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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655677/an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-a-4-herb-formula-on-the-management-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Elaine Wat, Yanping Wang, Ken Chan, Hon Wai Law, Chi Man Koon, Kit Man Lau, Ping Chung Leung, Choly Yan, Clara Bik San Lau
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655462/obesity-thrombotic-risk-and-inflammation-in-cancer
#2
Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E García-Luna, María G Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A Reyes, Arnulfo H Nava-Zavala
Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653264/helminth-infection-in-mice-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#3
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649441/small-intestine-microbiota-regulate-host-digestive-and-absorptive-adaptive-responses-to-dietary-lipids
#4
Kristina Martinez-Guryn, Nathaniel Hubert, Katya Frazier, Saskia Urlass, Mark W Musch, Patricia Ojeda, Joseph F Pierre, Jun Miyoshi, Timothy J Sontag, Candace M Cham, Catherine A Reardon, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota play important roles in lipid metabolism and absorption. However, the contribution of the small bowel microbiota of mammals to these diet-microbe interactions remains unclear. We determine that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and malabsorb fat with specifically impaired lipid digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Small bowel microbes are essential for host adaptation to dietary lipid changes by regulating gut epithelial processes involved in their digestion and absorption...
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#5
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626530/high-fat-diet-affects-gut-nutrients-transporters-in-hypo-and-hyperthyroid-mice-by-ppar-a-independent-mechanism
#6
Mariana Cerqueira Losacco, Carolina Fernanda Theodora de Almeida, Andressa Harumi Torelli Hijo, Paula Bargi-Souza, Patricia Gama, Maria Tereza Nunes, Francemilson Goulart-Silva
AIMS: High fat diet consumes and thyroid hormones (THs) disorders may affect nutrients metabolism, but their impact on the absorptive epithelium, the first place of nutrients access, remains unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the intestinal morphology and nutrients transporters content in mice fed standard (LFD) or high fat (HFD) diets in hypo or hyperthyroidism-induced condition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice fed LFD or HFD diets for 12 weeks, followed by saline, PTU (antithyroid drug) or T3 treatment up to 30 days...
April 4, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626394/microbiome-and-health-ramifications-of-intelligent-deception
#7
George B Stefano, Rachel Fine, Richard M Kream
Ten thousand years ago, the foundation for agricultural development and animal domestication was laid. Neolithic founder crops were carbohydrate-laden cereal grasses that facilitated transformation of hunter-gather societies into ancient civilizations with realistic capabilities for population expansion. In the last 3-4 decades, however, debilitating medical consequences of a progressively narrowed high caloric diet incorporating processed carbohydrates, animal protein, saturated fat and cholesterol, are translated into a global epidemic of obesity linked to metabolic and endocrine disorders, which, in part, emerged from the enhancement of our longevity...
April 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626219/smoking-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#8
REVIEW
Ziv Savin, Shaye Kivity, Hagith Yonath, Shoenfeld Yehuda
Studies are emerging alluding to the role of intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of diseases. Intestinal microbiome is susceptible to the influence of environmental factors such as smoking, and recent studies have indicated microbiome alterations in smokers. The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the impact of smoking on the intestinal microbiome. A literature review of publications in PUBMED was performed using combinations of the terms "Intestinal/Gut/Gastrointestinal/Colonic" with "Microbiome/Microbiota/Microbial/Flora" and "Smoking/Smoker/Tobacco"...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625018/sugar-sensor-genes-in-the-murine-gastrointestinal-tract-display-a-cephalocaudal-axis-of-expression-and-a-diurnal-rhythm
#9
Patrick O'Brien, Rhys Hewett, Christopher Corpe
Distributed along the length of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are nutrient sensing cells that release numerous signalling peptides influencing GI function, nutrient homeostasis and energy balance. Recent studies have shown a diurnal rhythm in GI nutrient sensing, but the mechanisms responsible for rhythmicity are poorly understood. In this report we studied murine GI sugar sensor gene and protein expression levels in the morning (7am) and evening (7pm). Sweet taste receptor (tas1r2/tas1r3/gnat3/ gnat1) sugar transporter (slc5a1, slc2a2, slc2a5) and putative sugar sensor (slc5a4a and slc5a4b) gene expression levels were highest in tongue, proximal and distal small intestine, respectively...
April 6, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623708/-gut-microbiota-its-development-and-relation-to-certain-diseases
#10
Hana Kiňová Sepová, Boris Dudík, Andrea Bilková
Coexistence of humans with microorganisms is well known for a long time. Besides the association with infectious diseases, personal microbiota is important for human health, possibly for some non-infectious diseases. Colonization of the human body with appropriate microorganisms after delivery is essential for physiological immune system maturation and also has an influence on central nervous system development. The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by the mode of delivery, early life nutrition and last but not least by lifestyle and drug, especially antibiotics intake...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620942/food-withdrawal-alters-the-gut-microbiota-and-metabolome-in-mice
#11
Xiaojiao Zheng, Kejun Zhou, Yunjing Zhang, Xiaolong Han, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Chun Qu, Kun Ge, Fengjie Huang, Brenda Hernandez, Herbert Yu, Jun Panee, Tianlu Chen, Weiping Jia, Wei Jia
Food withdrawal as a health-enhancing measure has beneficial effects on aging, disease prevention, and treatment. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involving gut microbial changes and metabolic consequences resulting from food withdrawal have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we subjected lean and obese mice to a dietary intervention that consisted of a 4-d complete food withdrawal and an 8-d 50% food withdrawal, and we studied changes in cecal microbiome and host serum metabolome. The abundance of potentially pathogenic Proteobacteria was decreased and Akkermansia muciniphila was elevated by food withdrawal in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
April 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618009/constructing-lightweight-and-flexible-pipelines-using-plugin-based-microbiome-analysis-pluma
#12
Trevor Cickovski, Giri Narasimhan
Motivation: Software pipelines have become almost standardized tools for microbiome analysis. Currently many pipelines are available, often sharing some of the same algorithms as stages. This is largely because each pipeline has its own source language and file formats, making it typically more economical to reinvent the wheel than to learn and interface to an existing package. We present PluMA, or Plugin-Based Microbiome Analysis, which addresses this problem by providing a lightweight back end that can be infinitely extended using dynamically loaded plugin extensions...
March 29, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617641/mechanisms-of-action-and-therapeutic-application-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#13
REVIEW
Daniel J Drucker
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from gut enteroendocrine cells controls meal-related glycemic excursions through augmentation of insulin and inhibition of glucagon secretion. GLP-1 also inhibits gastric emptying and food intake, actions maximizing nutrient absorption while limiting weight gain. Here I review the circuits engaged by endogenous versus pharmacological GLP-1 action, highlighting key GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-positive cell types and pathways transducing metabolic and non-glycemic GLP-1 signals...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615850/interplay-between-the-gut-brain-axis-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#14
REVIEW
Ana Agustí, Maria P García-Pardo, Inmaculada López-Almela, Isabel Campillo, Michael Maes, Marina Romaní-Pérez, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity continues to be one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence and co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities not only include cardiometabolic disorders but also mood and cognitive disorders. Obese subjects often show deficits in memory, learning and executive functions compared to normal weight subjects. Epidemiological studies also indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and vice versa . These associations between pathologies that presumably have different etiologies suggest shared pathological mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615808/long-term-western-diet-fed-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-rats-exhibit-only-modest-early-atherosclerotic-characteristics
#15
Ida Rune, Bidda Rolin, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Łukasz Krych, Jenny E Kanter, Karin E Bornfeldt, Pernille Kihl, Karsten Buschard, Knud Josefsen, Johannes Josef Fels, Alan Mortensen, Berit Christoffersen, Rikke Kaae Kirk, Axel Kornerup Hansen
In the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse, the gut microbiota has an impact on the development of atherosclerosis, but whether such correlations are also present in rats requires investigation. Therefore, we studied female SD-Apoetm1sage (Apoe-/- ) rats fed either a Western diet or a low-fat control diet with or without gluten, which is known to promote gut microbiota changes, until 20 weeks of age. We hypothesized that the manifestation of atherosclerosis would be more severe in Apoe-/- rats fed the Western high-fat diet, as compared with rats fed the low-fat diet, and that atherosclerosis would be accelerated by gluten...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596446/gut-microbiota-varies-by-opioid-use-circulating-leptin-and-oxytocin-in-african-american-men-with-diabetes-and-high-burden-of-chronic-disease
#16
Elena Barengolts, Stefan J Green, Yuval Eisenberg, Arfana Akbar, Bharathi Reddivari, Brian T Layden, Lara Dugas, George Chlipala
OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota is known to be related to type 2 diabetes (T2D), psychiatric conditions, and opioid use. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that variability in gut microbiota in T2D is associated with psycho-metabolic health. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among African American men (AAM) (n = 99) that were outpatients at a Chicago VA Medical Center. The main outcome measures included fecal microbiota ecology (by 16S rRNA gene sequencing), psychiatric disorders including opioid use, and circulating leptin and oxytocin as representative hormone biomarkers for obesity and psychological pro-social behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577618/flavan-3-ol-procyanidin-metabolomics-in-rat-urine-using-hplc-quadrupole-tof-ms
#17
Saeko Masumoto, Shiori Aoki, Tomisato Miura, Toshihiko Shoji
SCOPE: Several studies have demonstrated that flavan-3-ol/procyanidins are associated with biological functions in the prevention of various chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes. Knowledge of their mechanisms including bioavailability has significantly progressed in the last decade. However, the differences of the metabolic signatures among flavan-3-ol/procyanidins remain ambiguous. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the metabolites in urine over time after acute administration of three typical flavan-3-ol/procyanidins (epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and procyanidin dimer) in view of the chemical structure by HPLC-quadrupole TOF/MS...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576948/characterization-of-the-salivary-microbiome-in-people-with-obesity
#18
Yujia Wu, Xiaopei Chi, Qian Zhang, Feng Chen, Xuliang Deng
Background: The interactions between the gut microbiome and obesity have been extensively studied. Although the oral cavity is the gateway to the gut, and is extensively colonized with microbes, little is known about the oral microbiome in people with obesity. In the present study, we investigated the salivary microbiome in obese and normal weight healthy participants using metagenomic analysis. The subjects were categorized into two groups, obesity and normal weight, based on their BMIs...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568107/augmented-capacity-for-peripheral-serotonin-release-in-human-obesity
#19
Richard L Young, Amanda L Lumsden, Alyce M Martin, Gudrun Schober, Nektaria Pezos, Sony S Thazhath, Nicole J Isaacs, Nada Cvijanovic, Emily W L Sun, Tongzhi Wu, Christopher K Rayner, Nam Q Nguyen, Dayan de Fontgalland, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington, Luigi Sposato, Steven L Due, David A Wattchow, Alice P Liou, V Margaret Jackson, Damien J Keating
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence from animal studies highlights an important role for serotonin (5-HT), derived from gut enterochromaffin (EC) cells, in regulating hepatic glucose production, lipolysis and thermogenesis, and promoting obesity and dysglycemia. Evidence in humans is limited, although elevated plasma 5-HT concentrations are linked to obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We assessed (i) plasma 5-HT concentrations before and during intraduodenal glucose infusion (4 kcal/min for 30 min) in non-diabetic obese (BMI 44 ± 4 kg/m2 , N = 14) and control (BMI 24 ± 1 kg/m2 , N = 10) subjects, (ii) functional activation of duodenal EC cells (immunodetection of phospho-extracellular related-kinase, pERK) in response to glucose, and in separate subjects, (iii) expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) in duodenum and colon (N = 39), and (iv) 5-HT content in primary EC cells from these regions (N = 85)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568104/gut-microbiome-related-lct-genotype-and-2-year-changes-in-body-composition-and-fat-distribution-the-pounds-lost-trial
#20
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Wenjie Ma, Yan Zheng, Catherine M Champagne, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gut microbiome regulates host energy metabolism and adiposity. A recent study identified a genome-wide significant variant in the lactase (LCT) gene that determines gut-microbiome abundance. We investigated whether the LCT variant influenced long-term changes in adiposity among overweight and obese individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We included 583 whites with LCT variant rs4988235 (G allele as Bifidobacterium-abundance-increasing allele) who were randomly assigned to one of four weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient contents...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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