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Diabetes gut

Yameng Liu, Wei Liu, Jing Li, Shuai Tang, Majie Wang, Wenhua Huang, Wenbing Yao, Xiangdong Gao
A novel polysaccharide named as AERP was extracted from industrial Astragalus membranaceus-extracted waste residue, which was composed of two components coded as AERP1 and AERP2. The structures of AERP1 and AERP2 were determined by HPLC-SEC-RID, HPLC-C18 -UV, FT-IR, and NMR. The results showed that AERP1 was an acidic component with a molecular weight of 2.01 × 106 Da and glycosidic bonds of →3/5-α-araf-(1→, T-α-araf, →4,6-β-manp-(1→, →3/3,6-β-galp-(1→, →2/2,4-α-rha-(1→, →-4/4,6-α-glcp-(1→, →4-α-galpA-(1→ and →4)-6-OMe-α-galpA-(1→...
February 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Christopher L Gentile, Tiffany L Weir
Diet affects multiple facets of human health and is inextricably linked to chronic metabolic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary nutrients are essential not only for human health but also for the health and survival of the trillions of microbes that reside within the human intestines. Diet is a key component of the relationship between humans and their microbial residents; gut microbes use ingested nutrients for fundamental biological processes, and the metabolic outputs of those processes may have important impacts on human physiology...
November 16, 2018: Science
Walter Alexander
We review sessions on the association of diuretic use and amputations, albiglutide and cardiovascular outcomes with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, how lorcaserin affects diabetes in overweight patients, how testosterone therapy improves diabetes in hypogonadal men, the pros and cons of gastric bypass surgery, how low-calorie sweeteners affect the gut microbiome, and more.
November 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Naoki Sasaki, Sayaka Katagiri, Rina Komazaki, Kazuki Watanabe, Shogo Maekawa, Takahiko Shiba, Sayuri Udagawa, Yasuo Takeuchi, Anri Ohtsu, Takashi Kohda, Haruka Tohara, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Tomomitsu Hirota, Mayumi Tamari, Yuichi Izumi
Many risk factors related to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been proposed, including the most well-known of diabetes and obesity as well as periodontitis. As periodontal pathogenic bacteria produce endotoxins, periodontal treatment can result in endotoxemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intravenous, sonicated Porphyromonas gingivalis ( Pg ) injection on glucose/lipid metabolism, liver steatosis, and gut microbiota in mice. Endotoxemia was induced in C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks old) by intravenous injection of sonicated Pg ; Pg was deactivated but its endotoxin remained...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jing-Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Na Rae Shin, Young-Won Chin, Young Hee Choi, Hojun Kim
Purpose: Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutic agents in western and oriental medicinal fields, respectively. The present study examined the therapeutic effects of houttuynia cordata extract (HCE) and metformin in combination in a dysmetabolic mouse model. Methods: Metabolic disorders were induced in C57BL/6J mice by high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. Results: Combination of metformin and HCE significantly lowered body weight, abdominal fat, perirenal fat, liver and kidney weights, but did not change epididymal fat in HFD-fed animals...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ye Eon Han, Chan Woo Kang, Joo Heon Oh, Se Hee Park, Cheol Ryong Ku, Yoon Hee Cho, Mi Kyung Lee, Eun Jig Lee
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), produced by intestinal enteroendocrine L cells, are important gut hormones that coordinate gastrointestinal physiology, metabolism, and appetite. We aimed to investigate the role of olfactory receptor (OR) OR51E1 in GLP-1 and PYY secretion. We analyzed the expression of olfactory marker protein (OMP), an indicator of OR-mediated events in nonolfactory systems, in human intestinal L cells. Furthermore, we analyzed OMP and OR51E1 expression in the L cell line NCI-H716...
November 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Ara Koh, Antonio Molinaro, Marcus Ståhlman, Muhammad Tanweer Khan, Caroline Schmidt, Louise Mannerås-Holm, Hao Wu, Alba Carreras, Heeyoon Jeong, Louise E Olofsson, Per-Olof Bergh, Victor Gerdes, Annick Hartstra, Maurits de Brauw, Rosie Perkins, Max Nieuwdorp, Göran Bergström, Fredrik Bäckhed
Interactions between the gut microbiota, diet, and the host potentially contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. Here, we identify imidazole propionate as a microbially produced histidine-derived metabolite that is present at higher concentrations in subjects with versus without type 2 diabetes. We show that imidazole propionate is produced from histidine in a gut simulator at higher concentrations when using fecal microbiota from subjects with versus without type 2 diabetes and that it impairs glucose tolerance when administered to mice...
November 1, 2018: Cell
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Whole grain (WG) intake is associated with reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term intervention with WG rye on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers in middle-aged test subjects. METHOD: Rye-based breads were provided to 38 healthy test subjects (aged 52-70y) during three consecutive days in a crossover study design, using white wheat flour bread (WWB) as a reference...
November 6, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Ling Qu, Junli Ren, Lei Huang, Bo Pang, Xu Liu, Xiaodong Liu, Baolong Li, Yujuan Shan
The viable bacterial strains in conventional yogurt are intolerant to bile acid, which consequently cannot survive the conditions and their beneficial bioactivities are thus lost. We have previously shown that Lactobacillus casei Q14 ( Lac-Q14), a probiotic, has the potential to alleviate diabetes in rats. Herein, we used Lac-Q14 as the starter culture to ferment yogurt and explore the mechanisms of the bioactivity in diabetic rats. The results showed that Lac-Q14 yogurt improved blood glucose and insulin level, lowered gene expression of critical enzymes involved in liver gluconeogenesis...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Cheng Li, Hongyan Li, Robert G Gilbert
A better understanding of the nutritional properties of rice starch is important because of the rapid rise of diet-related health complications, particularly obesity, type 2 diabetes, and colorectal cancers. Rice starch that is slowly digested to glucose, and where significant quantities of starch which reach the lower gut ("resistant starch"), can mitigate, and also delay the onset of, these diseases. These digestibility properties depend to some extent on starch molecular structure. The characterization of this structure is therefore significant for understanding and developing healthier slower digestible rice...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lulu Sun, Cen Xie, Guang Wang, Yue Wu, Qing Wu, Xuemei Wang, Jia Liu, Yangyang Deng, Jialin Xia, Bo Chen, Songyang Zhang, Chuyu Yun, Guan Lian, Xiujuan Zhang, Heng Zhang, William H Bisson, Jingmin Shi, Xiaoxia Gao, Pupu Ge, Cuihua Liu, Kristopher W Krausz, Robert G Nichols, Jingwei Cai, Bipin Rimal, Andrew D Patterson, Xian Wang, Frank J Gonzalez, Changtao Jiang
The anti-hyperglycemic effect of metformin is believed to be caused by its direct action on signaling processes in hepatocytes, leading to lower hepatic gluconeogenesis. Recently, metformin was reported to alter the gut microbiota community in humans, suggesting that the hyperglycemia-lowering action of the drug could be the result of modulating the population of gut microbiota. However, the critical microbial signaling metabolites and the host targets associated with the metabolic benefits of metformin remained elusive...
November 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
Xuefeng Gao, Bich-Tram Huynh, Didier Guillemot, Philippe Glaser, Lulla Opatowski
Data of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and their analysis have been facilitating advances in our understanding of microbial ecosystems such as human gut microbiota. However, inference of microbial interactions occurring within an ecosystem is still a challenge mainly due to sequencing data (e.g., 16S rDNA sequences) providing relative abundance of microbes instead of absolute cell count. In order to describe growtth dynamics of microbial communities and estimate the involved microbial interactions, we introduce a procedure by integrating generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, forward stepwise regression and bootstrap aggregation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kazuchika Nishitsuji, Syunsuke Watanabe, Jinzhong Xiao, Ryosuke Nagatomo, Hirohisa Ogawa, Takaaki Tsunematsu, Hitomi Umemoto, Yuki Morimoto, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Koichi Inoue, Koichi Tsuneyama
We previously showed that male Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice, a spontaneous mouse model of metabolic syndrome, manifested gut dysbiosis and subsequent disruption of the type and quantity of plasma short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and daily coffee intake prevented nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in this mouse model. Here, we present a preliminary study on whether coffee and its major components, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, would affect the gut dysbiosis and the disrupted plasma SCFA profile of TSOD mice, which could lead to improvement in the liver pathology of these mice...
November 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ting Yuan, Ting Yang, Huan Chen, Danli Fu, Yangyang Hu, Jing Wang, Qing Yuan, Hong Yu, Wenfeng Xu, Xiang Xie
Oxidative stress and inflammation interact in the development of diabetic atherosclerosis. Intracellular hyperglycemia promotes production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased formation of intracellular advanced glycation end-products, activation of protein kinase C, and increased polyol pathway flux. ROS directly increase the expression of inflammatory and adhesion factors, formation of oxidized-low density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance. They activate the ubiquitin pathway, inhibit the activation of AMP-protein kinase and adiponectin, decrease endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, all of which accelerate atherosclerosis...
October 19, 2018: Redox Biology
Michael A Henson, Poonam Phalak
The gut microbiota represent a highly complex ecosystem comprised of approximately 1000 species that forms a mutualistic relationship with the human host. A critical attribute of the microbiota is high species diversity, which provides system robustness through overlapping and redundant metabolic capabilities. The gradual loss of bacterial diversity has been associated with a broad array of gut pathologies and diseases including malnutrition, obesity, diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. We formulated an in silico community model of the gut microbiota by combining genome-scale metabolic reconstructions of 28 representative species to explore the relationship between species diversity and community growth...
October 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Anders B Jensen, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Oluf Pedersen, Tine Jess, Søren Brunak, Kristine H Allin
The colon hosts gut microbes and glucagon-like peptide 1 secreting cells, both of which influence glucose homeostasis. We tested whether colectomy is associated with development of type 2 diabetes. Using nationwide register data, we identified patients who had undergone total colectomy, partial colectomy, or proctectomy. For each colectomy patient, we selected 15 non-colectomy patients who had undergone other surgeries. Compared with non-colectomy patients, patients with total colectomy (n = 3,793) had a hazard ratio (HR) of clinically recorded type 2 diabetes of 1...
October 30, 2018: ELife
Michael C Petriello, Jessie B Hoffman, Olga Vsevolozhskaya, Andrew J Morris, Bernhard Hennig
The gut microbiome is sensitive to diet and environmental exposures and is involved in the regulation of host metabolism. Additionally, gut inflammation is an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases, specifically atherosclerosis and diabetes. Exposures to dioxin-like pollutants occur primarily via ingestion of contaminated foods and are linked to increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to elucidate the detrimental impacts of dioxin-like pollutant exposure on gut microbiota and host gut health and metabolism in a mouse model of cardiometabolic disease...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Malcolm J Borg, Michelle Bound, Jacqueline Grivell, Zilin Sun, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner, Tongzhi Wu
AIMS: The gastrointestinal tract, particularly the lower gut, may be key to the anti-diabetic action of metformin. We evaluated whether administration of metformin into the distal, versus the proximal, small intestine would be more effective in lowering plasma glucose by stimulating glucagon-like pepetide-1 (GLP-1) and/or slowing gastric emptying (GE) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 10 diet-controlled T2DM patients were studied on three occasions...
October 28, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The composition and activity of the gut microbiota impacts several energy-regulating conditions including diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the specific mechanisms linking the gut microbiota with the host's energy homeostasis remain elusive. Probiotics are health-promoting bacteria that when consumed, alter the composition and/or metabolism of resident microbiota conferring health benefits. To assess the role of a specific probiotic treatment on microbiota-derived impacts on energy homeostasis in the context of development, Drosophila melanogaster larvae were orally administered the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 or its metabolic product, ferulic acid: a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant hydroxycinnamic acid...
October 27, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
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