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Diabetes methylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223135/simultaneous-anti-diabetic-and-anti-vascular-calcification-activity-of-nocardia-sp-utmc-751
#1
Fatemeh Salimi, Saeedeh Jafari-Nodooshan, Nazanin Zohourian, Sedighe Kolivand, Javad Hamedi
Alpha-amylase can act as a significant player in causing hyperglycemia, leading to protein glycation, which is the main complication in this condition, besides causing vascular calcification (VC), an important vascular failure caused due to thisIn order to find a natural source of the biocompounds with inhibitory effects on alpha-amylase,, fifteen fermentation broth extracts of actinobacteria (FBEA) (200 μg mL-1 ) have been screened. Finally, the effects of the most efficient FBE have been investigated on osteopontin (OPN, a VC marker) mRNA level in the vascular smooth muscle cells under the calcification conditions, and the chemical constituents of the most efficient FBE were analyzed using GC-MS analysis...
December 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220106/chemoprevention-by-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-targeting-on-epigenetic-regulation
#2
REVIEW
Pei-Sheng Lee, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
Epigenetic mechanisms are essential in regulating normal cellular functions and play an important role during the disease developmental stages. However, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms may lead to pathological consequences such as cancer, neurological disorders, bone and skeletal diseases, cardiovascular dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. The molecular mechanisms of epigenetic modification include DNA methylation, histone modification (acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Unlike genetic modifications, epigenetic states of genes are reversible and can be altered by certain intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
December 8, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218028/the-folate-cycle-as-a-cause-of-natural-killer-cell-dysfunction-and-viral-etiology-in-type-1-diabetes
#3
Allison L Bayer, Christopher A Fraker
The folate pathway is critical to proper cellular function and metabolism. It is responsible for multiple functions, including energy (ATP) production, methylation reactions for DNA and protein synthesis and the production of immunomodulatory molecules, inosine and adenosine. These play an important role in immune signaling and cytotoxicity. Herein, we hypothesize that defects in the folate pathway in genetically susceptible individuals could lead to immune dysfunction, permissive environments for chronic cyclical latent/lytic viral infection, and, ultimately, the development of unchecked autoimmune responses to infected tissue, in this case islet beta cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215608/h19-lncrna-alters-methylation-and-expression-of-hnf4%C3%AE-in-the-liver-of-metformin-exposed-fetuses
#4
Jie Deng, Martin Mueller, Tingting Geng, Yuanyuan Shen, Ya Liu, Peng Hou, Ramanaiah Ramillapalli, Hugh S Taylor, Michael Paidas, Yingqun Huang
Metformin is the most widely used anti-diabetic medication worldwide. However, human and animal studies suggest that prenatal metformin exposure may increase the risk of metabolic disorders in adult offspring, yet the underpinning mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that metformin-exposed mouse fetuses exhibit elevated expression of the H19 long noncoding RNA, which induces hypomethylation and increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). As a transcription factor essential for morphological and functional differentiation of hepatocytes, HNF4α also has an indispensable role in the regulation of expression of gluconeogenic genes...
December 7, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215553/anti-diabetic-effect-of-organo-chalcogen-sulfur-and-selenium-zinc-complexes-with-hydroxy-pyrone-derivatives-on-leptin-deficient-type-2-diabetes-model-ob-ob-mice
#5
Takayuki Nishiguchi, Yutaka Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki Yasui
Since the discovery of the anti-diabetic effects of zinc (Zn) complex, we synthesized several Zn complexes and evaluated their effects using the KKAy type 2 diabetes mouse model. Recently, we demonstrated that organo-chalcogen (sulfur and selenium) Zn complexes elicit strong anti-diabetic effects. In this study, we treated leptin-deficient ob/ob mice with organo-chalcogen Zn complexes, and evaluated the resulting anti-diabetic effects in a mouse model of diabetes arising from pathogenic mechanisms different from those in KKAy mice...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212764/aberrant-dna-methylation-of-pregnane-x-receptor-underlies-metabolic-gene-alterations-in-the-diabetic-kidney
#6
Atsushi Watanabe, Takeshi Marumo, Wakako Kawarazaki, Mitsuhiro Nishimoto, Nobuhiro Ayuzawa, Kohei Ueda, Daigoro Hirohama, Toshiya Tanaka, Shintaro Yagi, Satoshi Ota, Genta Nagae, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Hiroo Kumagai, Toshiro Fujita
Epigenetic abnormalities have been suggested to mediate metabolic memory observed in diabetic complications. We have shown that epigenetic alterations may induce persistent phenotypic changes in the proximal tubules of the diabetic kidneys. In this study, we show that pregnane X receptor (PXR), a xenobiotic nuclear receptor, is epigenetically altered and upregulated, and may have a possible function in the diabetic kidney. PXR has been shown to play a critical role in metabolic changes in obesity and diabetes; however, its distribution and function in the kidney are unknown...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204942/spectrum-of-health-condition-in-methyl-isocyanate-mic-exposed-survivors-measured-after-30%C3%A2-years-of-disaster
#7
Bani Bandana Ganguly, Shouvik Mandal, Nitin N Kadam
Health effects of methyl isocyanate (MIC) exposure were mostly reported on the one-time acute exposure in Bhopal population. Epidemiological survey conducted by the Indian apex body of health research has been reported as Technical Reports, which were lacking in peer review by the expert epidemiologic scientists. The present pilot survey was aimed to measure the health effects 30 years post disaster in MIC-exposed survivors. Questionnaire-based survey has captured every health complaint in 168 individuals and grouped as systemic functions for interpreting the long-term effects of MIC...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204365/the-age-rage-axis-in-an-arab-population-the-united-arab-emirates-healthy-futures-uaehfs-pilot-study
#8
Claire K Inman, Abdullah Aljunaibi, Hyunwook Koh, Abdishakur Abdulle, Raghib Ali, Abdullah Alnaeemi, Eiman Al Zaabi, Naima Oumeziane, Marina Al Bastaki, Mohammed Al-Houqani, Fatma Al-Maskari, Ayesha Al Dhaheri, Syed M Shah, Laila Abdel Wareth, Wael Al Mahmeed, Habiba Alsafar, Fatme Al Anouti, Ayesha Al Hosani, Muna Haji, Divya Galani, Matthew J O'Connor, Jiyoung Ahn, Tomas Kirchhoff, Scott Sherman, Richard B Hayes, Huilin Li, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Ann Marie Schmidt
Aims: The transformation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) from a semi-nomadic to a high income society has been accompanied by increasing rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined if the AGE-RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) axis is associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus in the pilot phase of the UAE Healthy Futures Study (UAEHFS). Methods: 517 Emirati subjects were enrolled and plasma/serum levels of AGE, carboxy methyl lysine (CML)-AGE, soluble (s)RAGE and endogenous secretory (es)RAGE were measured along with weight, height, waist and hip circumference (WC/HC), blood pressure, HbA1c, Vitamin D levels and routine chemistries...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203669/islet-cells-share-promoter-hypomethylation-independently-of-expression-but-exhibit-cell-type-specific-methylation-in-enhancers
#9
Daniel Neiman, Joshua Moss, Merav Hecht, Judith Magenheim, Sheina Piyanzin, A M James Shapiro, Eelco J P de Koning, Aharon Razin, Howard Cedar, Ruth Shemer, Yuval Dor
DNA methylation at promoters is an important determinant of gene expression. Earlier studies suggested that the insulin gene promoter is uniquely unmethylated in insulin-expressing pancreatic β-cells, providing a classic example of this paradigm. Here we show that islet cells expressing insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin share a lack of methylation at the promoters of the insulin and glucagon genes. This is achieved by rapid demethylation of the insulin and glucagon gene promoters during differentiation of Neurogenin3+ embryonic endocrine progenitors, regardless of the specific endocrine cell-type chosen...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200716/antioxidant-and-inhibitory-effects-of-saponin-extracts-from-dianthus-basuticus-burtt-davy-on-key-enzymes-implicated-in-type-2-diabetes-in-vitro
#10
Mikhail Olugbemiro Nafiu, Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa
Context: Dianthus basuticus is a plant of South African origin with various acclaimed pharmaceutical potentials. Aims: This study explored the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of saponin extract from D. basuticus in vitro. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of saponin was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (*NO)-free radical scavenging activity while antidiabetic potentials were measured by the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the saponin extract...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183809/the-effects-of-high-glucose-exposure-on-global-gene-expression-and-dna-methylation-in-human-pancreatic-islets
#11
Elin Hall, Marloes Dekker Nitert, Petr Volkov, Siri Malmgren, Hindrik Mulder, Karl Bacos, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia. The effects of elevated glucose on global gene expression in combination with DNA methylation patterns have not yet been studied in human pancreatic islets. Our aim was to study the impact of 48 h exposure to high (19 mM) versus control (5.6 mM) glucose levels on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, gene expression and DNA methylation in human pancreatic islets. RESULTS: While islets kept at 5...
November 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180715/a-plga-reinforced-peg-in-situ-gel-formulation-for-improved-sustainability-of-hypoglycaemic-activity-of-glimepiride-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#12
Osama A A Ahmed, Khalid M El-Say, Abdulrahman M Alahdal
Glimepiride (GMD) is a third-generation sulfonylurea derivative and one of the top three most-prescribed oral antidiabetic drugs. The need for a depot formulation exists, and a safe and effective antidiabetic therapy is the goal of this study. The aims were to design a depot in situ gel (ISG) formulation and investigate the main factors that control the initial burst and sustain the GMD effect using the Box-Behnken design. The studied factors were polymer percent (X1), plasticizer percent (X2) and benzyl benzoate percent in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (X3)...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177868/%C3%AE-methyl-artoflavanocoumarin-from-juniperus-chinensis-exerts-anti-diabetic-effects-by-inhibiting-ptp1b-and-activating-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-insulin-resistant-hepg2-cells
#13
Hee Jin Jung, Su Hui Seong, Md Yousof Ali, Byung-Sun Min, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest global health issues and much research effort continues to be directed toward identifying novel therapeutic agents. Insulin resistance is a challenging integrally related topic and molecules capable of overcoming it are of considerable therapeutic interest in the context of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signaling transduction and is regarded a novel therapeutic target in T2DM. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of α-methyl artoflavanocoumarin (MAFC), a natural flavanocoumarin isolated from Juniperus chinensis, on PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells...
November 24, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175121/elevated-unmethylated-and-methylated-insulin-dna-are-unique-markers-of-a-%C3%AE-ketosis-prone-diabetes
#14
Surya N Mulukutla, Sarah A Tersey, Christiane S Hampe, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Ashok Balasubramanyam
A+β+ ketosis prone diabetes (KPD) is associated with slowly progressive autoimmune beta cell destruction. Plasma unmethylated and methylated insulin DNA (biomarkers of ongoing beta cell damage and systemic inflammation, respectively) were elevated in A+β+ KPD compared to all other KPD subgroups.
October 31, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164275/dna-methylation-markers-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-fasting-glucose-and-hba1c-levels-a-systematic-review-and-replication-in-a-case-control-sample-of-the-lifelines-study
#15
Eliza Walaszczyk, Mirjam Luijten, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Marc J Bonder, Helen L Lutgers, Harold Snieder, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Epigenetic mechanisms may play an important role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes. Recent epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) identified several DNA methylation markers associated with type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose and HbA1c levels. Here we present a systematic review of these studies and attempt to replicate the CpG sites (CpGs) with the most significant associations from these EWASs in a case-control sample of the Lifelines study. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE for EWASs to test the association between DNA methylation and type 2 diabetes and/or glycaemic traits and reviewed the search results...
November 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161229/sex-and-dose-specific-effects-of-maternal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-pancreatic-islets-of-first-and-second-generation-adult-mice-offspring
#16
Amita Bansal, Cetewayo Rashid, Frances Xin, Changhong Li, Erzsebet Polyak, Anna Duemler, Tom van der Meer, Martha Stefaniak, Sana Wajid, Nicolai Doliba, Marisa S Bartolomei, Rebecca A Simmons
BACKGROUND: Exposure to the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with the increased risk of diabetes and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We recently demonstrated that perinatal BPA exposure is associated with higher body fat, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin secretion in first- (F1) and second-generation (F2) C57BL/6J male mice offspring. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the multigenerational effects of maternal bisphenol A exposure on mouse pancreatic islets...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159506/a-longitudinal-study-of-dna-methylation-as-a-potential-mediator-of-age-related-diabetes-risk
#17
Crystal D Grant, Nadereh Jafari, Lifang Hou, Yun Li, James D Stewart, Guosheng Zhang, Archana Lamichhane, JoAnn E Manson, Andrea A Baccarelli, Eric A Whitsel, Karen N Conneely
DNA methylation (DNAm) has been found to show robust and widespread age-related changes across the genome. DNAm profiles from whole blood can be used to predict human aging rates with great accuracy. We sought to test whether DNAm-based predictions of age are related to phenotypes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the goal of identifying risk factors potentially mediated by DNAm. Our participants were 43 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. We obtained methylation data via the Illumina 450K Methylation array on whole blood samples from participants at three timepoints, covering on average 16 years per participant...
November 20, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158345/stable-oxidative-cytosine-modifications-accumulate-in-cardiac-mesenchymal-cells-from-type2-diabetes-patients-rescue-by-alpha-ketoglutarate-and-tet-tdg-functional-reactivation
#18
Francesco Spallotta, Chiara Cencioni, Sandra Atlante, Davide Garella, Mattia Cocco, Mattia Mori, Raffaella Mastrocola, Carsten Künne, Stefan Günther, Simona Nanni, Valerio Azzimato, Sven Zukunft, Angela Kornberger, Duran Sueruen, Frank Schnutgen, Harald von Melchner, Antonella Di Stilo, Manuela Aragno, Maarten Braspenning, Wim Van Criekinge, Miles J De Blasio, Rebecca H Ritchie, Germana Zaccagnini, Fabio Martelli, Antonella Farsetti, Ingrid Fleming, Thomas Braun, Andres Beiras-Fernandez, Bruno Botta, Massimo Collino, Massimo Bertinaria, Andreas M Zeiher, Carlo Gaetano
Rationale: Human cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMSCs) are a therapeutically-relevant primary cell population. Diabetes compromises CMSC function as consequence of metabolic alterations and incorporation of stable epigenetic changes. Objective: To investigate the role of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) in the epi-metabolic control of DNA demethylation in CMSCs. Methods and Results: Quantitative global analysis, methylated and hydroxymethylated DNA sequencing and gene specific GC methylation detection revealed an accumulation of 5mC, 5hmC and 5fC in the genomic DNA of human CMSCs isolated from diabetic (D) donors (D-CMSCs)...
November 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154162/epigenetic-reprogramming-in-metabolic-disorders-nutritional-factors-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Zhiyong Cheng, Louise Zheng, Fabio A Almeida
Environmental factors (e.g., malnutrition and physical inactivity) contribute largely to metabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiometabolic disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. The abnormalities in metabolic activity and pathways have been increasingly associated with altered DNA methylation, histone modification and noncoding RNAs, whereas lifestyle interventions targeting diet and physical activity can reverse the epigenetic and metabolic changes. Here we review recent evidence primarily from human studies that links DNA methylation reprogramming to metabolic derangements or improvements, with a focus on cross-tissue (e...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151239/increased-serum-3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic-acid-cmpf-levels-are-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-in-chinese-pregnant-women
#20
J Yi, H Jin, R Zhang, S Zhang, P Chen, X Yu, X Zhang
PURPOSE: Previous studies have found that 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) was associated with diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between abnormal increased CMPF levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We recruited 828 pregnant women, and all of them underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We screened out 141 GDM patients and 230 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance as controls. The serum CMPF concentration in participants was measured, and the relationship between the serum CMPF concentration and various parameters and biochemical indices was analyzed...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
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