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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740492/patterns-of-early-life-gut-microbial-colonization-during-human-immune-development-an-ecological-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739439/the-association-of-type-ii-diabetes-with-gut-microbiota-composition
#2
Fatemeh Navab-Moghadam, Mansour Sedighi, Mohammad E Khamseh, Fariba Alaei-Shahmiri, Malihe Talebi, Shabnam Razavi, Nour Amirmozafari
It is known that type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans could be linked to the composition of gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate three faecal bacterial species, including Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacterium longum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in patients with T2D. This case control study included 18 patients with T2D and 18 matched persons without diabetes. The concentrations of B. fragilis, B. longum and F. prausnitzii were determined by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the gut bacterial composition in patients with T2D was partially different from that in the healthy individuals...
July 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739098/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-energy-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Wei Li, Denis Richard
Bariatric surgery represents the most efficient therapy for severe obesity. It reduces the size of fat stores or the amount of body fat gain. The bariatric surgery procedures currently used include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, which are the most commonly performed procedures. Other procedures are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and biliopancreatic diversion. The latter represents the most effective surgery for treatment of severe obesity as well as type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery reduces energy intake by restricting the size of the stomach reservoir and causing malabsorption, as in the case of biliopancreatic diversion...
August 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736228/dbz-is-a-putative-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-that-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-gut-dysbiosis
#4
Pengfei Xu, Fan Hong, Jialin Wang, Jing Wang, Xia Zhao, Sheng Wang, Tingting Xue, Jingwei Xu, Xiaohui Zheng, Yonggong Zhai
BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor PPARγ is an effective pharmacological target for some types of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, the current PPARγ-targeting thiazolidinedione drugs have undesirable side effects. Danshensu Bingpian Zhi (DBZ), also known as tanshinol borneol ester derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza, is a synthetic derivative of natural compounds used in traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735873/the-therapeutic-potential-of-purinergic-signalling
#5
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock
This review is focused on the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential of purinergic signalling. A wide range of diseases are considered, including those of the central nervous system, skin, kidney, musculoskeletal, liver gut, lower urinary tract, cardiovascular, airways and reproductive systems, the special senses, infection, diabetes and obesity. Several purinergic drugs are already on the market, including P2Y12 receptor antagonists for stroke and thrombosis, P2Y2 receptor agonists for dry eye, A1 receptor agonists for supraventricular tachycardia...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732571/examining-the-gut-bacteriome-virome-and-mycobiome-in-glucose-metabolism-disorders-are-we-on-the-right-track
#6
REVIEW
Charikleia Stefanaki, Melpomeni Peppa, George Mastorakos, George P Chrousos
Human gut microbiome is defined as the gene complement of the gut microbial community, measured via laboratory metagenomic techniques. It includes bacteriome, virome and mycobiome, which represent, respectively, the assemblages of bacteria, viruses and fungi, living in the human gut. Gut microbiota function as a living "organ" that interacts with the gastro-intestinal environment, provides nutrients and vitamins to the organism and transduces hormonal messages, essentially influencing the main metabolic pathways, including drug metabolism...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730936/an-industry-update-what-is-the-latest-news-in-therapeutic-delivery
#7
Iain Simpson
This Industry Update covers the period from 1 through 30 April 2017, and is based on information sourced from company press releases, scientific literature, patents and various news websites. Biogen expanded its portfolio of developmental drugs targeting neurological diseases by licensing a drug from Bristol-Myers Squibb which is currently under investigation for the treatment of progressive supranuclear palsy. Takeda announced a deal with NuBiyota focused on developing treatments for gastrointestinal disorders, based on the manipulation of microbes living in the gut...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729691/lowered-fasting-chenodeoxycholic-acid-correlated-with-the-decrease-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-19-in-chinese-subjects-with-impaired-fasting-glucose
#8
Jing Zhang, Huating Li, Hu Zhou, Li Fang, Jingjing Xu, Han Yan, Shuqin Chen, Qianqian Song, Yinan Zhang, Aimin Xu, Qichen Fang, Yang Ye, Weiping Jia
The gut-derived hormone Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) could regulate glucose metabolism and is induced by bile acids (BAs) through activating Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 was found to decrease in subjects with isolated-impaired fasting glucose (I-IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the reason for the change of FGF19 in subjects with different glucometabolic status remained unclear. Here we measured six BAs including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, their glycine conjugates and FGF19 levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated-impaired glucose tolerance, I-IFG, combined glucose intolerance (CGI) and T2DM subjects...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#9
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722834/effects-of-gip-glp-1-and-glp-1ras-on-bone-cell-metabolism
#10
Morten S S Hansen, Michaela Terencova, Jacob Frølich, Moustapha Kassem, Morten Frost
The relationship between gut and skeleton is increasingly recognised as part of the integrated physiology of the whole organism. The incretin hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted from the intestine in response to nutrient intake and exhibit several physiological functions including regulation of islet hormone secretion and glucose levels. A number of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are currently used in treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, GIP and GLP-1 cognate receptors are widely expressed suggesting that incretin hormones mediate effects beyond control of glucose homeostasis, and reports on associations between incretin hormones and bone metabolism have emerged...
July 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722715/erratum-gut-microbial-metabolites-limit-the-frequency-of-autoimmune-t-cells-and-protect-against-type-1-diabetes
#11
Eliana Mariño, James L Richards, Keiran H McLeod, Dragana Stanley, Yu Anne Yap, Jacinta Knight, Craig McKenzie, Jan Kranich, Ana Carolina Oliveira, Fernando J Rossello, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Christian M Nefzger, Laurence Macia, Alison Thorburn, Alan G Baxter, Grant Morahan, Lee H Wong, Jose M Polo, Robert J Moore, Trevor J Lockett, Julie M Clarke, David L Topping, Leonard C Harrison, Charles R Mackay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721686/rationale-for-initiation-and-titration-of-the-basal-insulin-glp-1ra-fixed-ratio-combination-products-ideglira-and-iglarlixi-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Virginia Valentine, Jennifer Goldman, Jay H Shubrook
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease affecting glucose regulation and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many patients are not escalated up the treatment ladder appropriately despite failing to achieve glycemic control, with barriers such as fear of hypoglycemia, weight gain, and treatment burden recognized as factors. Exogenous basal insulin is titrated to address control of fasting plasma glucose and may preserve residual β-cell function, thus promoting a greater endogenous prandial insulin response...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#13
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719027/marker-of-coxsackievirus-b4-infection-in-saliva-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#14
F Badia-Boungou, F Sane, E K Alidjinou, M Ternois, P A Opoko, J Haddad, C Stukens, C Lefevre, I Gueorguieva, M Hamze, M Ismail, J Weill, H G Monabéka, E Bouenizabila, D Moukassa, A A Abena, D Hober
BACKGROUND: Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) are enteroviruses that have been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Enteroviral RNA was detected in the gut mucosa of patients. The mucosal immunity is an interconnected network, therefore the response to enteroviruses possibly present in the gastrointestinal mucosa can be reflected by specific antibodies in the saliva. In the present study the anti-CV-B neutralizing activity of saliva samples from patients with type 1 diabetes was investigated...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713266/significance-of-microbiota-in-obesity-and-metabolic-diseases-and-the-modulatory-potential-by-medicinal-plant-and-food-ingredients
#15
REVIEW
Hoda M Eid, Michelle L Wright, N V Anil Kumar, Abdel Qawasmeh, Sherif T S Hassan, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Atanas G Atanasov, Pierre S Haddad
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708971/short-term-alcohol-abstinence-improves-antibacterial-defenses-of-chronic-alcohol-consuming-mice-against-gut-bacteria-associated-sepsis-caused-by-enterococcus-faecalis-oral-infection
#16
Makiko Kobayashi, Akira Asai, Ichiaki Ito, Sumihiro Suzuki, Kazuhide Higuchi, Fujio Suzuki
The effects of short-term alcohol abstinence on host antibacterial resistance against Enterococcus faecalis oral infection was investigated in chronic alcohol-consuming mice [mice with 0.1 g/day of 20% ethanol consumption for 12 or 16 weeks (CAC-mice)]. These mice were highly susceptible to the infection; however, after 7 days of alcohol abstinence (aaCAC-mice), their antibacterial resistances were completely restored to the normal mouse level. Normal mice inoculated with CAC-mouse hepatic macrophages were shown to be susceptible to the infection, whereas the same macrophage preparation from aaCAC-mice did not impair the antibacterial resistance of normal mice...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708466/a-bidirectional-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-cns-disease-in-a-biphasic-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Sara L Colpitts, Eli J Kasper, Abigail Keever, Caleb Liljenberg, Trevor Kirby, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704648/diabetes-enhances-il-17-expression-and-alters-the-oral-microbiome-to-increase-its-pathogenicity
#18
E Xiao, Marcelo Mattos, Gustavo Henrique Apolinário Vieira, Shanshan Chen, Jôice Dias Corrêa, Yingying Wu, Mayra Laino Albiero, Kyle Bittinger, Dana T Graves
Diabetes is a risk factor for periodontitis, an inflammatory bone disorder and the greatest cause of tooth loss in adults. Diabetes has a significant impact on the gut microbiota; however, studies in the oral cavity have been inconclusive. By 16S rRNA sequencing, we show here that diabetes causes a shift in oral bacterial composition and, by transfer to germ-free mice, that the oral microbiota of diabetic mice is more pathogenic. Furthermore, treatment with IL-17 antibody decreases the pathogenicity of the oral microbiota in diabetic mice; when transferred to recipient germ-free mice, oral microbiota from IL-17-treated donors induced reduced neutrophil recruitment, reduced IL-6 and RANKL, and less bone resorption...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704522/assessment-of-gut-microbiota-populations-in-lean-and-obese-zucker-rats
#19
Reza Hakkak, Soheila Korourian, Steven L Foley, Bruce D Erickson
Obesity has been on the rise in the US and worldwide for the last several decades. Obesity has been associated with chronic disease development, such as certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and liver diseases. Previously, we reported that obesity promotes DMBA-induced mammary tumor development using the obese Zucker rat model. The intestinal microbiota is composed of a diverse population of obligate and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, and these organisms carry out a broad range of metabolic activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701081/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults
#20
K Lippert, L Kedenko, L Antonielli, I Kedenko, C Gemeier, M Leitner, A Kautzky-Willer, B Paulweber, E Hackl
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have become highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and the human gut microbiota, due to its influence on host energy metabolism, has been attributed an important role therein. This pilot study explores host-microbiota relationships in men and women affected by various types of glucose metabolism disorder. Among 20 individuals aged 58 to 71 years with either normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus the gut bacterial communities were compared based on barcoded 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples...
July 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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