effects on tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and incretin responses, changes in bile acid composition and flow, modifications of gut microbiota, intestinal glucose metabolism and increased brown adipose tissue metabolic activity...
August 10, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795972/acetate-a-diet-derived-key-metabolite-in-energy-metabolism-good-or-bad-in-context-of-obesity-and-glucose-homeostasis
#18
Emanuel E Canfora, Ellen E Blaak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent research findings on effects of the short-chain fatty acid acetate in the control of body weight, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. For this purpose, relevant animal and human in-vivo studies were reviewed and putative mechanisms and pathways were discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal and human in-vivo studies provide strong indications for a beneficial role of orally ingested or colonically derived acetate, in the energy and substrate metabolism, thereby preventing or reversing the obese insulin-resistant phenotype...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794470/endocrine-disruptors-induce-perturbations-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derivatives
#19
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Camille Ocampo, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We delineate the effects upon physiological low-dose exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals including, perfluoro-octanoic acid, tributyltin, and butylhydroxytoluene, in endocrine-active human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived foregut epithelial cells and hypothalamic neurons...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793322/stool-consistency-is-significantly-associated-with-pain-perception
#20
Yukiko Shiro, Young-Chang Arai, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Kazuhiro Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria can influence a variety of gut functions, thereby leading to constipation and diarrhea in severe cases. In fact, several researchers have reported evidence supporting the association between stool consistency or constipation and the Gut microbiome (GM) composition and dysbiosis. GM influences the human health and disease via the gut-brain axis. We thus hypothesized that the pathogenic bacteria increases pain perception to some extent, which means that there could be an association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
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