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Diabetes epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097824/mechanisms-of-metabolic-memory-and-renal-hypoxia-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Yosuke Hirakawa, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Masaomi Nangaku
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The definition of DKD is being under discussion. Although the term DKD was originally defined as "kidney disease specific to diabetes", DKD frequently means chronic kidney disease (CKD) with diabetes mellitus and includes not only classical diabetic nephropathy, but also kidney dysfunction due to nephrosclerosis and other causes. Metabolic memory plays a crucial role in the progression of various complications of diabetes, including DKD. The mechanisms of metabolic memory in DKD are supposed to include advanced glycation end products, DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA including microRNA...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081217/collective-genetic-interaction-effects-and-the-role-of-antigen-presenting-cells-in-autoimmune-diseases
#2
Hyung Jun Woo, Chenggang Yu, Jaques Reifman
Autoimmune diseases occur when immune cells fail to develop or lose their tolerance toward self and destroy body's own tissues. Both insufficient negative selection of self-reactive T cells and impaired development of regulatory T cells preventing effector cell activation are believed to contribute to autoimmunity. Genetic predispositions center around the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II loci involved in antigen presentation, the key determinant of CD4+ T cell activation. Recent studies suggested that variants in the MHC region also exhibit significant non-additive interaction effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076319/impact-of-nutrition-on-pollutant-toxicity-an-update-with-new-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#3
Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental pollutants is a global health problem and is associated with the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrition can both positively and negatively modulate the toxic effects of pollutant exposure. Diets high in proinflammatory fats, such as linoleic acid, can exacerbate pollutant toxicity, whereas diets rich in bioactive and anti-inflammatory food components, including omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, can attenuate toxicant-associated inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068899/maternal-bmi-as-a-predictor-of-methylation-of-obesity-related-genes-in-saliva-samples-from-preschool-age-hispanic-children-at-risk-for-obesity
#4
Kathryn Tully Oelsner, Yan Guo, Sophie Bao-Chieu To, Amy L Non, Shari L Barkin
BACKGROUND: The study of epigenetic processes and mechanisms present a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool-age children at-risk for obesity despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain. We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns of key obesogenic genes in Hispanic children would 1) correlate with maternal BMI and 2) allow for identification of pathways associated with children at-risk for obesity...
January 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061846/map4k4-and-il-6-th17-cells-play-important-roles-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Huai-Chia Chuang, Tse-Hua Tan
Obesity is a causal factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, people without obesity (including lean, normal weight, or overweight) may still develop T2D. Non-obese T2D is prevalent in Asia and also frequently occurs in Europe. Recently, multiple evidences oppose the notion that either obesity or central obesity (visceral fat accumulation) promotes non-obese T2D. Several factors such as inflammation and environmental factors contribute to non-obese T2D. According to the data derived from gene knockout mice and T2D clinical samples in Asia and Europe, the pathogenesis of non-obese T2D has been unveiled recently...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059593/clinical-relevance-of-epigenetics-in-the-onset-and-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Linda Sommese, Alberto Zullo, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Rossella Fabbricini, Andrea Soricelli, Claudio Napoli
Epigenetics is involved in the altered expression of gene networks that underlie insulin resistance and insufficiency. Major genes controlling β-cell differentiation and function, such as PAX4, PDX1, and GLP1 receptor, are epigenetically controlled. Epigenetics can cause insulin resistance through immunomediated pro-inflammatory actions related to several factors, such as NF-kB, osteopontin, and Toll-like receptors. Hereafter, we provide a critical and comprehensive summary on this topic with a particular emphasis on translational and clinical aspects...
January 6, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052964/whole-genome-bisulfite-sequencing-of-human-pancreatic-islets-reveals-novel-differentially-methylated-regions-in-type-2-diabetes-pathogenesis
#7
Petr Volkov, Karl Bacos, Jones K Ofori, Jonathan Lou S Esguerra, Lena Eliasson, Tina Rönn, Charlotte Ling
Current knowledge about the role of epigenetics in type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains limited. Only a few studies have investigated DNA methylation of selected candidate genes or a very small fraction of genomic CpG sites in human pancreatic islets, the tissue of primary pathogenic importance for diabetes. Our aim was to characterize the whole-genome DNA methylation landscape in human pancreatic islets, to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in diabetic islets, and to investigate the function of DMRs in islet biology...
January 4, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049748/maternal-nutrition-opportunities-in-the-prevention-of-gestational-diabetes
#8
Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Tinu Mary Samuel, Jörg Spieldenner
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is currently defined as glucose intolerance that is of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study, including 25 000 nondiabetic pregnant women in 15 centers across the world, reported that an average of 17.8% of pregnancies are affected by GDM and its frequency can be as high as 25.5% in some countries, based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Nevertheless, true global prevalence estimates of GDM are currently lacking due to the high level of heterogeneity in screening approaches, diagnostic criteria, and differences in the characteristics of the populations that were studied...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031460/inhibitory-role-of-%C3%AE-2-6-sialylation-in-adipogenesis
#9
Tomoko Kaburagi, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Shinobu Kitazume, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Adipose tissue plays critical roles in obesity and related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports suggest that glycans, the most common post-translational modifications, are involved in obesity-related diseases, but what type of glycan regulates adipogenesis during obesity remains unclear. In this study, we first quantified the mRNA levels of 167 genes (encoding 144 glycosyltransferases and 23 related enzymes) in visceral adipose tissues (VATs) from control mice and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029651/the-pseudogene-duxap10-promotes-an-aggressive-phenotype-through-binding-with-lsd1-and-repressing-lats2-and-rrad-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Chen-Chen Wei, Feng-Qi Nie, Li-Li Jiang, Qin-Nan Chen, Zhen-Yao Chen, Xin Chen, Xuan Pan, Zhi-Li Liu, Bin-Bin Lu, Zhao-Xia Wang
Pseudogenes have been considered as non-functional transcriptional relics of human genomic for long time. However, recent studies revealed that they play a plethora of roles in diverse physiological and pathological processes, especially in cancer, and many pseudogenes are transcribed into long noncoding RNAs and emerging as a novel class of lncRNAs. However, the biological roles and underlying mechanism of pseudogenes in the pathogenesis of non small cell lung cancer are still incompletely elucidated. This study identifies a putative oncogenic pseudogene DUXAP10 in NSCLC, which is located in 14q11...
December 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012783/epigenetic-regulation-of-redox-signaling-in-diabetic-retinopathy-role-of-nrf2
#11
REVIEW
Renu A Kowluru, Manish Mishra
Diabetic retinopathy is a major vision threatening disease among working age adults, and increased oxidative stress is one of the prime causative factors in its pathogenesis. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytosol damage mitochondria, and due to compromised antioxidant signaling system and dysfunctional mitochondria with damaged mitochondrial DNA, ROS continue to pile up, accelerating capillary cell loss. In addition to other cellular and enzymatic defense systems, the retina is also equipped with the nuclear erythroid-2-p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response element signaling pathway, which controls the expression of genes important in detoxification and elimination of ROS...
December 22, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011458/insulin-and-glucose-alter-death-associated-protein-kinase-3-dapk3-dna-methylation-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#12
Jonathan M Mudry, David G Lassiter, Carolina Nylén, Sonia García-Calzón, Erik Näslund, Anna Krook, Juleen R Zierath
DNA methylation is altered by environmental factors. We hypothesized DNA methylation is altered in skeletal muscle in response to either insulin or glucose exposure. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in muscle from healthy men before and after insulin exposure. DNA methylation of selected genes was determined in muscle from healthy and type 2 diabetic men before and after a glucose tolerance test. Insulin altered DNA methylation in the 3'UTR of the calcium pump ATP2A3 gene. Insulin increased DNA methylation in the gene body of DAPK3, a gene involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy...
December 23, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003373/chronic-inflammation-accelerator-of-biological-aging
#13
REVIEW
Bertrand Fougère, Eric Boulanger, Fati Nourhashémi, Sophie Guyonnet, Matteo Cesari
Biological aging is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation level. This chronic phenomenon has been named "inflamm-aging" and is a highly significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the older persons. The most common theories of inflamm-aging include redox stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, glycation, deregulation of the immune system, hormonal changes, epigenetic modifications, and dysfunction telomere attrition. Inflamm-aging plays a role in the initiation and progression of age-related diseases such as type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, frailty, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and cancer...
December 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990443/glucose-tolerance-mthfr-c677t-and-nos3-g894t-polymorphisms-and-global-dna-methylation-in-mixed-ancestry-african-individuals
#14
Tandi E Matsha, Carmen Pheiffer, Tinashe Mutize, Rajiv T Erasmus, Andre P Kengne
The aim of this study is to quantify global DNA methylation and investigate the relationship with diabetes status and polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T genes in mixed ancestry subjects from South Africa. Global DNA methylation was measured, and MTHFR rs1801133 and NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms were genotyped using high throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Of the 564 participants, 158 (28%) individuals had T2DM of which 97 (17.2%) were screen-detected cases. Another 119 (21...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989964/histone-acetylation-of-glucose-induced-thioredoxin-interacting-protein-gene-expression-in-pancreatic-islets
#15
Pradeep Bompada, David Atac, Cheng Luan, Robin Andersson, Judit Domènech Omella, Emilia Ottosson Laakso, Jason Wright, Leif Groop, Yang De Marinis
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) has been shown to be associated with glucose-induced deterioration of pancreatic beta cell function in diabetes. However, whether epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the regulation of TXNIP gene expression by glucose is not clear. Here we studied how glucose exerts its effect on TXNIP gene expression via modulation of histone acetylation marks. To achieve this, we applied clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) to knock out histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 in a rat pancreatic beta cell line INS1 832/13...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989961/role-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-activation-in-cardiac-diastolic-dysfunction
#16
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Yan Jia, James R Sowers
The prevalence of cardiac diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world, is increasing due, in part, to increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Characteristics of cardiac diastolic dysfunction include increased myocardial stiffness and impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation that is characterized by prolonged isovolumic LV relaxation and slow LV filling. Obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, especially in females promote activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling with resultant increases in oxidative stress, maladaptive immune responses, inflammation, and impairment of coronary blood flow and cardiac interstitial fibrosis...
October 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986832/placental-and-cord-blood-methylation-of-genes-involved-in-energy-homeostasis-association-with-fetal-growth-and-neonatal-body-composition
#17
Marta Díaz, Cristina García, Giorgia Sebastiani, Francis de Zegher, Abel López-Bermejo, Lourdes Ibáñez
Low weight at birth associates with subsequent susceptibility to diabetes. Epigenetic modulation is among the mechanisms potentially mediating this association. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in placentas from term infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA), to identify new genes related to fetal growth and neonatal body composition. Candidate genes were validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing (30 AGA, 21 SGA) and also analyzed in cord blood. Gene expression analyses were performed by RT-PCR...
December 16, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986580/no-effect-of-different-bariatric-surgery-procedures-on-line-1-dna-methylation-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-morbidly-obese-patients
#18
G M Martín-Núñez, A Cabrera-Mulero, J Alcaide-Torres, E García-Fuentes, F J Tinahones, S Morcillo
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery (BS) is proposed as a highly effective therapy for reducing weight and improving obesity-related co-morbidities. The molecular mechanisms involved in the metabolic improvement after BS are not completely resolved. Epigenetic modifications could have an important role. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different BS procedures (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy) on global DNA methylation (long interspersed nucleotide element 1 [LINE-1]) in a group of nondiabetic and diabetic severely obese patients...
October 21, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958319/altered-dna-methylation-associated-with-an-abnormal-liver-phenotype-in-a-cattle-model-with-a-high-incidence-of-perinatal-pathologies
#19
Hélène Kiefer, Luc Jouneau, Évelyne Campion, Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard, Thibaut Larcher, Marie-Laure Martin-Magniette, Sandrine Balzergue, Mireille Ledevin, Audrey Prézelin, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Yvan Heyman, Christophe Richard, Daniel Le Bourhis, Jean-Paul Renard, Hélène Jammes
Cloning enables the generation of both clinically normal and pathological individuals from the same donor cells, and may therefore be a DNA sequence-independent driver of phenotypic variability. We took advantage of cattle clones with identical genotypes but different developmental abilities to investigate the role of epigenetic factors in perinatal mortality, a complex trait with increasing prevalence in dairy cattle. We studied livers from pathological clones dying during the perinatal period, clinically normal adult clones with the same genotypes as perinatal clones and conventional age-matched controls...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929711/dual-effects-of-a-retn-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-snp-at-420-on-plasma-resistin-genotype-and-dna-methylation
#20
Hiroshi Onuma, Yasuharu Tabara, Ryoichi Kawamura, Jun Ohashi, Wataru Nishida, Yasunori Takata, Masaaki Ochi, Tatsuya Nishimiya, Yasumasa Ohyagi, Ryuichi Kawamoto, Katsuhiko Kohara, Tetsuro Miki, Haruhiko Osawa
CONTEXT: We previously reported that SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) -420 C>G (rs1862513) in the promoter region of RETN was associated with type 2 diabetes. Plasma resistin was tightly correlated with SNP-420 genotypes. SNP-420 is a CpG-SNP affecting the sequence of CpG dinucleotides. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether methylation at SNP-420 affects plasma resistin, we analyzed plasma resistin and methylation at RETN SNP-420. DESIGN AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cells in 2,078 Japanese subjects...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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