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Diabetes epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777232/maternal-overnutrition-programs-epigenetic-changes-in-the-regulatory-regions-of-hypothalamic-pomc-in-the-offspring-of-rats
#1
Thanuja Gali Ramamoorthy, Tiffany-Jayne Allen, Alison Davies, Erika Harno, Charlotte Sefton, Christopher Murgatroyd, Anne White
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Maternal overnutrition has been implicated in affecting the offspring by programming metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, by mechanisms that are not clearly understood. This study aimed to determine the long-term impact of maternal high-fat (HF) diet feeding on epigenetic changes in the offspring's hypothalamic Pomc gene, coding a key factor in the control of energy balance. Further, it aimed to study the additional effects of postnatal overnutrition on epigenetic programming by maternal nutrition...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775902/type-1-diabetes-through-the-lens-of-human-genome-and-metagenome-interplay
#2
REVIEW
Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Hakimeh Moghaddas Sani, Yalda Rahbar Saadat, Abolfazl Barzegari, Yadollah Omidi
Diabetes is a genetic- and epigenetic-related disease from which a large population worldwide suffers. Some genetic factors along with various mutations related to the immune system for disease mechanism(s) have contrastively been determined. However, sometimes mechanisms have not been fully managed for the clarification of the initiation and/or progression of diseases to help patients. In the recent years, due to familiarity with the role of gut microbiota in the health, it has been found that the changes of the microbial balance in the industrialized societies can cause a battery of modern diseases, for which we have no specific definition of how they emerge...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759007/contemporary-trends-emerging-in-epigenomics-and-metabolism
#3
Assam El-Osta
Diabetes is the disease of our time. It is a complex disorder. It is increasingly appreciated that genetic factors cannot fully explain susceptibility to diabetic complications. For almost a decade, the epigenetics field has grown tremendously becoming an alternative but integral component of how we interpret gene regulation. Some consider the field an epiphenomenon with an evidence base awaiting critical testing. The advent of experimental tools combined with the development of research methods have brought with the field technological advancements that allow scientists to assess ideas that have not yet been tested critically...
May 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749858/tbc-update-personalized-epigenetic-management-of-diabetes
#4
Adriana Fodor, Angela Cozma, Eddy Karnieli
The novel genome-wide assays of epigenetic marks have resulted in a greater understanding of how genetics and the environment interact in the development and inheritance of diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia induces epigenetic changes in multiple organs, contributing to diabetic complications. Specific epigenetic-modifying compounds have been developed to erase these modifications, possibly slowing down the onset of diabetes-related complications. The current review is an update of the previously published paper, describing the most recent advances in the epigenetics of diabetes...
November 2017: Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748034/ampk-induced-memory-improvements-in-the-diabetic-population-a-case-study
#5
Alicia Halikas, Kelly J Gibas
Diabetics in mid-life carry a 1.5 times higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than those diagnosed with diabetes (T2D) later in life [1]. Recent research points to accelerated cognitive decline within a range of 20%-50% for middle-aged diabetics as compared to non-diabetic populations [2,3]. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a type 2 diabetes (T2D) precursor, is also linked to MCI and AD pathologies via hypo-metabolic brain circuitry that inhibits glucose metabolism and attenuates cognitive function [4]. Dysregulation of intracellular and extracellular signaling as mediated by the mTOR and AMPK pathways is the result...
April 27, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745447/dna-methylation-pattern-of-bovine-blastocysts-associated-to-hyperinsulinemia-in-vitro
#6
Denise Laskowski, Patrice Humblot, Marc-André Sirard, Ylva Sjunnesson, Naveed Jhamat, Renée Båge, Göran Andersson
Insulin functions as a regulator of metabolism and plays an important role in reproduction. Hyperinsulinemia is often observed in obesity and diabetes type 2 and is known to impair fertility, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partly understood. Metabolic programming through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation during embryonic development can lead to health implications for the offspring later in life. Our aim was to study the potential effect of hyperinsulinemia on gene expression and DNA methylation of embryos by adding insulin (0...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740313/epigenome-wide-association-study-of-soluble-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-levels-in-the-framingham-heart-study
#7
Michael M Mendelson, Roby Johannes, Chunyu Liu, Tianxiao Huan, Chen Yao, Xiao Miao, Joanne M Murabito, Josée Dupuis, Daniel Levy, Emelia J Benjamin, Honghuang Lin
Background: Transmembrane tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors are involved in inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative processes. In the bloodstream, soluble TNF receptor II (sTNFR2) can modify the inflammatory response of immune cells and is predictive of cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesize that sTNFR2 is associated with epigenetic modifications of circulating leukocytes, which may relate to the pathophysiology underlying atherogenic risk. Methods: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study of sTNFR2 levels in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort (examination 8; 2005-2008)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737531/specific-expression-network-analysis-of-diabetic-nephropathy-kidney-tissue-revealed-key-methylated-sites
#8
Yan-Zhe Wang, Wen-Wei Xu, Ding-Yu Zhu, Nan Zhang, Yong-Lan Wang, Miao Ding, Xin-Miao Xie, Lin-Lin Sun, Xiao-Xia Wang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common and serious complication in diabetes patients. However, the evidences of gene regulation mechanism and epigenetic modification with DN remain unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to search regulating genes for early diagnosis on DN. We identified tissue specific genes through mining the gene expression omnibus (GEO) public database, enriched function by gene ontology (GO), and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis, and further compared tissue-specific network...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733819/mitochondrial-proteome-disruption-in-the-diabetic-heart-through-targeted-epigenetic-regulation-at-the-mitochondrial-heat-shock-protein-70-mthsp70-nuclear-locus
#9
Danielle L Shepherd, Quincy A Hathaway, Cody E Nichols, Andrya J Durr, Mark V Pinti, Kristen M Hughes, Amina Kunovac, Seth M Stine, John M Hollander
>99% of the mitochondrial proteome is nuclear-encoded. The mitochondrion relies on a coordinated multi-complex process for nuclear genome-encoded mitochondrial protein import. Mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mtHsp70) is a key component of this process and a central constituent of the protein import motor. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) disrupts mitochondrial proteomic signature which is associated with decreased protein import efficiency. The goal of this study was to manipulate the mitochondrial protein import process through targeted restoration of mtHsp70, in an effort to restore proteomic signature and mitochondrial function in the T2DM heart...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732466/novel-insights-into-the-regulation-of-mirna-transcriptional-control-implications-for-t2d-and-related-complications
#10
Lucia La Sala, Stefano Micheloni, Valeria De Nigris, Francesco Prattichizzo, Antonio Ceriello
In recent years, epigenetics has emerged as an important form of biological regulation involving chromatin control of gene expression. The mechanisms of this fine-tuned regulation are susceptible to changes forced by environmental stimuli and nutritional factors and may be potentially reversible. Dysregulation of epigenetic processes has important consequences for the pathogenesis of complex and multifactorial diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and vascular complications. Along with DNA methylation (DNA-me), histone modifications and RNA-based mechanisms as the major epigenetic controllers, small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have their own important implications for the pathogenesis of diabetes...
May 7, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732170/nutrition-meets-heredity-a-case-of-rna-mediated-transmission-of-acquired-characters
#11
Minoo Rassoulzadegan, François Cuzin
RNA-based inheritance provides a reasonable hypothesis to explain multigenerational maintenance of the disease in the progeny of either a male or female parent suffering from the metabolic syndrome (obesity and type 2 diabetes) induced by abnormal diet. Although, it is still difficult to formulate a complete rational mechanism, study of inheritance is a most direct way to learn about the epigenetic control of gene expression and we wished to summarised our current approach along this line.
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730292/altered-expression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-pdx1-and-their-methylation-status-are-associated-with-fetal-glucose-metabolism-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Lizhen Wang, Hailing Fan, Ludan Zhou, Yanjun Wu, Hongping Lu, Jing Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the expression and methylation of PGC-1α and PDX1 in placenta and their effects on fetal glucose metabolism. METHODS: 20 cases of full-term placenta without pregnancy complications and umbilical cord abnormalities and 20 cases of GDM group were collected. DNA and RNA were isolated from samples of tissue collected from the fetal side of the placenta immediately after delivery. DNA methylation was quantified at 7 CpG sites within the PGC-1α and PDX1 genes using PCR amplification of bisulfite treated DNA and subsequent DNA sequencing...
May 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729373/acute-exercise-and-periodized-training-in-different-environments-affect-histone-deacetylase-activity-and-interleukin-10-levels-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Arthiese Korb, Karine Bertoldi, Gisele Agustini Lovatel, Rodrigo Sudatti Dellevatti, Viviane Rostirola Elsner, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira Meireles, Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira
AIMS: Our purpose was to investigate the effects of aerobic periodized training in aquatic and land environments on plasma histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and cytokines levels in peripheral blood of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) patients. METHODS: The patients underwent 12 weeks of periodized training programs that including walking or running in a swimming pool (aquatic group) or in a track (dry land group). Blood samples were collected immediately before and after both first and last sessions...
May 2, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719834/genomic-instabilities-cellular-senescence-and-aging-in-vitro-in-vivo-and-aging-like-human-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Gabriel Lidzbarsky, Danielle Gutman, Huda Adwan Shekhidem, Lital Sharvit, Gil Atzmon
As average life span and elderly people prevalence in the western world population is gradually increasing, the incidence of age-related diseases such as cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, and dementia is increasing, bearing social and economic consequences worldwide. Understanding the molecular basis of aging-related processes can help extend the organism's health span, i.e., the life period in which the organism is free of chronic diseases or decrease in basic body functions. During the last few decades, immense progress was made in the understanding of major components of aging and healthy aging biology, including genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic changes, proteostasis, nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and intracellular communications...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716892/human-proislet-peptide-promotes-pancreatic-progenitor-cells-to-ameliorate-diabetes-via-foxo1-menin-mediated-epigenetic-regulation
#15
Zongzhe Jiang, Diwen Shi, Yifan Tu, Jingjing Tian, Wenjian Zhang, Bowen Xing, Jihua Wang, Suhuan Liu, Jinning Lou, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Xianxin Hua, Xiaosong Ma
In this study, we investigated how human proislet peptide (HIP) regulates differentiation of human fetus-derived pancreatic progenitor cells (HFPPCs), and explored the potential link between HIP signaling and the menin pathway, a key pathway that regulates differentiation of pancreatic islets. Our data showed that HIP promoted expression of pro-islet transcription factors (TFs) including PDX-1, MAFA and NKX6.1 as well as other maturation markers of β-cells such as insulin, GLUT2, KIR6.2, SUR1 and VDCC. Moreover, HIP increased insulin content, and promoted the ability of HFPPCs to normalize the blood glucose in diabetic mice...
May 1, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712868/-insulin-promoter-in-human-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-contacts-diabetes-susceptibility-loci-and-regulates-genes-affecting-insulin-metabolism
#16
Xing Jian, Gary Felsenfeld
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes involve a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Our laboratory has been interested in the physical interactions, in nuclei of human pancreatic β cells, between the insulin ( INS) gene and other genes that are involved in insulin metabolism. We have identified, using Circularized Chromosome Conformation Capture (4C), many physical contacts in a human pancreatic β cell line between the INS promoter on chromosome 11 and sites on most other chromosomes...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709239/cytosine-methylation-predicts-renal-function-decline-in-american-indians
#17
Chengxiang Qiu, Robert L Hanson, Gudeta Fufaa, Sayuko Kobes, Caroline Gluck, Jing Huang, Yong Chen, Dominic Raj, Robert G Nelson, William C Knowler, Katalin Susztak
Diabetic nephropathy accounts for most of the excess mortality in individuals with diabetes, but the molecular mechanisms by which nephropathy develops are largely unknown. Here we tested cytosine methylation levels at 397,063 genomic CpG sites for association with decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over a six year period in 181 diabetic Pima Indians. Methylation levels at 77 sites showed significant association with eGFR decline after correction for multiple comparisons. A model including methylation level at two probes (cg25799291 and cg22253401) improved prediction of eGFR decline in addition to baseline eGFR and the albumin to creatinine ratio with the percent of variance explained significantly improving from 23...
April 27, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700282/lincrna-1700020i14rik-alleviates-cell-proliferation-and-fibrosis-in-diabetic-nephropathy-via-mir-34a-5p-sirt1-hif-1%C3%AE-signaling
#18
Ailing Li, Rui Peng, Yan Sun, Handeng Liu, Huimin Peng, Zheng Zhang
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been gradually identified to be functional in a variety of different mechanisms associating with development and epigenetic regulation of cellular homeostasis. However, the study of lincRNAs in diabetic nephropathy (DN) is still in its infancy. Here, we have found dysexpressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in renal tissues of db/db DN mice compared with db/m mice by RNA sequencing. In this study, 5 lincRNAs were confirmed to express in a consistent trend among these DN-related lncRNAs both in vivo and in vitro...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699867/precision-medicine-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Anna L Gloyn, Daniel J Drucker
The study of type 2 diabetes has been driven by advances in human genetics, epigenetics, biomarkers, mechanistic studies, and large clinical trials, enabling new insights into disease susceptibility, pathophysiology, progression, and development of complications. Simultaneously, several new drug classes with different mechanisms of action have been introduced over the past two decades, accompanied by data about cardiovascular safety and non-glycaemic outcomes. In this Review, we critically examine the progress and integration of this new science into clinical practice, and review opportunities for enabling the use of precision medicine in the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes...
April 23, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699712/foetoplacental-epigenetic-changes-associated-with-maternal-metabolic-dysfunction
#20
Bredford Kerr, Andrea Leiva, Marcelo Farías, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Francisca Stolzenbach, Luis Silva, Luis Sobrevia
Metabolic-related diseases are attributed to a sedentary lifestyle and eating habits, and there is now an increased awareness regarding pregnancy as a preponderant window in the programming of adulthood health and disease. The developing foetus is susceptible to the maternal environment; hence, any unfavourable condition will result in foetal physiological adaptations that could have a permanent impact on its health. Some of these alterations are maintained via epigenetic modifications capable of modifying gene expression in metabolism-related genes...
April 12, 2018: Placenta
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