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Obesity gut

Wonsuk Choi, Jun Namkung, Inseon Hwang, Hyeongseok Kim, Ajin Lim, Hye Jung Park, Hye Won Lee, Kwang-Hyub Han, Seongyeol Park, Ji-Seon Jeong, Geul Bang, Young Hwan Kim, Vijay K Yadav, Gerard Karsenty, Young Seok Ju, Chan Choi, Jae Myoung Suh, Jun Yong Park, Sangkyu Park, Hail Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in worldwide prevalence, closely tracking the obesity epidemic, but specific pharmaceutical treatments for NAFLD are lacking. Defining the key molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of NAFLD is essential for developing new drugs. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of gut-derived serotonin synthesis ameliorates hepatic steatosis through a reduction in liver serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) signaling. Local serotonin concentrations in the portal blood, which can directly travel to and affect the liver, are selectively increased by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in mice...
November 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Renato Tambucci, Paolo Quitadamo, Michela Ambrosi, Paola De Angelis, Giulia Angelino, Stefano Stagi, Albero Verrotti, Annamaria Staiano, Giovanni Farello
OBJECTIVE: Although emerging data indicate that obese/overweight children are more likely to develop functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) than normal-weight peers, contrasting results have been reported. The present observational, case-control study aimed at estimating the prevalence of FGIDs in obese/overweight children compared to normal-weight peers. METHODS: Consecutive obese and overweight children aged 4-18 years attending the obesity outpatient clinic were enrolled as study cases...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Christopher L Gentile, Tiffany L Weir
Diet affects multiple facets of human health and is inextricably linked to chronic metabolic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary nutrients are essential not only for human health but also for the health and survival of the trillions of microbes that reside within the human intestines. Diet is a key component of the relationship between humans and their microbial residents; gut microbes use ingested nutrients for fundamental biological processes, and the metabolic outputs of those processes may have important impacts on human physiology...
November 16, 2018: Science
Elena Minakova, Barbara B Warner
Maternal immune activation (MIA) refers to a maternal immune system triggered by infectious or infectious-like stimuli. A cascade of cytokines and immunologic alterations are transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse phenotypes most notably in the central nervous system. Epidemiologic studies implicate maternal infections in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In animal models, MIA causes neurochemical and anatomic changes in the brain that correspond to those found in humans with the disorders...
November 14, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Monica Bodogai, Jennifer O'Connell, Ki Kim, Yoo Kim, Kanako Moritoh, Chen Chen, Fedor Gusev, Kelli Vaughan, Natalia Shulzhenko, Julie A Mattison, Catalina Lee-Chang, Weixuan Chen, Olga Carlson, Kevin G Becker, Manoj Gurung, Andrey Morgun, James White, Theresa Meade, Kathy Perdue, Matthias Mack, Luigi Ferrucci, Giorgio Trinchieri, Rafael de Cabo, Evgeny Rogaev, Josephine Egan, Jiejun Wu, Arya Biragyn
Aging in humans is associated with increased hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (collectively termed IR) and dysregulation of the immune system. However, the causative factors underlying their association remain unknown. Here, using "healthy" aged mice and macaques, we found that IR was induced by activated innate 4-1BBL+ B1a cells. These cells (also known as 4BL cells) accumulated in aging in response to changes in gut commensals and a decrease in beneficial metabolites such as butyrate. We found evidence suggesting that loss of the commensal bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila impaired intestinal integrity, causing leakage of bacterial products such as endotoxin, which activated CCR2+ monocytes when butyrate was decreased...
November 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Yan Wang, Yanquan Fei, Lirui Liu, Yunhua Xiao, Yilin Pang, Jinhe Kang, Zheng Wang
Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays vital roles in metabolic diseases. Polygonatum odoratum extract alleviates hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of P. odoratum polysaccharides (POPs) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats and whether these effects were related to modulation of gut microbiota. POP treatment attenuated weight gain, fat accumulation, epididymal adipocyte size, liver triglycerides, and total liver cholesterol content in HFD-fed rats...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ahmad Javanmard, Sara Ashtari, Babak Sabet, Seyed Hossein Davoodi, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Azadeh Niaz, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian
Cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) track are a serious global health problem. The human GI tract is home to trillions of microorganisms that known as gut microbiota and have established a symbiotic relationship with the host. The human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of the gut immune system, metabolism, nutrition absorption, production of short-chain fatty acids and essential vitamins, resistance to pathogenic microorganisms, and modulates a normal immunological response...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Ruairi C Robertson, Kiera Murphy, Catherine Stanton, Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Lei Hao, Atul K Bhan, Jing X Kang
BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanism of the sexual dimorphism in susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) is important for the development of effective interventions for MS. RESULTS: Here we show that gut microbiome mediates the preventive effect of estrogen (17β-estradiol) on metabolic endotoxemia (ME) and low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI), the underlying causes of MS and chronic diseases. The characteristic profiles of gut microbiome observed in female and 17β-estradiol-treated male and ovariectomized mice, such as decreased Proteobacteria and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, were associated with a lower susceptibility to ME, LGCI, and MS in these animals...
November 13, 2018: Microbiome
Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Loredana Baffoni, Francesca Gaggìa, Diana Di Gioia
The human intestinal microbiota, establishing a symbiotic relationship with the host, plays a significant role for human health. It is also well known that a disease status is frequently characterized by a dysbiotic condition of the gut microbiota. A probiotic treatment can represent an alternative therapy for enteric disorders and human pathologies not apparently linked to the gastrointestinal tract. Among bifidobacteria, strains of the species Bifidobacterium breve are widely used in paediatrics. B. breve is the dominant species in the gut of breast-fed infants and it has also been isolated from human milk...
November 10, 2018: Nutrients
Michela Bottani, Laura Cornaghi, Elena Donetti, Anita Ferraretto
OBJECTIVES: The intestinal cell function can be modulated by the type and quantity of nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an excess of nutrients on intestinal morphofunctional features and a possible association of inflammation in a 70/30 Caco2/HT-29 intestinal in vitro co-culture. METHODS: An excess of nutrients (EX) was obtained by progressively increasing the medium change frequency with respect to standard cell growth conditions (ST) from confluence (T0) to 15 d after confluence (T15)...
August 3, 2018: Nutrition
Christian L Roth, Susan J Melhorn, Clinton T Elfers, Kelley Scholz, Mary Rosalynn B De Leon, Maya Rowland, Sue Kearns, Elizabeth Aylward, Thomas J Grabowski, Brian E Saelens, Ellen A Schur
Context: Behavioral studies suggest that responses to food consumption are altered in children with obesity. Objective: To test central nervous system and peripheral hormone response by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and satiety-regulating hormone levels before and after a meal. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional study comparing children with obesity (OB) and children of healthy weight (HW) recruited from across the Puget Sound region of Washington...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
J Bai, Y Hu, D W Bruner
BACKGROUND: The association between the gut microbiota and obesity in young children and adolescents is not fully studied. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the associations between the gut microbiota and body mass index (BMI) level (underweight, normal, overweight, obese) and lifestyles (diet type and exercise frequency), controlling for demographic and clinical factors among children aged 7-18 years. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted on 267 children aged 7-18 years from the American Gut Project...
November 11, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
F-G Wang, G Campisciano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Jana Hundertmark, Oliver Krenkel, Frank Tacke
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic macrophages, mainly comprising monocyte derived macrophages and tissue resident Kupffer cells, are characterized by a high diversity and plasticity and act as key regulators during NAFLD progression, in conjunction with other infiltrating myeloid cells like neutrophils or dendritic cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Naoki Sasaki, Sayaka Katagiri, Rina Komazaki, Kazuki Watanabe, Shogo Maekawa, Takahiko Shiba, Sayuri Udagawa, Yasuo Takeuchi, Anri Ohtsu, Takashi Kohda, Haruka Tohara, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Tomomitsu Hirota, Mayumi Tamari, Yuichi Izumi
Many risk factors related to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been proposed, including the most well-known of diabetes and obesity as well as periodontitis. As periodontal pathogenic bacteria produce endotoxins, periodontal treatment can result in endotoxemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intravenous, sonicated Porphyromonas gingivalis ( Pg ) injection on glucose/lipid metabolism, liver steatosis, and gut microbiota in mice. Endotoxemia was induced in C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks old) by intravenous injection of sonicated Pg ; Pg was deactivated but its endotoxin remained...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Umesh D Wankhade, Ying Zhong, Ping Kang, Maria Alfaro, Sree V Chintapalli, Brian D Piccolo, Kelly E Mercer, Aline Andres, Keshari M Thakali, Kartik Shankar
The contributions of maternal diet and obesity in shaping offspring microbiome remain unclear. Here we employed a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity via high-fat diet feeding (HFD, 45% fat calories) for 12 wk prior to conception on offspring gut microbial ecology. Male and female offspring were provided access to control or HFD from weaning until 17 wk of age. Maternal HFD-associated programming was sexually dimorphic, with male offspring from HFD dams showing hyper-responsive weight gain to postnatal HFD...
November 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vania Patrone, Andrea Minuti, Michela Lizier, Francesco Miragoli, Franco Lucchini, Erminio Trevisi, Filippo Rossi, Maria Luisa Callegari
BACKGROUND: Animal studies show that high fat (HF) diet-induced gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity. Oil composition of high-fat diet affects metabolic inflammation differently with deleterious effects by saturated fat. The aim of the present study was to examine the diversity and metabolic capacity of the cecal bacterial community in C57BL/6 N mice administered two different diets, enriched respectively with coconut oil (HFC, high in saturated fat) or soy oil (HFS, high in polyunsaturated fat)...
November 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Whole grain (WG) intake is associated with reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term intervention with WG rye on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers in middle-aged test subjects. METHOD: Rye-based breads were provided to 38 healthy test subjects (aged 52-70y) during three consecutive days in a crossover study design, using white wheat flour bread (WWB) as a reference...
November 6, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Clara S A Sugizaki, Maria Margareth V Naves
Obesity is a global epidemic chronic condition and is progressing at a rapid rate. This review focuses on the potential prebiotic properties of nuts and edible seeds and the plausible mechanisms that their consumption may help the prevention and the management of overweight and obesity. The literature review was performed by searching papers about the topic in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. The healthy attributes of nuts and edible seeds, especially dietary fibers and polyphenols contents, indicate that their mechanism of weight gain prevention may occur through interaction with the gut microbiota, by means of prebiotic effects...
November 3, 2018: Nutrients
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