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Diabetes gut

He Gao, Jia-Jia Wen, Jie-Lun Hu, Qi-Xing Nie, Hai-Hong Chen, Tao Xiong, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
The influence of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation on the structure and anti-diabetic effects of Momordica charantia polysaccharides were evaluated. High-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats were administrated with polysaccharides from fermented and non-fermented Momordica charantia (FP and NFP) for 4 weeks. Fermentation affected the physicochemical characterization, monosaccharide composition, molecular weight, and viscosity of Momordica charantia polysaccharides. Treatment with FP significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats compared with NFP...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Deborah A Goldspink, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
Gut hormones produced by gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells modulate key physiological processes including glucose homeostasis and food intake, making them potential therapeutic candidates to treat obesity and diabetes. Understanding the function of enteroendocrine cells and the molecular mechanisms driving hormone production is a key step towards mobilising endogenous hormone reserves in the gut as a new therapeutic strategy. In this review we will discuss the variety of ex vivo and in vitro model systems driving this research and their contributions to our current understanding of nutrient sensing mechanisms in enteroendocrine cells...
September 14, 2018: Endocrinology
Sheila A Doggrell
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by the gut, stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells, and inhibits glucagon secretion from the α-cells. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Area covered: This review covers the clinical trials of the GLP-1R agonists (exenatide and liraglutide) and their potential as adjunct treatment in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Expert opinion: GLP-1R agonists are unable to increase insulin secretion, in subjects with T1DM, who are C-peptide negative...
September 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Xiaojing Wang, Mingqun Deng, Xiao Zhai, Rongrong Li
Maternal over-nutrition can lead to metabolic disorders in offspring, whereas maternal dietary genistein may have beneficial effects on the metabolic health of offspring. Our objective was to determine whether maternal dietary genistein could attenuate the detrimental effects of a maternal high-fat diet on their offspring's metabolism and to explore the role of the gut microbiota on their offspring's glucose and lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 female mice were fed either a high-fat diet without genistein (HF), high-fat diet with low-dose genistein (0...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Maoyang Lu, Zhao Wang
The human gut microbiota is a huge ecosystem that provides lots of functions for host development, immune system, and metabolism. Gut microbiota is linked to lots of diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), irritable bowel syndrome, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies, however, have noted the relationship between aging and microbiota; the connection between aging and microbiota remains largely to be researched. In this review, recent research findings are summarized on the role of gut microbiota in aging processes with emphasis on therapeutic potential of microbiome-targeted interventions in antiaging medicine...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
William P Martin, Neil G Docherty, Carel W Le Roux
Cardiovascular and renal disease accounts for a substantial proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is associated with improved long-term cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Areas covered: All major case-control, cohort, and randomized controlled trial studies of bariatric surgery in adults with T2DM were screened and data on prespecified cardiovascular and renal outcomes collated. Bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, albuminuria and progressive chronic kidney disease...
September 19, 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Mengxiang Zhang, Wei Ma, Juan Zhang, Yi He, Juan Wang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent studies reported that children with ASD have altered gut microbiota profiles compared with typical development (TD) children. However, few studies on gut bacteria of children with ASD have been conducted in China. Here, in order to elucidate changes of fecal microbiota in children with ASD, 16S rRNA sequencing was conducted and the 16S rRNA (V3-V4) gene tags were amplified. We investigated differences in fecal microbiota between 35 children with ASD and 6 TD children...
September 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Helen J Dranse, Ashlee Zheng, André M Comeau, Morgan G I Langille, Brian A Zabel, Christopher J Sinal
Chemerin is an adipocyte derived signalling molecule (adipokine) that serves as a ligand activator of Chemokine-like receptor 1(CMKLR1). Chemerin/CMKLR1 signalling is well established to regulate fundamental processes in metabolism and inflammation. The composition and function of gut microbiota has also been shown to impact the development of metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we assessed the microbiome composition of fecal samples isolated from wildtype, chemerin, or CMKLR1 knockout mice using Illumina-based sequencing...
2018: PeerJ
Isabel Leiva-Gea, Lidia Sánchez-Alcoholado, Beatriz Martín-Tejedor, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Antonio Urda Cardona, Francisco J Tinahones, José Carlos Fernández-García, María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes is associated with compositional differences in gut microbiota. To date, no microbiome studies have been performed in maturity-onset diabetes of the young 2 (MODY2), a monogenic cause of diabetes. Gut microbiota of type 1 diabetes, MODY2, and healthy control subjects was compared. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a case-control study in 15 children with type 1 diabetes, 15 children with MODY2, and 13 healthy children. Metabolic control and potential factors modifying gut microbiota were controlled...
September 17, 2018: Diabetes Care
Ipek Acar, Alper Cetinkaya, Incilay Lay, Esin Ileri-Gurel
OBJECTIVES: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), the major sensor of extracellular Ca2+ , is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. Although the essential ligand of CaSR is calcium, its activity can be regulated by aromatic L-amino acids. The expression of CaSR on enteroendocrine cells suggests that CaSR functions as a physiological amino acid sensor for gut hormone release. Here, we investigated the effects of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) on rat glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and insulin secretion, and the role of CaSR in this mechanism in vivo...
September 17, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Nazarii Kobyliak, Ludovico Abenavoli, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Galyna Mykhalchyshyn, Luigi Boccuto, Liudmyla Kononenko, Dmytro Kyriienko, Iuliia Komisarenko, Oleg Dynnyk
BACKGROUND: The manipulation of gut microbiota via administration of probiotics has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hence, we performed a double-blind single center randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of co-administration of probiotics with omega-3 vs. placebo in type-2 diabetic patients with NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 48 patients met the criteria for inclusion. They were randomly assigned to receive "Symbiter Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5%) or placebo for 8-weeks...
September 13, 2018: Minerva Medica
Chifei Kang, Derek LeRoith, Emily J Gallagher
The rates of obesity and diabetes are increasing worldwide while the age of onset for both obesity and diabetes are decreasing steadily. Obesity and diabetes are associated with multiple factors that contribute to the increased risk of a number of different cancers, including breast cancer. These factors are hyperinsulinemia, elevated insulin-like growth factors, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines, inflammatory cytokines and the gut microbiome. In this review we discuss the current understanding of the complex signaling pathways underlying these multiple factors involved in the obesity/diabetes-breast cancer link, with a focus particularly on the roles of insulin / IGF system and dyslipidemia in pre-clinical breast cancer models...
September 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Antonio Sircana, Luciana Framarin, Nicola Leone, Mara Berrutti, Francesca Castellino, Renato Parente, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Giovanni Musso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the last decade many studies have suggested an association between the altered gut microbiota and multiple systemic diseases including diabetes. In this review, we will discuss potential pathophysiological mechanisms, the latest findings regarding the mechanisms linking gut dysbiosis and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the results obtained with experimental modulation of microbiota. RECENT FINDINGS: In T2D, gut dysbiosis contributes to onset and maintenance of insulin resistance...
September 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Amirsalar Samkani, Mads J Skytte, Mads N Thomsen, Arne Astrup, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Jens F Rehfeld, Thure Krarup, Steen B Haugaard
Postprandial responses to food are highly dependent on the macronutrient composition of the diet. We investigated the acute effects of transition from the recommended moderately high carbohydrate (HC) diet towards a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, lipemia, and appetite-regulating hormones in non-diabetic adults. Fourteen subjects, including five males (Mean ± SD: age 62 ± 6.5; BMI 32 ± 7.6 kg/m²; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) 40 ± 3.0 mmol/mol; HOMA2-IR 2...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Yuanyuan Li
Nutrition is the most important environmental factor that can influence early developmental processes through regulation of epigenetic mechanisms during pregnancy and neonatal periods. Maternal diets or nutritional compositions contribute to the establishment of the epigenetic profiles in the fetus that have a profound impact on individual susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders in the offspring later in life. Obesity is considered a global epidemic that impairs human life quality and also increases risk of development of many human diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
X Jia, L Jia, L Mo, S Yuan, X Zheng, J He, V Chen, Q Guo, L Zheng, Q Yuan, X Xu, X Zhou
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is a risk factor for periodontitis, and current therapeutics against PMO prevent the aggravated alveolar bone loss of periodontitis in estrogen-deficient women. Gut microbiota is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for PMO. Berberine extracted from Chinese medicinal plants has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes via regulating gut microbiota. Here, we hypothesize that berberine ameliorates periodontal bone loss by improving the intestinal barriers by regulating gut microbiota under an estrogen-deficient condition...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Cristina Campoy, Daniel Campos, Tomás Cerdó, Estefanía Diéguez, José Antonio García-Santos
While a wide knowledge exists on the effects of breast milk or infant formula on growth and infant development, less attention has been paid to the importance of complementary feeding (CF). This review focuses on current recommendations for optimal introduction of CF in healthy full-term European infants and discusses the potential impact of this type of feeding on health outcomes. Overall, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended at least for 4 months and preferable for 6 months, followed by the introduction of CF alongside breast milk; infants' nutrient requirements must meet the differences between nutrients provided by breast milk and the estimated total needs...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the accumulation of uremic retention solutes (URS) and is associated with perturbations of glucose homeostasis even in absence of diabetes. The underlying mechanisms of insulin resistance, β cell failure, and increase risk of diabetes in CKD, however, remain unclear. Metabolomic studies reported that some metabolites are similar in CKD and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and contribute to the progression to end-stage renal disease...
September 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Jane A Mullaney, Juliette E Stephens, Brooke E Geeling, Emma E Hamilton-Williams
The microbial community making up the gut microbiota can profoundly influence intestinal homeostasis and immune system development, and is believed to influence the development of complex diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D susceptible non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice have been shown to harbour a distinct microbiota to disease protected mice. We hypothesised that the T1D susceptible genetic background of NOD mice would be resistant to the introduction of a C57BL/6 derived microbiota. NOD and C57BL/6 mice were cohoused either continually from birth, from birth until weaning or from weaning onwards, allowing transfer of microbiota between the mice...
September 7, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Francesca Di Cara, Margret Bülow, Andrew J Simmonds, Richard A Rachubinski
The gut has a central role in digestion and nutrient absorption, but it also serves in defending against pathogens, engages in mutually beneficial interactions with commensals, and is a major source of endocrine signals. Gut homeostasis is necessary for organismal health, and changes to the gut are associated with conditions like obesity and diabetes and inflammatory illnesses like Crohn's disease. We report that peroxisomes, organelles involved in lipid metabolism and redox balance, are required to maintain gut epithelium homeostasis and renewal in Drosophila and for survival and development of the organism...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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