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Diabetes epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534818/a-review-of-the-impact-of-maternal-obesity-on-the-cognitive-function-and-mental-health-of-the-offspring
#1
REVIEW
Laura Contu, Cheryl A Hawkes
Globally, more than 20% of women of reproductive age are currently estimated to be obese. Children born to obese mothers are at higher risk of developing obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and asthma in adulthood. Increasing clinical and experimental evidence suggests that maternal obesity also affects the health and function of the offspring brain across the lifespan. This review summarizes the current findings from human and animal studies that detail the impact of maternal obesity on aspects of learning, memory, motivation, affective disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and neurodegeneration in the offspring...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533215/inhibition-of-hdac3-prevents-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-ove26-mice-via-epigenetic-regulation-of-dusp5-erk1-2-pathway
#2
Zheng Xu, Qian Tong, Zhiguo Zhang, Shudong Wang, Yang Zheng, Qiuju Liu, Lingbo Qian, Shao-Yu Chen, Jian Sun, Lu Cai
Inhibition of total histone deacetylases (HDACs) was phenomenally associated with the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, which specific HDAC plays the key role in DCM remains unclear. The present study was designed to determine whether DCM can be prevented by specific inhibition of HDAC3 and to elucidate the mechanisms by which inhibition of HDAC3 prevent DCM. Type 1 diabetes OVE26 and age-matched wild-type mice were given the selective HDAC3 inhibitor RGFP966 or vehicle for 3 months. These mice were then sacrificed immediately or 3 months later for cardiac function and pathological examination...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533070/maternal-and-paternal-periconceptional-nutrition-as-an-indicator-of-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-risk-in-later-life-through-epigenetic-imprinting-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Ashley R Dunford, Janice M Sangster
AIMS: This review examined whether maternal and paternal periconceptional nutrition effects an offspring's likelihood of developing chronic metabolic related conditions due to epigenetic imprinting. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in multiple science databases and limited to studies published after 2012, in English language and peer reviewed. The data from selected articles were extracted and a qualitative approach was employed due to heterogeneity of results...
May 10, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518147/survivin-a-key-player-in-cancer-progression-increases-in-obesity-and-protects-adipose-tissue-stem-cells-from-apoptosis
#4
Miriam Ejarque, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Carolina Serena, Gisela Pachón, Yaiza Núñez-Álvarez, Margarida Terrón-Puig, Enrique Calvo, Catalina Núñez-Roa, Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Francisco J Tinahones, Miguel Angel Peinado, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Adipose tissue (AT) has a central role in obesity-related metabolic imbalance through the dysregulated production of cytokines and adipokines. In addition to its known risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, obesity is also a major risk for cancer. We investigated the impact of obesity for the expression of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein upregulated by adipokines and a diagnostic biomarker of tumor onset and recurrence. In a cross-sectional study of 111 subjects classified by body mass index, circulating levels of survivin and gene expression in subcutaneous AT were significantly higher in obese patients and positively correlated with leptin...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516910/genetic-architecture-of-epigenetic-and-neuronal-ageing-rates-in-human-brain-regions
#5
Ake T Lu, Eilis Hannon, Morgan E Levine, Eileen M Crimmins, Katie Lunnon, Jonathan Mill, Daniel H Geschwind, Steve Horvath
Identifying genes regulating the pace of epigenetic ageing represents a new frontier in genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Here using 1,796 brain samples from 1,163 individuals, we carry out a GWAS of two DNA methylation-based biomarkers of brain age: the epigenetic ageing rate and estimated proportion of neurons. Locus 17q11.2 is significantly associated (P=4.5 × 10(-9)) with the ageing rate across five brain regions and harbours a cis-expression quantitative trait locus for EFCAB5 (P=3.4 × 10(-20))...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515464/systems-immunology-of-diabetes-tuberculosis-comorbidity-reveals-signatures-of-disease-complications
#6
Cesar A Prada-Medina, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Subash Babu, Flávio Lichtenstein, Kim West, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A Menon, Vijay Viswanathan, Bruno B Andrade, Helder I Nakaya, Hardy Kornfeld
Comorbid diabetes mellitus (DM) increases tuberculosis (TB) risk and adverse outcomes but the pathological interactions between DM and TB remain incompletely understood. We performed an integrative analysis of whole blood gene expression and plasma analytes, comparing South Indian TB patients with and without DM to diabetic and non-diabetic controls without TB. Luminex assay of plasma cytokines and growth factors delineated a distinct biosignature in comorbid TBDM in this cohort. Transcriptional profiling revealed elements in common with published TB signatures from cohorts that excluded DM...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512251/inhibition-of-the-cell-death-pathway-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-related-hepatocarcinogenesis-is-associated-with-histone-h4-lysine-16-deacetylation
#7
Aline de Conti, Kostiantyn Dreval, Volodymyr Tryndyak, Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Sharon Ross, Frederick Beland, Igor P Pogribny
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers and its incidence is steadily increasing worldwide. Recent epidemiological findings have suggested that the increased incidence of HCC is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, the mechanisms and the molecular pathogenesis of NASH-related HCC are not fully understood. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the development of NASH-related HCC, we investigated the hepatic transcriptomic and histone modification profiles in Stelic Animal Model (STAM) mice, the first animal model of NASH-related HCC to resemble the disease pathogenesis in humans...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509412/-three-hits-hypothesis-for-developmental-origins-of-health-and-diseases-in-view-of-cardiovascular-abnormalities
#8
REVIEW
Xiang Li, Mengshu Zhang, Xinghua Pan, Zhice Xu, Miao Sun
"Fetal Origins of Adult Diseases" (FOAD) or "Barker hypothesis," also known as the developmental origins of health and diseases (DoHaD), was initially proposed by David Barker in the 1980s. Progress in past 2 to 3 decades demonstrated that many adult disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others, could be linked to poor development resulting from in utero insults. Utero-environments play a critical role in fetal development. Because the placenta and umbilical cord are the only important connections between the fetus and mother in the uterus, this review pays special attention to recent research and progress in the study of the relationship between those tissues and FOAD...
May 16, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503212/associations-between-maternal-risk-factors-of-adverse-pregnancy-and-birth-outcomes-and-the-offspring-epigenetic-clock-of-gestational-age-at-birth
#9
Polina Girchenko, Jari Lahti, Darina Czamara, Anna K Knight, Meaghan J Jones, Anna Suarez, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori, Pia M Villa, Rebecca M Reynolds, Michael S Kobor, Alicia K Smith, Elisabeth B Binder, Katri Räikkönen
BACKGROUND: A recent study has shown that it is possible to accurately estimate gestational age (GA) at birth from the DNA methylation (DNAm) of fetal umbilical cord blood/newborn blood spots. This DNAm GA predictor may provide additional information relevant to developmental stage. In 814 mother-neonate pairs, we evaluated the associations between DNAm GA and a number of maternal and offspring characteristics. These characteristics reflect prenatal environmental adversity and are expected to influence newborn developmental stage...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500476/update-on-apoa5-genetics-toward-a-better-understanding-of-its-physiological-impact
#10
REVIEW
Montse Guardiola, Josep Ribalta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is intended to summarize the genetic studies published during the last 3 years that help us understand the physiology of apoAV and its clinical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: APOA5 is probably the gene with the strongest effect on triglyceride (TG) metabolism. APOA5 is almost exclusively expressed in the liver, and its product apoAV has a very low circulating concentration. New physiological roles of apoAV have been recently elucidated, such as control of chylomicron production in the intestine and TG accumulation in adipose tissue...
July 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490526/atp-citrate-lyase-is-essential-for-high-glucose-induced-histone-hyperacetylation-and-fibrogenic-gene-up-regulation-in-mesangial-cells
#11
Dilip K Deb, Yinyin Chen, Jian Sun, Youli Wang, Yan Chun Li
TThe goal of this study was to address the role of ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), an enzyme that converts citrate to acetyl-CoA, in high glucose (HG)-induced histone acetylation and pro-fibrotic gene expression. Our recent ChIP-Seq studies have demonstrated that HG induces genome-wide histone hyperacetylation in mesangial cells (MCs). Here we showed that exposure of MCs to HG markedly increased histone acetylation at the H3K9/14 and H3K18 marks and induced the expression of potent pro-fibrotic factors TGF-β1, TGF-β3 and CTGF...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487070/noncoding-rna-and-epigenetic-gene-regulation-in-renal-disease
#12
REVIEW
Satya K Kota, Savithri B Kota
Kidneys have a major role in normal physiology and metabolic homeostasis. Loss or impairment of kidney function is a common occurrence in several metabolic disorders, including hypertension and diabetes. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affect nearly 10% of the population worldwide; ranks 18th in the list of causes of death; and contributes to a significant proportion of healthcare costs. The tissue repair and regenerative potential of kidneys are limited and they decline during aging. Recent studies have demonstrated a key role for epigenetic processes and players, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, noncoding (nc)RNA, and so on, in both kidney development and disease...
May 6, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486003/placental-lipoprotein-lipase-dna-methylation-alterations-are-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-and-body-composition-at-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#13
Valérie Gagné-Ouellet, Andrée-Anne Houde, Simon-Pierre Guay, Patrice Perron, Daniel Gaudet, Renée Guérin, Jean-Patrice Baillargeon, Marie-France Hivert, Diane Brisson, Luigi Bouchard
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with obesity in childhood. This suggests that consequences of in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia extend beyond the fetal development, possibly through epigenetic programming. The aims of this study were to assess whether placental DNA methylation (DNAm) marks were associated with maternal GDM status and to offspring body composition at 5 years old in a prospective birth cohort. DNAm levels were measured in the fetal side of the placenta in 66 samples (24 from GDM mothers) using bisDNA-pyrosequencing...
May 9, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473471/are-targeted-therapies-for-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-on-the-horizon
#14
REVIEW
Mitchel Tate, David J Grieve, Rebecca H Ritchie
Diabetes increases the risk of heart failure approximately 2.5-fold, independent of coronary artery disease and other comorbidities. This process, termed diabetic cardiomyopathy, is characterized by initial impairment of left ventricular (LV) relaxation followed by LV contractile dysfunction. Post-mortem examination reveals that human diastolic dysfunction is closely associated with LV damage, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis and fibrosis, with impaired coronary microvascular perfusion. The pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning the characteristic features of diabetic cardiomyopathy remain poorly understood, although multiple factors including altered lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, as well as epigenetic changes, are implicated...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470097/phenylbutyrate-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-contribution-of-histone-deacetylases-and-er-stress-inhibition
#15
Sabbir Khan, Sandeep K Komarya, Gopabandhu Jena
Incidences of diabetes are increasing globally due to involvement of genetic and epigenetic factors. Phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a US FDA approved drug for treatment of urea cycle disorder in children. PBA reduces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and is proven as a potent histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor. Chronic ER stress results in unfolding protein response, which triggers apoptosis. Abnormal ER homoeostasis is responsible for defective processing of several genes/proteins and contributes to β-cell death/failure...
May 4, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470093/genetic-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-arsenic-associated-diabetes-mellitus-a-perspective-of-the-current-evidence
#16
Elizabeth M Martin, Miroslav Stýblo, Rebecca C Fry
Chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (DM), a disease characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. This review summarizes four major mechanisms by which arsenic induces diabetes, namely inhibition of insulin-dependent glucose uptake, pancreatic β-cell damage, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and stimulation of liver gluconeogenesis that are supported by both in vivo and in vitro studies. Additionally, the role of polymorphic variants associated with arsenic toxicity and disease susceptibility, as well as epigenetic modifications associated with arsenic exposure, are considered in the context of arsenic-associated DM...
May 4, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465145/energy-sensing-pathways-bridging-type-2-diabetes-and-colorectal-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Juhong Yang, Reiko Nishihara, Xuehong Zhang, Shuji Ogino, Zhi Rong Qian
The recently rapid increase of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus has caused great burden to our society. A positive association between type 2 diabetes and risk of colorectal cancer has been reported by increasing epidemiological studies. The molecular mechanism of this connection remains elusive. However, type 2 diabetes may result in abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, high levels of circulating insulin, insulin growth factor-1, and adipocytokines, as well as chronic inflammation. All these factors could lead to the alteration of energy sensing pathways such as the AMP activated kinase (PRKA), mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR), SIRT1, and autophagy signaling pathways...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459432/metformin-inhibits-suv39h1-mediated-migration-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#18
T Yu, C Wang, J Yang, Y Guo, Y Wu, X Li
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related death among men, largely due to incurable distant metastases. Metformin, the most common used anti-type-2 diabetes medicine, has been linked to reduced cancer risk and better diagnosis. We found that metformin was able to inhibit PCa cell migration, which correlates with tumor metastatic capability. The pathogenesis and progression of tumors are closely related to dysregulated gene expression in tumor cells through epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation and histone modifications...
May 1, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453961/diabetic-nephropathy-new-insights-into-established-therapeutic-paradigms-and-novel-molecular-targets
#19
REVIEW
Dilip Sharma, Pallab Bhattacharya, Kiran Kalia, Vinod Tiwari
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most prevalent microvascular complication in patients suffering from diabetes and is reported to be the major cause of renal failure when compared to any other kidney disease. Currently, available therapies provide only symptomatic relief and unable to treat the underlying pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. This review will explore new insights into the established therapeutic paradigms targeting oxidative stress, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress with the focus on recent clinical developments...
April 13, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452927/the-metabolic-memory-theory-and-the-early-treatment-of-hyperglycemia-in-prevention-of-diabetic-complications
#20
REVIEW
Testa Roberto, Bonfigli Anna Rita, Francesco Prattichizzo, Lucia La Sala, Valeria De Nigris, Antonio Ceriello
Several epidemiological and prospective studies suggest that an early intensive control of hyperglycaemia is able to decrease the risk of diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications. A growing body of experimental evidence supports the concept that the risk for diabetes complications may be linked to oxidative stress, non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, epigenetic changes, and chronic inflammation, laying the foundation for the "metabolic memory" theory. From a clinical point of view, this theory supports the need for a very early aggressive treatment, with the goal of normalizing metabolic control as soon as possible...
April 28, 2017: Nutrients
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