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Diabetes methylation

Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Hirokazu Muraoka, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Shu Wakino
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) cooperates with a longevity gene, Sirt1, to exert the potentiation of stress resistance. We have reported that the high expression level of Nampt in PTs contributes to the sufficient supply of NMN to glomeruli. We also showed that downregulation of Nampt and NMN in PT in DN leads to glomerular damages (Nature Medicine 2013). However, the regulation mechanisms of Nampt expression remain unknown. DESIGN AND METHOD: We investigated how Nampt expression is consistently retained at high levels in PTs under normal conditions and how Nampt levels are decreased in DN...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ming Liu, Lihua Li, Jihong Chu, Guoliang Dai, Wenzheng Ju, Zhenxing Wang, Zhuyuan Fang
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a novel histone methylation modulator that regulates energy metabolism, and NNMT knockdown prevents diet-induced obesity in mice. However, whether NNMT plays a role in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains to be elucidated. NNMT catalyzes methylation of nicotinamide to generate N-methylnicotinamide (me-NAM). We aimed to investigate the associations of serum me-NAM with obesity and T2DM in Chinese. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study subjects (n = 1160) were recruited from Dali, a city of Yunan province, in southwest China...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Keith M Godfrey, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susan L Prescott, Moffat Nyirenda, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Johan G Eriksson, Birit F P Broekman
In addition to immediate implications for pregnancy complications, increasing evidence implicates maternal obesity as a major determinant of offspring health during childhood and later adult life. Observational studies provide evidence for effects of maternal obesity on her offspring's risks of obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and asthma. Maternal obesity could also lead to poorer cognitive performance and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Preliminary evidence suggests potential implications for immune and infectious-disease-related outcomes...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Kota Fukai, Sei Harada, Miho Iida, Ayako Kurihara, Ayano Takeuchi, Kazuyo Kuwabara, Daisuke Sugiyama, Tomonori Okamura, Miki Akiyama, Yuji Nishiwaki, Yuko Oguma, Asako Suzuki, Chizuru Suzuki, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Masahiro Sugimoto, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masaru Tomita, Toru Takebayashi
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study. METHODS: A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years) with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire...
2016: PloS One
Naoto Fujii, Sheila M Dervis, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
Both cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contribute to sweating, whereas NOS alone contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during exercise in the heat. Here, we evaluated if type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) modulates these responses. Adults with (n=11, 25±5 years) and without (n=12, 24±4 years) T1DM performed two bouts of 30-min cycling at a fixed rate of heat production of 400W in the heat (35°C); each followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery period respectively. Sweat rate and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were measured at four intradermal microdialysis sites treated with either 1) lactated Ringer (vehicle control site), 2) 10mM ketorolac (non-selective COX inhibitor), 3) 10mM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (non-selective NOS inhibitor), or 4) a combination of both inhibitors...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Wating Su, Yuan Zhang, Qiongxia Zhang, Jinjin Xu, Liying Zhan, Qiqi Zhu, Qingquan Lian, Huimin Liu, Zhong-Yuan Xia, Zhengyuan Xia, Shaoqing Lei
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are prone to develop cardiac hypertrophy and more susceptible to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, which are concomitant with hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and impaired endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)/NO signaling. Caveolae are critical in the transduction of eNOS/NO signaling in cardiovascular system. Caveolin (Cav)-3, the cardiomyocytes-specific caveolae structural protein, is decreased in the diabetic heart in which production of reactive oxygen species are increased...
October 12, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Tomoko Kawai, Kenichiro Hata
Foetal environmental factors, including maternal nutrition, hormonal disturbance, and chemical exposure, affect foetal growth and can cause birth defects. Recent studies have shown the link of poor foetal growth with increased risks of coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, kidney disease, and brain disorders in adulthood. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are involved in tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene expression and silencing, and they can be transmitted stably through mitotic cell division, thereby inducing long-term changes in gene regulation...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Lei Cao-Lei, Kelsey N Dancause, Guillaume Elgbeili, David P Laplante, Moshe Szyf, Suzanne King
We determined the extent to which DNA methylation mediates the effects of maternal cognitive appraisal of a natural disaster during pregnancy on offspring growth at age 13. Negative maternal cognitive appraisal predicted both lower BMI and central adiposity via DNA methylation of diabetes-related genes, suggesting a protective role of epigenetics.
October 5, 2016: Early Human Development
Asmaa I Owis, Amira M Abo-Youssef, Ahmed H Osman
Cordia boissieri A. DC. (Boraginaceae) is traditionally used as an herbal remedy for diabetes by Hispanic women in Southwestern USA. A recent investigation showed the significant protective effect of ethyl acetate extract against metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the corresponding active principles responsible for this effect and relations between their structure and biological actions remain unclear. Thus, ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography, which yielded seven compounds identified on the basis of spectroscopic data as rutin, hesperidin, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, rosmarinic acid, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and kaempferol...
October 4, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Wenyi Xu, Fengzhong Wang, Zhongsheng Yu, Fengjiao Xin
Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory...
2016: Genetics & Epigenetics
Balekari Umamahesh, Ciddi Veeresham
AIM: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in vivo and in vitro insulin levels were estimated...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Paola Casanello, Bernardo J Krause, José A Castro-Rodríguez, Ricardo Uauy
Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated...
September 28, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Audrey Sambeat, Olga Gulyaeva, Jon Dempersmier, Hei Sook Sul
In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy in the form of triglycerides, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy by producing heat to maintain body temperature by burning glucose and fatty acids in a process called adaptive thermogenesis. The presence of an inducible thermogenic adipose tissue, and its beneficial effects for maintaining body weight and glucose and lipid homeostasis, has raised intense interest in understanding the regulation of thermogenesis. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying the thermogenic adipose program may provide excellent targets for therapeutics against obesity and diabetes...
September 27, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Hongxi Sun, Yu Li, Bei Sun, Ningning Hou, Juhong Yang, Miaoyan Zheng, Jie Xu, Jingyu Wang, Yi Zhang, Xianwei Zeng, Chunyan Shan, Bai Chang, Liming Chen, Baocheng Chang
BACKROUND: Type 2 diabetes has become a global epidemic disease. Atorvastatin has become a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. However, increasing evidence showed that statins can dose-dependently increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. The mechanism is not clear. OBJECTIVE: The Ras complex pathway (Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]/cAMP response element-binding protein [CREB]) is the major pathway that regulates the gene transcription...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Danielle M Osborne, Kelsey E O'Leary, Dennis P Fitzgerald, Alvin J George, Michael M Vidal, Brian M Anderson, Ewan C McNay
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recurrent hypoglycaemia is primarily caused by repeated over-administration of insulin to patients with diabetes. Although cognition is impaired during hypoglycaemia, restoration of euglycaemia after recurrent hypoglycaemia is associated with improved hippocampally mediated memory. Recurrent hypoglycaemia alters glucocorticoid secretion in response to hypoglycaemia; glucocorticoids are well established to regulate hippocampal processes, suggesting a possible mechanism for recurrent hypoglycaemia modulation of subsequent cognition...
September 29, 2016: Diabetologia
Xiangjun Li, Chaoyuan Li, Xiaoxia Li, Peihe Cui, Qifeng Li, Qiaoyan Guo, Hongbo Han, Shujun Liu, Guangdong Sun
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a common complication associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by glomerular mesangial expansion, inflammation, accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, and hypertrophy, is the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increasing evidence suggested that p21-dependent glomerular and mesangial cell (MC) hypertrophy play key roles in the pathogenesis of DN. Recently, posttranscriptional modifications (PTMs) have uncovered novel molecular mechanisms involved in DN...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Vibe Nylander, Lars R Ingerslev, Emil Andersen, Odile Fabre, Christian Garde, Morten Rasmussen, Kiymet Citirikkaya, Josephine Bæk, Gitte L Christensen, Marianne Aznar, Lena Specht, David Simar, Romain Barrès
Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of chronic metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes later in life. We hypothesized that irradiation reprograms the epigenome of metabolic progenitor cells, which could account for impaired metabolism after cancer treatment. C57Bl/6 mice were treated with a single dose of irradiation and subjected to high fat diet (HFD). RNA Sequencing and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing were used to create transcriptomic and epigenomic profiles of preadipocytes and skeletal muscle satellite cells collected from irradiated mice...
September 20, 2016: Diabetes
Charlotte Ling, Tina Rönn
Epigenetic variation in human adipose tissue has been linked to type 2 diabetes and its related risk factors including age and obesity. Insulin resistance, a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes, may also be associated with altered DNA methylation in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, linking epigenetic variation in target tissues to similar changes in blood cells may identify new blood-based biomarkers. In this issue of Diabetologia, Arner et al studied the transcriptome and methylome in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of 80 obese women who were either insulin-sensitive or -resistant (DOI 10...
November 2016: Diabetologia
Seung Hwan Hwang, Zhiqiang Wang, Ha Na Yoon, Soon Sung Lim
Phytochemical investigation of the natural products from Xanthium strumarium led to the isolation of fourteen compounds including seven caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. The individual compounds were screened for inhibition of α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1β (PTP1β), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and ABTS⁺ radical scavenging activity using in vitro assays. Among the isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-caffeoyquinic acid exhibited significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (18...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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