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Diabetes methylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665620/personalized-cardio-metabolic-responses-to-an-anti-inflammatory-nutrition-intervention-in-obese-adolescents-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#1
Aoibheann M McMorrow, Ruth M Connaughton, Tiago R Magalhães, Fiona C McGillicuddy, Maria F Hughes, David Cheishvili, Melissa J Morine, Sean Ennis, Marie-Louise Healy, Edna F Roche, Richard E Tremblay, Moshe Szyf, Fiona E Lithander, Helen M Roche
SCOPE: Chronic inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia are characteristic of obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR). The effect of an anti-inflammatory nutrition supplement (AINS) on IR and adiponectin biology in overweight adolescents was investigated. The secondary objective was to examine the extent to which individuals' biomarker profiles, derived from baseline phenotypes, predicted response or not to the AINS. Additionally, the impact of DNA methylation on intervention efficacy was assessed...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643945/epigenome-wide-association-study-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-african-american-adults
#2
Tomi Akinyemiju, Anh N Do, Amit Patki, Stella Aslibekyan, Degui Zhi, Bertha Hidalgo, Hemant K Tiwari, Devin Absher, Xin Geng, Donna K Arnett, Marguerite R Irvin
Background: The high prevalence of obesity among US adults has resulted in significant increases in associated metabolic disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Together, these disorders constitute metabolic syndrome, a clinically defined condition highly prevalent among African-Americans. Identifying epigenetic alterations associated with metabolic syndrome may provide additional information regarding etiology beyond current evidence from genome-wide association studies...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625423/elucidation-of-the-intra-and-inter-molecular-electron-transfer-pathways-of-glucoside-3-dehydrogenase
#3
Ryota Miyazaki, Tomohiko Yamazaki, Keiichi Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiro Kojima, Ryutaro Asano, Koji Sode, Wakako Tsugawa
Glucoside 3‑dehydrogenase (G3DH) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of the hydroxy group on the C-3 position of pyranose and shows broad substrate specificity by oxidizing many saccharides. Due to unique site specificity and wide substrate specificity, G3DHs can be used for synthesis of sugar derivatives, anodic catalysis in biofuel cells, multi-sugar analysis using enzyme electrode, and for enzymatic detection of 1,5‑anhydro‑d‑glucitol, a clinical marker for diabetes...
March 7, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624433/pharmacological-potential-of-methylxanthines-retrospective-analysis-and-future-expectations
#4
João Monteiro, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, Branca M Silva
Methylated xanthines (methylxanthines) are available from a significant number of different botanical species. They are ordinarily included in daily diet, in many extremely common beverages and foods. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are the main methylxanthines available from natural sources. The supposedly relatively low toxicity of methylxanthines, combined with the many beneficial effects that have been attributed to these compounds through time, generated a justified attention and a very prolific ground for dedicated scientific reports...
April 6, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621698/plasma-methionine-and-risk-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-effect-modification-by-established-risk-factors
#5
Indu Dhar, Vegard Lysne, Reinhard Seifert, Gard F T Svingen, Per M Ueland, Ottar K Nygård
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methionine (Met) is an essential amino acid involved in methylation reactions and lipid metabolism. A Met-deficient diet may cause hepatic lipid accumulation, which is considered an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, the prospective relationship between circulating Met and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. METHODS: We studied the associations of plasma Met and incident AMI in 4156 patients (77% men; median age 62 years) with stable angina pectoris, among whom the majority received lipid lowering therapy with statins...
March 23, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620215/integrated-analysis-of-the-gene-expression-profile-and-dna-methylation-profile-of-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Juan Shen, Bin Zhu
In order to better understand the etiology of obese type 2 diabetes (T2D) at the molecular level, the present study investigated the gene expression and DNA methylation profiles associated with T2D via systemic analysis. Gene expression (GSE64998) and DNA methylation profiles (GSE65057) from liver tissues of healthy controls and obese patients with T2D were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially‑expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially‑methylated genes (DMGs) were identified using the Limma package, and their overlapping genes were additionally determined...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610268/diabetes-mellitus-in-pregnancy-leads-to-growth-restriction-and-epigenetic-modification-of-the-srebf2-gene-in-rat-fetuses
#7
Michaela Golic, Violeta Stojanovska, Ivo Bendix, Anika Wehner, Florian Herse, Nadine Haase, Kristin Kräker, Caroline Fischer, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Till Schütte, Mirjam Schuchardt, Markus van der Giet, Wolfgang Henrich, Dominik N Muller, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Sicco Scherjon, Torsten Plösch, Ralf Dechend
Diabetic pregnancy is correlated with increased risk of metabolic and neurological disorders in the offspring putatively mediated epigenetically. Little is known about epigenetic changes already present in fetuses of diabetic pregnancies. We aimed at characterizing the perinatal environment after preexisting maternal diabetes mellitus and at identifying relevant epigenetic changes in the fetus. We focused on the transcription factor Srebf2 (sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2), a master gene in regulation of cholesterol metabolism...
April 2, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603098/dna-methylation-of-genes-regulating-appetite-and-prediction-of-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery-in-obese-individuals
#8
F Coppedè, M Seghieri, A Stoccoro, E Santini, L Giannini, C Rossi, L Migliore, A Solini
PURPOSE: Epigenetic traits are influenced by clinical variables; interaction between DNA methylation (DNAmeth) and bariatric surgery-induced weight loss has been scarcely explored. We investigated whether DNAmeth of genes encoding for molecules/hormones regulating appetite, food intake or obesity could predict successful weight outcome following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Forty-five obese individuals with no known comorbidities were stratified accordingly to weight decrease one-year after RYGB (excess weight loss, EWL ≥ 50%: good responders, GR; EWL < 50%: worse responders, WR)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596946/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-in-infants-born-to-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Xiaoling Weng, Fatao Liu, Hong Zhang, Mengyuan Kan, Ting Wang, Mingyue Dong, Yun Liu
BACKGROUND: Offspring exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at a high risk for metabolic diseases. The mechanisms behind the association between offspring exposed to GDM in utero and an increased risk of health consequences later in life remain unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in methylation levels in the foetuses of women with GDM and to explore the possible mechanisms linking maternal GDM with a high risk of metabolic diseases in offspring later in life...
March 26, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577480/methylation-pattern-variation-between-goats-and-rats-during-the-onset-of-puberty
#10
C Yang, J Ye, Y Liu, J Ding, H Liu, X Gao, X Li, Y Zhang, J Zhou, X Zhang, W Huang, F Fang, Y Ling
Puberty is initiated by increased pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release from the hypothalamus. Epigenetic repression is thought to play a crucial role in the initiation of puberty, although the existence of analogous changes in methylation patterns across species is unclear. We analysed mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methyl-binding proteins (MBPs) in goats and rats by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). DNA methylation profiles of hypothalamic were determined at the pre-pubertal and pubertal stages by bisulphite sequencing...
March 25, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566149/epigenome-wide-association-in-adipose-tissue-from-the-metsim-cohort
#11
Luz D Orozco, Colin Farrell, Christopher Hale, Liudmilla Rbi, Arturo Rinaldi, Mete Civelek, Calvin Pan, Larry Lam, Dennis Montoya, Chantle Edillor, Marcus Seldin, Karen L Mohlke, Steve Jacobsen, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Aldons J Lusis, Matteo Pellegrini
Most epigenome-wide association studies to date have been conducted in blood. However, metabolic syndrome is mediated by a dysregulation of adiposity and therefore it is critical to study adipose tissue in order to understand the effects of this syndrome on epigenomes. To determine if natural variation in DNA methylation was associated with metabolic syndrome traits, we profiled global methylation levels in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. We measured association between 32 clinical traits related to diabetes and obesity in 201 people from the Metabolic Syndrome In Men cohort...
March 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561170/transient-epigenomic-changes-during-pregnancy-and-early-postpartum-in-women-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes
#12
Agnes A Michalczyk, Edward D Janus, Alisha Judge, Peter R Ebeling, James D Best, Michael J Ackland, Dino Asproloupos, James A Dunbar, M Leigh Ackland
AIM: To investigate epigenomic changes in pregnancy and early postpartum in women with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Dimethylation of histones H3K4, H3K9, H3K27, H3K36 and H3K79 was measured in white blood cells of women at 30 weeks pregnancy, at 8-10 and 20 weeks postpartum and in never-pregnant women. RESULTS: Dimethylation levels of all five histones were different between women in pregnancy and early postpartum compared with never-pregnant women and were different between women with and without type 2 diabetes...
March 21, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560091/epigenetic-modifications-in-hyperhomocysteinemia-potential-role-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#13
Khaled Elmasry, Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Yutao Liu, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik
To study Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced epigenetic modifications as potential mechanisms of blood retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction, retinas isolated from three- week-old mice with elevated level of Homocysteine (Hcy) due to lack of the enzyme cystathionine β-synthase ( cbs-/- , cbs+/- and cbs+/+ ), human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs), and human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) treated with or without Hcy were evaluated for (1) histone deacetylases (HDAC), (2) DNA methylation (DNMT), and (3) miRNA analysis...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559876/dietary-glycine-is-rate-limiting-for-glutathione-synthesis-and-may-have-broad-potential-for-health-protection
#14
REVIEW
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558946/the-antioxidant-and-neurochemical-activity-of-apium-graveolens-l-and-its-ameliorative-effect-on-mptp-induced-parkinson-like-symptoms-in-mice
#15
Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert, Phetcharat Boonruamkaew, Wanida Sukketsiri, Pilaiwanwadee Hutamekalin, Morakot Sroyraya
BACKGROUND: Apium graveolens L. is a traditional Chinese medicine prescribed as a treatment for hypertension, gout, and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the neuroprotective effects of A. graveolens extract against a Parkinson's disease (PD) model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice treated with MPTP were orally dosed with A. graveolens extract daily for 21 days. Behavioral tests, including a rotarod apparatus, a narrow beam test, a drag test, a grid walk test, a swimming test, and a resting tremor evaluation, were performed...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557164/handheld-volatilome-analyzer-based-on-elastically-deformable-nanofibers
#16
Muge Yucel, Osman Akin, Mehmet Cayoren, Ibrahim Akduman, Alagappan Palaniappan, Bo Liedberg, Gurkan Hizal, Fatih Inci, Umit Hakan Yildiz
This study reports on a handheld volatilome analyzer for selective determination of clinically relevant biomarkers in exhaled breath. The sensing platform is based on electrospun polymer nanofiber-multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sensing micro-channels. Polymer nanofibers of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polystyrene (PS), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) incorporated with MWCNT exhibits stable response to interferences of humidity and CO2 and provides selective deformations upon exposure of exhaled breath target volatilomes acetone and toluene, exhibiting correlation to diabetes and lung cancer, respectively...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546367/the-molecular-characterisation-of-mitochondrial-dna-deficient-oocytes-using-a-pig-model
#17
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544768/epigenetic-control-of-gene-regulation-during-development-and-disease-a-view-from-the-retina
#18
REVIEW
Ximena Corso-Díaz, Catherine Jaeger, Vijender Chaitankar, Anand Swaroop
Complex biological processes, such as organogenesis and homeostasis, are stringently regulated by genetic programs that are fine-tuned by epigenetic factors to establish cell fates and/or to respond to the microenvironment. Gene regulatory networks that guide cell differentiation and function are modulated and stabilized by modifications to DNA, RNA and proteins. In this review, we focus on two key epigenetic changes - DNA methylation and histone modifications - and discuss their contribution to retinal development, aging and disease, especially in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544537/global-and-gene-specific-dna-methylation-in-adult-type-2-diabetic-individuals-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#19
Tinashe Mutize, Zibusiso Mkandla, Bongani B Nkambule
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (global and gene-specific) has been reported as an epigenetic mechanism that could be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, epigenetic therapy has been suggested as a future possibility for T2DM treatment. Epigenetic changes illustrate the environmental link of the disease. Since some of the epigenetic modifications can be reversed, they could be used as potential therapeutic targets. The aim of the systematic review will be to synthesise the available evidence pertaining to the link between DNA methylation and T2DM...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535867/detection-of-prmt1-inhibitors-with-stopped-flow-fluorescence
#20
Kun Qian, Hao Hu, Hui Xu, Y George Zheng
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are crucial epigenetic regulators in eukaryotic organisms that serve as histone writers for chromatin remodeling. PRMTs also methylate a variety of non-histone protein substrates to modulate their function and activity. The development of potent PRMT inhibitors has become an emerging and imperative research area in the drug discovery field to provide novel therapeutic agents for treating diseases and as tools to investigate the biological functions of PRMTs. PRMT1 is the major type I enzyme that catalyzes the formation of asymmetric dimethyl arginine, and PRMT1 plays important regulatory roles in signal transduction, transcriptional activation, RNA splicing, and DNA repair...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
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