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Diabetes gut

Charikleia Stefanaki, Flora Bacopoulou, Athanasios Michos
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant proportion of adolescents exhibit abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence, and impaired glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism is aggravated by the existing osteosarcopenia not only in obese but also in overweight youth. Biochemical inflammation, derived from glucose metabolism dysregulation, in combination with increased stress levels lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, also known as ROS, which seem to afflict the integrity of the gastrointestinal wall, gut mucosa, and commensal, intestinal gut microflora...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Ruth K Dudek-Wicher, Adam Junka, Marzenna Bartoszewicz
The gut microbiota acts as a real organ. It exerts important metabolic functions, and regulates the inflammatory response by stimulating the immune system. Gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) has been linked to important human diseases and inflammation-related disorders. The symbiotic interactions between resident microorganisms and the gastrointestinal tract significantly contribute to maintaining gut homeostasis. The present review summarizes our knowledge regarding the impact of different antibiotics causing such long-term consequences as decreased microbial diversity, modulation of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Clostridium difficile overgrowth , and increased expansion of the opportunistic pathogens Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia spp...
2018: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Helen L Barrett, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Shelley A Wilkinson, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The composition of the gut microbiota can be influenced by dietary composition. In pregnancy, the maternal gut microbiome has associations with maternal and infant metabolic status. There is little known regarding the impact of a vegetarian diet in pregnancy on maternal gut microbiota. This study explored the gut microbiota profile in women who were vegetarian or omnivorous in early gestation. Women were selected from participants in the Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes (SPRING) randomised controlled trial...
July 12, 2018: Nutrients
Jing Ma, Adrian Vella
The interaction between the upper gastrointestinal tract and the endocrine system is important in the regulation of metabolism and of weight. The gastrointestinal tract has a heterogeneous cellular content and comprises a variety of cells that elaborate paracrine and endocrine mediators that collectively form the entero-endocrine system. The advent of therapy that utilizes these pathways as well as the association of bariatric surgery with diabetes remission has (re-)kindled interest in the role of the gastrointestinal tract in glucose homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Chun Chen, Li-Jun You, Qiang Huang, Xiong Fu, Bin Zhang, Rui-Hai Liu, Chao Li
Increasing evidence indicates that gut microbiota is an important factor in mediating the development of metabolic disorders, especially type 2 diabetes. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of polysaccharides from mulberry fruit on diabetic db/db mice. We observed an inhibition in the body weight increase, a decrease in the blood glucose levels, and an improvement in glucose tolerance. Furthermore, our data showed increased enzymatic activities as evidenced by parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT)...
July 11, 2018: Food & Function
Xinwei Jiang, Xusheng Li, Cuijuan Zhu, Jianxia Sun, Linmin Tian, Wei Chen, Weibin Bai
Metabolic syndrome develops to several related chronic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, fatty liver disease. Diseases are outcomes of various cells dysfunction, which are especially acting with a network in metabolic syndrome. Anthocyanins are natural edible pigments widely existed in dark-colored fruits, vegetables, and grains. Epidemiological investigation and nutritional intervention of anthocyanins have exhibited broad-spectrum biological effects that benefit patients with metabolic syndrome related chronic diseases...
July 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Dorines Rosario, Rui Benfeitas, Gholamreza Bidkhori, Cheng Zhang, Mathias Uhlen, Saeed Shoaie, Adil Mardinoglu
Dysbiosis in the gut microbiome composition may be promoted by therapeutic drugs such as metformin, the world's most prescribed antidiabetic drug. Under metformin treatment, disturbances of the intestinal microbes lead to increased abundance of Escherichia spp., Akkermansia muciniphila, Subdoligranulum variabile and decreased abundance of Intestinibacter bartlettii . This alteration may potentially lead to adverse effects on the host metabolism, with the depletion of butyrate producer genus. However, an increased production of butyrate and propionate was verified in metformin-treated Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Anne Abot, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
The gut is one of the most important sources of bioactive peptides in the body. In addition to their direct actions in the brain and/or peripheral tissues, the intestinal peptides can also have an impact on enteric nervous neurons. By modifying the endogenousproduction of these peptides, one may expect modify the "local" physiology such as glucose absorption, but also could have a "global" action via the gut-brain axis. Due to the various origins of gut peptides (i.e., nutrients, intestinal wall, gut microbiota) and the heterogeneity of enteric neurons population, the potential physiological parameters control by the interaction between the two partners are multiple...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Wei Ma, Ji Chen, Yuhong Meng, Jichun Yang, Qinghua Cui, Yuan Zhou
In recent years, the first-line anti-diabetic drug metformin has been shown to be also useful for the treatment of other diseases like cancer. To date, few reports were about the impact of metformin on gut microbiota. To fully understand the mechanism of action of metformin in treating diseases other than diabetes, it is especially important to investigate the impact of long-term metformin treatment on the gut microbiome in non-diabetic status. In this study, we treated healthy mice with metformin for 30 days, and observed 46 significantly changed gut microbes by using the 16S rRNA-based microbiome profiling technique...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Guannan Huang, Joella Xu, Dunpeng Cai, Shi-You Chen, Tamas Nagy, Tai L Guo
Despite various hypothesized benefits of dietary isoflavone genistein (GEN) from soy-based products, many questions surrounding GEN's immunotoxic effects, especially during perinatal exposure, have yet to be answered. The objective of the study was to determine if there existed a sex specific effect of GEN on type 1 diabetes (T1D) following perinatal exposure. We exposed offspring of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice to GEN per oral at a physiological dose (20 mg/kg body weight) from embryonic day 7 to postnatal day (PND) 21...
July 5, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Priscilla Samuel, Keith T Ayoob, Bernadene A Magnuson, Ursula Wölwer-Rieck, Per Bendix Jeppesen, Peter J Rogers, Ian Rowland, Rebecca Mathews
Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted and purified from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant, a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family that is native to South America, where it has been used for its sweet properties for hundreds of years. With continued increasing rates of obesity, diabetes, and other related comorbidities, in conjunction with global public policies calling for reductions in sugar intake as a means to help curb these issues, low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs, also known as high-potency sweeteners) such as stevia are gaining interest among consumers and food manufacturers...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Cathie Martin
Background: The challenges of achieving global food security have become more demanding as scientists have realized that not only calorie content but also food composition and colonic microbial content impact our health and well-being, dramatically. The ways that the nutrients we consume affect our health are highly complex due to the diversity of what we eat, the varying digestibility of what we eat, the changing composition and functioning of each individual's gut microbiota, the differences in absorption and bioavailability of the nutrients we eat, the differences in responses between individuals to what they eat and the multi-fold mechanisms of action that nutrients have on our health...
July 6, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hiroaki Masuzaki, Chisayo Kozuka, Shiki Okamoto, Masato Yonamine, Hideaki Tanaka, Michio Shimabukuro
Chronic overconsumption of animal fats causes a variety of health problems including diabetes mellitus and obesity disease. Underlying molecular mechanisms encompass leptin resistance, decrease in rewarding effects of physical activities, xanthine oxidase-induced oxidative stress in vasculature and peripheral tissue, impaired activation of incretin signaling, deviation in food preference and dysbiosis of gut microbiota. Based on our clinical observation that dairy intake of brown rice effectively ameliorates body weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance / insulin resistance and dependence on fatty foods in obese, pre-diabetic men, a line of research on brown rice (rice bran)-derived γ-oryzanol in mice experiments, cultured cells and human clinical trials is underway in our laboratory...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Arash Haghikia, Xinmin S Li, Thomas G Liman, Nils Bledau, David Schmidt, Friederike Zimmermann, Nicolle Kränkel, Christian Widera, Kristina Sonnenschein, Aiden Haghikia, Karin Weissenborn, Daniela Fraccarollo, Markus M Heimesaat, Johann Bauersachs, Zeneng Wang, Weifei Zhu, Udo Bavendiek, Stanley L Hazen, Matthias Endres, Ulf Landmesser
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota-dependent metabolites, in particular trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO), have recently been reported to promote atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Here, we examined for the first time the relation of TMAO and the risk of incident cardiovascular events in patients with recent first-ever ischemic stroke in 2 independent prospective cohorts. Moreover, the link between TMAO and proinflammatory monocytes as a potential contributing factor for cardiovascular risk in stroke patients was studied...
July 5, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yiqiang Xie, Man Xiao, Yali Ni, Shangfei Jiang, Guizhu Feng, Shenggang Sang, Guankui Du
Recently, the role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been highlighted. We performed an 8-week administration protocol on T2DM (C57BL/6J db-/db-) mice and fecal samples were collected. Comparisons of fecal bacterial communities were performed between db-/db- mice and normal mice (DB/DB) and between the db-/db mice treated and untreated with AOE using next-generation sequencing technology. Our results showed that the db-/db-AOE group had improved glycemic control and renal function compared with the db-/db-H2 O group...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Naofumi Yoshida, Tomoya Yamashita, Ken-Ichi Hirata
Recent evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome is involved in human health and diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, liver cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular diseases, which are associated with high morbidity and mortality across the world, are no exception. Increasing evidence has suggested a strong relationship between the gut microbiome and the progression of cardiovascular diseases. We first reported such a relationship with coronary artery disease two years ago...
June 29, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Elke Gülden, Chen Chao, Ningwen Tai, James A Pearson, Jian Peng, Monika Majewska-Szczepanik, Zhiguang Zhou, F Susan Wong, Li Wen
The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, the gut microbiota have been identified to be an important environmental factor that could modify diabetes susceptibility. We have previously shown that Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), a major adaptor protein downstream of most innate immune Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, is important for mediating diabetes susceptibility in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of human T1D...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Maria Angela Guzzardi, Patricia Iozzo
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with greater risk of brain damage. Over the last decade, functional imaging techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, positron emission tomography, PET, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, near infrared spectroscopy) have been exploited to better characterize behavioral and cognitive processes, by addressing cerebral reactions to a variety of stimuli or tasks, including hormones and substrates (e.g., glucose, insulin, gut peptides), environmental cues (e...
June 29, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Wei Jia, Cynthia Rajani
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the presence of excess fat in the liver parenchyma in the absence of excess alcohol consumption and overt inflammation. It has also been described as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (Than NN, Newsome PN, Atherosclerosis. 239:192-202, 2015). The incidence of NAFLD has been reported to be 43-60% in diabetics, ~90% in patients with hyperlipidemia and 91% in morbidly obese patients (Than NN, Newsome PN, Atherosclerosis. 239:192-202, 2015, Machado M, Marques-Vidal P, Cortez-Pinto H, J Hepatol, 45:600-606, 2006, Vernon G, Baranova A, Younossi ZM, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 34:274-285, 2011)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kaitlyn Shondelmyer, Rob Knight, Anusha Sanivarapu, Shuji Ogino, Jairam K P Vanamala
Diet provides macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), and phytochemicals (non-nutrient bioactive compounds). Emerging evidence suggests that above dietary components can directly impact the composition and metabolic activity of the mammalian gut microbiota and in turn, affect both physical and mental health. There is a growing recognition that rise in chronic disease burden in Western countries may due to progressive loss of beneficial bacteria and microbial diversity...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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