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Cancer AND NOX

Lisa Bauleo, Simone Bucci, Chiara Antonucci, Roberto Sozzi, Marina Davoli, Francesco Forastiere, Carla Ancona
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Residents near industrial areas are exposed to several toxins from various sources and the assessment of the health effects is difficult. The area of Civitavecchia (Italy) has several sources of environmental contamination with potential health effects. We evaluated the association between exposure to pollutants from multiple sources and mortality in a cohort of people living in the area. METHODS: All residents of the area in 1996 were enrolled (from municipal registers) and followed until 2013...
September 14, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Li Tao, Min Xu, Xiaojun Dai, Tengyang Ni, Dan Li, Feng Jin, Haibo Wang, Lide Tao, Bo Pan, James R Woodgett, Yayun Qian, Yanqing Liu
Danshen, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza , one of the most investigated medicinal plants with well-defined phytochemical constituents, has shown prominent clinical outcomes for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticoagulant activities to attain vascular protection and additional benefits for cancer therapy. More recently, activation of neutrophil and excessive formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been observed in pathological conditions of metastatic cancers; thus, we hypothesized that suppression of NETs could account for an essential cellular event underlying Danshen-mediated reduction of the incidence of metastasis...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Ajay Kumar, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Sudha Verma, Kumar Abhishek, Ashish Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Pradeep Das
Mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) is a central regulator of growth and immunity of host cells. It's involvement in cancer and tuberculosis is well documented but least explored in Leishmania donovani invasion of host cells. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate the role of mTOR in M2 macrophage polarization for Leishmania survival. We observed that Leishmania infection activated host m-TOR pathway characterized by phosphorylation of m-TOR, 70S6K and 4-EBP1. Inhibition of m-TOR resulted in decreased parasite load and percent infectivity...
September 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Jaya Gautam, Suhrid Banskota, Prakash Chaudhary, Sadan Dahal, Dong-Guk Kim, Han-Eol Kang, Iyn-Hyang Lee, Tae-Gyu Nam, Byeong-Seon Jeong, Jung-Ae Kim
Enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and the subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with lung cancer. In the present study, fifty 6-amino-2,4,5-trimethylpyridin-3-ol derivatives were screened for anticancer activity by targeting NOX2-derived ROS. The compounds suppressed ROS production and decreased cancer cell viability (R2  = 0.79). Among the derivatives, the compound coded BJ-1207, which contained a 4-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)piperidine moiety, exhibited the most effective anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cell line and eight other cancer cell lines, including H1299, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HT-29, SW620, Mia PaCa-2, PANC-1, and U937...
October 1, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Mohamed G Ewees, Basim A S Messiha, Mohamed S Abdel-Bakky, Asmaa M A Bayoumi, Ali A Abo-Saif
Cisplatin (CP) is one of the most potent anti-cancer drugs used against different types of cancer. Its use is limited due to its nephrotoxicity. This study is aimed to evaluate the role of a super oxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic agent, tempol, in protection against CP nephrotoxicity in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: Group-1: Normal control group, Group-2: CP group (single dose of CP 6 mg/kg, i.p.), Group-3 and Group-4: Tempol-treated groups (50 mg/kg p.o. and 100 mg/kg p.o. respectively) daily for a week before CP injection and continued for an additional four days after CP injection...
August 1, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Salman Ul Islam, Jung Ho Lee, Adeeb Shehzad, Eun-Mi Ahn, You Mie Lee, Young Sup Lee
Inflammation is considered the root cause of various inflammatory diseases, including cancers. Decursinol angelate (DA), a pyranocoumarin compound obtained from the roots of Angelica gigas , has been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of DA on the MAP kinase and NFκB signaling pathways and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were investigated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage (Raw 264...
July 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mai O Kadry, Rehab M Abdel-Megeed, Emad El-Meliegy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Nanotechnology is a promising era of medicine for developing targeted drug delivery system. Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) have attracted increasing attention for their wide applications as anticancer drugs. This article is concerned with the therapeutic index of chitosan nanoparticles against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC was induced in rats via repeated DEN administration in a dose of 200 mg/kg BW IP, 2 weeks later rats received (2 ml/kg BW) CCl4 orally for 2 months followed by daily treatment with chitosan nanoparticles in an oral dose of 12 mg/kg for 1 month...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Almudena Espín-Pérez, Julian Krauskopf, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Karin van Veldhoven, Fan Chung, Paul Cullinan, Jolanda Piepers, Marcel van Herwijnen, Nadine Kubesch, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Paolo Vineis, Jos C S Kleinjans, Theo M C M de Kok
Diesel vehicle emissions are the major source of genotoxic compounds in ambient air from urban areas. These pollutants are linked to risks of cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory infections and adverse neurological effects. Biological events associated with exposure to some air pollutants are widely unknown but applying omics techniques may help to identify the molecular processes that link exposure to disease risk. Most data on health risks are related to long-term exposure, so the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of short-term exposure (two hours) to air pollutants on the blood transcriptome and microRNA expression levels...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Su Jeong Ha, Jangho Lee, Joon Park, Young Ho Kim, Nam Hyouck Lee, Young Eon Kim, Kyung-Mo Song, Pahn-Shick Chang, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sung Keun Jung
Validation of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical targets is essential for the prediction of physiological and side effects. Epidemiologic evidence and molecular studies suggest that non-melanoma skin cancer is directly associated with excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of syringic acid on UVB-induced signaling and skin carcinogenesis, and determine the molecular targets. Treatment of human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells with syringic acid resulted in the suppression of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and prostaglandin E2 expression as well as activator protein-1 activity...
June 7, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Xin You, Mingzhe Ma, Guoxin Hou, Yumin Hu, Xi Shi
Introduction: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOX) are frequently deregulated in several human malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC). NOX-derived reactive oxygen species have been reported to contribute to gastric carcinogenesis and cancer progression. However, the expression and prognostic role of individual NOX in GC patients remain elusive. Methods and materials: We investigated genetic alteration and mRNA expression of NOX family in GC patients via the cBioPortal, Human Protein Atlas, and Oncomine databases...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Nikos Koundouros, George Poulogiannis
Metabolic rewiring and the consequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are necessary to promote tumorigenesis. At the nexus of these cellular processes is the aberrant regulation of oncogenic signaling cascades such as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and AKT (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which is one of the most frequently dysregulated pathways in cancer. In this review, we examine the regulation of ROS metabolism in the context of PI3K-driven tumors with particular emphasis on four main areas of research. (1) Stimulation of ROS production through direct modulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics, activation of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), and metabolic byproducts associated with hyperactive PI3K/Akt signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Sang Yeon Cho, Ju Seok Kim, Hyuk Soo Eun, Sun Hyung Kang, Eaum Seok Lee, Seok Hyun Kim, Jae Kyu Sung, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun Yong Jeong, Hee Seok Moon
BACKGROUND: The NADPH oxidase (NOX) family is overexpressed in many cancers and is associated with cancer cell proliferation and metastasis; however, little is known about the role of the NOX family in colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: To identify the expression of the NOX family in CRC and to investigate the relationship between the expression of NOXs with the prognosis of the patients. METHODS: In the TCGA data portal, mRNA expression data were obtained from 41 normal samples and 458 CRC samples to analyze mRNA expression and gene alteration...
September 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Gabriele Nagel, Massimo Stafoggia, Marie Pedersen, Zorana J Andersen, Claudia Galassi, Jule Munkenast, Andrea Jaensch, Johan Sommar, Bertil Forsberg, David Olsson, Bente Oftedal, Norun H Krog, Geir Aamodt, Andrei Pyko, Göran Pershagen, Michal Korek, Ulf De Faire, Nancy L Pedersen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Mette Sørensen, Anne Tjønneland, Petra H Peeters, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Roel Vermeulen, Marloes Eeftens, Michelle Plusquin, Timothy J Key, Hans Concin, Alois Lang, Meng Wang, Ming-Yi Tsai, Sara Grioni, Alessandro Marcon, Vittorio Krogh, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Andrea Ranzi, Giulia Cesaroni, Francesco Forastiere, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Pilar Amiano, Miren Dorronsoro, Kees de Hoogh, Rob Beelen, Paolo Vineis, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Gudrun Weinmayr
Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancers of the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer in 11 European cohorts. Air pollution exposure was assigned by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) below 10 µm (PM10 ), below 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PMcoarse ), PM2.5 absorbance and nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX ) as well as approximated by traffic indicators...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Miaomiao Yuan, Wei Meng, Wenzhen Liao, Sen Lian
Andrographis paniculata Nees is used as a functional food in Japan, Korea, India, and China. Andrographolide, a naturally occurring phytochemical identified in Andrographis paniculata, has been discovered to present anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Highly expressed interleukin (IL-8) has been detected in colorectal cancer and is implicated in angiogenesis. However, the effect and molecular mechanisms of IL-8 expression by andrographolide remain obscure in human colorectal cancer cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of andrographolide on TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression and its underlying mechanisms...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hany H Arab, Samir A Salama, Ibrahim A Maghrabi
Methotrexate (MTX) is a classical chemotherapeutic agent with nephrotoxicity as the most disturbing adverse effect. So far, its underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly PI3K/Akt/eNOS transduction, are inadequately explored. Several antioxidant modalities have been characterized to ameliorate MTX-induced renal injury. In this regard, Camel milk (CM) is a natural product with recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential ameliorating effects of CM in MTX-induced kidney injury in rats...
May 23, 2018: Food & Function
Chun Xiao Sun, Yan Jun Ma, Jian Wen Wang
Hypocrellin A (HA) is a major bioactive perylenequinone from the fruiting body of Shiraia bambusicola used for the treatment of skin diseases and developed as a photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent against cancers and viruses. The mycelial culture of S. bambusicola under dark is a biotechnological alternative for HA production but with low yield. In this study, light and dark conditions were investigated to develop effective elicitation on HA production in the cultures. Our results showed the constant light at 200 lx stimulated HA production without any growth retardation of mycelia...
May 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jie Yang, Yi Chen, Zhi Yu, Hui Ding, Zhongfu Ma
Long-term exposure to traffic-related pollutants can lead to a variety of respiratory diseases, including inflammation, asthma, and lung cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. We focused on the effects of exposure to different air pollutants on the expression of genes associated with inflammatory immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma, and lung cancer. In order to understand the cellular responses induced by exposure to different traffic-related pollutants, we performed PCR array to evaluate the mRNA expression of genes associated with inflammatory immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma, and lung cancer in the lungs of mice exposed to three different environments, including the laboratory (clean air), and polluted parking garages in Foshan and Guangzhou for four weeks...
June 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Maizatul Syafinaz Shahadin, Nurul Syakima Ab Mutalib, Mohd Talib Latif, Catherine M Greene, Tidi Hassan
Hazardous air pollutants or chemical release into the environment by a variety of natural and/or anthropogenic activities may give adverse effects to human health. Air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), heavy metals and particulate matter (PM) affect number of different human organs, especially the respiratory system. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reported that ambient air pollution is a cause of lung cancer. Recently, the agency has classified outdoor air pollution as well as PM air pollution as Group 1 carcinogens...
April 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Meng-Shih Weng, Jer-Hwa Chang, Wen-Yueh Hung, Yi-Chieh Yang, Ming-Hsien Chien
BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays important roles in cell survival, growth, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of the EGFR is a common mechanism in cancer progression especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MAIN BODY: Suppression of the EGFR-mediated signaling pathway is used in cancer treatment. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress from mitochondrial dysfunction or NADPH oxidase (NOX) overactivation and ectopic expression of antioxidative enzymes were also indicated to be involved in EGFR-mediated tumor progression (proliferation, differentiation, migration, and invasion) and drug resistance (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI))...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Chao-Tao Tang, Xiao-Lu Lin, Shan Wu, Qian Liang, Li Yang, Yun-Jie Gao, Zhi-Zheng Ge
NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4), a member of the NOX family, has emerged as a significant source of reactive oxygen species, playing an important role in tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and other physiological processes. However, the potential function of NOX4 in gastric cancer (GC) cell proliferation is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to illustrate whether NOX4 plays a role in regulating gastric cancer cell growth. First, the clinical information from 90 patients was utilized to explore the clinical value of NOX4 as a predictive tool for tumor size and prognosis...
June 2018: Cellular Signalling
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