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Obesity gut

Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Cornelia Habacher, Yanwu Guo, Richard Venz, Pooja Kumari, Anca Neagu, Dimos Gaidatzis, Eva B Harvald, Nils J Færgeman, Heinz Gut, Rafal Ciosk
Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
August 8, 2016: Nutrition
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Bruno Geloneze, Elinton Adami Chaim, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery usually leads to improvement on the general lipid profile, but its role in the levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (Apo-AIV) is not completely understood. Apo-AIV is a gut-released lipoprotein which is enrolled in satiety regulation and presents anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) in the levels of Apo-AIV. METHODS: This is a prospective exploratory study which evaluated eight obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent BPD (Scopinaro operation) and were followed-up for 12 months...
October 15, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Keith M Godfrey, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susan L Prescott, Moffat Nyirenda, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Johan G Eriksson, Birit F P Broekman
In addition to immediate implications for pregnancy complications, increasing evidence implicates maternal obesity as a major determinant of offspring health during childhood and later adult life. Observational studies provide evidence for effects of maternal obesity on her offspring's risks of obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and asthma. Maternal obesity could also lead to poorer cognitive performance and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Preliminary evidence suggests potential implications for immune and infectious-disease-related outcomes...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Chiara Valsecchi, Sara Carlotta Tagliacarne, Annamaria Castellazzi
Intestinal microbiota is composed by symbiotic innocuous bacteria and potential pathogens also called pathobionts. The human gut normally hosts roughly 1014 bacterial organisms of up to 1000 different species. The genome size of this microbial organ, collectively named microbiome, exceeds the size of the human nuclear genome by 2 orders of magnitude.
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Valeriy A Poroyko, Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B Chang, David Gozal
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rinki Murphy, Peter Tsai, Mia Jüllig, Amy Liu, Lindsay Plank, Michael Booth
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether specific gut microbiota is associated with remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after distinct types of bariatric surgery. AIMS: The aim of this study is to examine gut microbiota changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgery in obese patients with T2D. METHODS: Whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of DNA fragments using Illumina HiSeq2000 was obtained from stool samples collected from 14 obese T2D patients pre-operatively (while on very low calorie diet) and 1 year after randomisation to laparoscopic SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7)...
October 13, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, GLP-1, GLP-2, and GIP exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels, and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
October 12, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
Jie Zhang, Alan R Light, Charles L Hoppel, Caitlin Campbell, Carol J Chandler, Dustin J Burnett, Elaine C Souza, Gretchen A Casazza, Ronald W Hughen, Nancy L Keim, John W Newman, Gary R Hunter, Jose R Fernandez, W Timothy Garvey, Mary-Ellen Harper, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams
With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation [FAO]). We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ∼14 wk training and weight loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Laure B Bindels, Isabelle Leclercq
Gut micro-organisms are recognized as crucial regulators of host immunity and the microbiota has been implicated in several inflammatory, immune, inflammatory or even psychiatric disorders. Therefore the analysis of the complex interactions between gut microbiota and the host is currently under intense investigation. Most of our knowledge stems from the study of animal models while translational research and data in humans are necessary to move the field forward and to evolve to diagnostic and therapeutic application...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Min-Hsiung Pan, Yen-Chen Tung, Guliang Yang, Shiming Li, Chi-Tang Ho
Obesity is a serious health problem in adults and children worldwide. However, the basic strategies for the management of obesity (diet, exercise, drugs and surgery) have limitations and side effects. Therefore, many researchers have sought to identify bioactive components in food. Tea and coffee are the most frequently consumed beverages in the whole world. Their health benefits have been studied for decades, especially those of green tea. The anti-obesity effect of tea and coffee has been studied for at least ten years...
October 10, 2016: Food & Function
Christian Carlucci, Elaine O Petrof, Emma Allen-Vercoe
The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem of fundamental importance to human health. Our increased understanding of gut microbial composition and functional interactions in health and disease states has spurred research efforts examining the gut microbiome as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. This review provides updated insight into the state of the gut microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), ulcerative colitis (UC), and obesity while addressing the rationale for the modulation of the gut microbiome using fecal microbiota transplant (FMT)-based therapies...
October 1, 2016: EBioMedicine
Sonakshi Bhattacharjee, Nils Kalbfuss, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa
Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in diseases that are ascribed to alter metabolism eventually resulting in conditions including obesity, type-2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Of the many factors to which this rise has been attributed, including diet, physical activity, and inflammation, several studies have correlated these disease states with alterations in gut microbiota. Simultaneously, studies have demonstrated the ability of parasites to alter microbial communities within their shared niche, leading to alterations in inflammatory processes...
October 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Son G Nguyen, Jungman Kim, Robin B Guevarra, Ji-Hoon Lee, Eungpil Kim, Su-Il Kim, Tatsuya Unno
We investigated the anti-obesity effects of the potential prebiotic, laminarin, on mice fed a high-fat diet. A metagenomics approach was applied to characterize the ecological and functional differences of gut microbiota among mice fed a normal diet (CTL), a high-fat diet (HFD), and a laminarin-supplemented high-fat diet (HFL). The HFL mice showed a slower weight gain than the HFD mice during the laminarin-feeding period, but the rate of weight gain increased after the termination of laminarin supplementation...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Bjoern O Schroeder, Fredrik Bäckhed
The ecosystem of the human gut consists of trillions of bacteria forming a bioreactor that is fueled by dietary macronutrients to produce bioactive compounds. These microbiota-derived metabolites signal to distant organs in the body, which enables the gut bacteria to connect to the immune and hormone system, to the brain (the gut-brain axis) and to host metabolism, as well as other functions of the host. This microbe-host communication is essential to maintain vital functions of the healthy host. Recently, however, the gut microbiota has been associated with a number of diseases, ranging from obesity and inflammatory diseases to behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders...
October 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
Cicely Proctor, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity...
October 5, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Allison L Richards, Michael B Burns, Adnan Alazizi, Luis B Barreiro, Roger Pique-Regi, Ran Blekhman, Francesca Luca
Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota in healthy and disease states. However, establishing the causality of host-microbiota interactions in humans is still challenging. Here, we describe a novel experimental system to define the transcriptional response induced by the microbiota in human cells and to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying host-gut microbiota interactions. In primary human colonic epithelial cells, we identified over 6,000 genes that change expression at various time points following co-culturing with the gut microbiota of a healthy individual...
July 2016: MSystems
Muhammad Jaffar Khan, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Christine Ann Edwards, M Guftar Shaikh
The aetiology of obesity has been attributed to several factors (environmental, dietary, lifestyle, host, and genetic factors); however none of these fully explain the increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide. Gut microbiota located at the interface of host and environment in the gut are a new area of research being explored to explain the excess accumulation of energy in obese individuals and may be a potential target for therapeutic manipulation to reduce host energy storage. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the role of gut microbiota in the aetiology of obesity such as short chain fatty acid production, stimulation of hormones, chronic low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein and bile acid metabolism, and increased endocannabinoid receptor system tone...
2016: Journal of Obesity
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