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Cancer AND NOX

Yan Jun Ma, Can Song Lu, Jian Wen Wang
Hypocrellins, fungal perylenequinones of Shiraia bambusicola are developed as important photodynamic therapy agents against cancers and viruses. Due to the limitation of the wild resources, the mycelium culture is a promising alternative for hypocrellin production. As DNA methylation has profound effects on fungal growth, development and secondary metabolism, we used both McrBC cleavage and HPLC analysis to reveal the status of DNA methylation of S. bambusicola mycelium. We found that DNA methylation is absent in mycelia, but DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-AC) still induced the fluffy phenotype and decreased hypocrellin contents significantly...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nour Yahfoufi, Nawal Alsadi, Majed Jambi, Chantal Matar
This review offers a systematic understanding about how polyphenols target multiple inflammatory components and lead to anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It provides a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds. Polyphenols regulate immunity by interfering with immune cell regulation, proinflammatory cytokines' synthesis, and gene expression. They inactivate NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and modulate mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAPk) and arachidonic acids pathways...
November 2, 2018: Nutrients
Ping Tang, Hao Dang, Jie Huang, Tao Xu, Ping Yuan, Jun Hu, Jian-Feng Sheng
The function of the NAD(P)H oxidases (NOXs) family member NOX4 is to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, the molecular function of NOX4 has not been fully studied and waiting to be clarified. To elucidate the function of endogenous Nox4 in human thyroid carcinomas, papillomatosis thyroid cancer cells were used to study the cell growth by knocking down the expression of NOX4 and knocking out its functional partner p22phox/CYBA. As a result, the increasement of mitochondrial ROS(mROS) was abolished due to both knockdown of NOX4 and p22phox knockout in hypoxia, which destabilized HIF1α decreasing glycolysis and retarded cell growth...
October 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Keywan Mortezaee, Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Peyman Amini, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi, Bagher Farhood
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is a treatment modality for cancer. For better therapeutic efficiency, it could be used in combination with surgery, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In addition to its beneficial therapeutic effects, exposure to radiation leads to several toxic effects on normal tissues. Also, it may induce some changes in genomic expression of tumor cells, thereby increasing the resistance of tumor cells. These changes lead to the appearance of some acute reactions in irradiated organs, increased risk of carcinogenesis, and reduction in the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy...
October 10, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Mohini A Tupurani, Chiranjeevi Padala, Kaushik Puranam, Rajesh K Galimudi, Keerthi Kupsal, Nivas Shyamala, Srilatha Gantala, Ramanjaneyulu Kummari, Sanjeeva K Chinta, Surekha R Hanumanth
Background: Oxidative stress (OS) is a key characteristic feature in cancer initiation and progression. Among multiple cancers, NADPH oxidase (NOX) dependent free radical production is implicated in oxidative stress. P22phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase encoded by the CYBA gene has functional polymorphisms associated with various complex diseases. The present study was aimed to examine the importance and association of the functional polymorphisms of CYBA gene (-930 A/G and 242 C/T) with the oxidative stress in breast cancer (BC) development and progression...
2018: PeerJ
Yu-Hua Chu, Syuan-Wei Kao, Disline Manli Tantoh, Pei-Chieh Ko, Shou-Jen Lan, Yung-Po Liaw
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) and oral cancer among Taiwanese men. Four linked data sources including the Taiwan Cancer Registry, Adult Preventive Medical Services Database, National Health Insurance Research Database, and Air Quality Monitoring Database were used. Concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, NOx (nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide), coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5 ) and PM2.5 in 2009 were assessed in quartiles...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Philip Wolfe, Kenneth Davidson, Charles Fulcher, Neal Fann, Margaret Zawacki, Kirk R Baker
By-products of mobile source combustion processes, such as those associated with gasoline- and diesel-powered engines, include direct emissions of particulate matter as well as precursors to particulate matter and ground-level ozone. Human exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is associated with increased incidence of premature mortality and morbidity outcomes. This study builds upon recent, detailed source-apportionment air quality modeling to project the health-related benefits of reducing PM2...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Niklas Jänsch, Christian Meyners, Marius Muth, Aleksandra Kopranovic, Olaf Witt, Ina Oehme, Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes
Enzymes from the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family are highly regulated by different mechanisms. However, only very limited knowledge exists about the regulation of HDAC8, an established target in multiple types of cancer. A previous dedicated study of HDAC class I enzymes identified no redox-sensitive cysteinyl thiol in HDAC8. This is in contrast to the observation that HDAC8 preparations show different enzyme activities depending on the addition of reducing agents. In the light of the importance of HDAC8 in tumorigenesis a possible regulation by redox signaling was investigated using biochemical and biophysical methods combined with site directed mutagenesis...
September 27, 2018: Redox Biology
Terry W Moody, Lingaku Lee, Tatiana Iordanskaia, Irene Ramos-Alvarez, Paola Moreno, Howard E Boudreau, Thomas L Leto, Robert T Jensen
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a growth factor for lung cancer cells. PACAP-27 or PACAP-38 binds with high affinity to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, causing elevated cytosolic Ca2+ , increased proliferation and increased phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in these processes. Addition of PACAP-38 to NCI-H838 or A549 cells increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR, HER2 and ERK significantly by 4-, 3-, and 2-fold, respectively...
September 28, 2018: Peptides
Alexandra J White, Patrick T Bradshaw, Ghassan B Hamra
Purpose of Review: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among US women. Air pollution is a pervasive mixture of chemicals containing carcinogenic compounds and chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties. In the present review, we examine the epidemiologic evidence regarding the association between air pollution measures and breast cancer risk. Recent Findings: We identified seventeen studies evaluating the risk of breast cancer associated with air pollution...
June 2018: Current Epidemiology Reports
Lisa Bauleo, Simone Bucci, Chiara Antonucci, Roberto Sozzi, Marina Davoli, Francesco Forastiere, Carla Ancona
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Residents near industrial areas are exposed to several toxins from various sources and the assessment of the health effects is difficult. The area of Civitavecchia (Italy) has several sources of environmental contamination with potential health effects. We evaluated the association between exposure to pollutants from multiple sources and mortality in a cohort of people living in the area. METHODS: All residents of the area in 1996 were enrolled (from municipal registers) and followed until 2013...
September 14, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Li Tao, Min Xu, Xiaojun Dai, Tengyang Ni, Dan Li, Feng Jin, Haibo Wang, Lide Tao, Bo Pan, James R Woodgett, Yayun Qian, Yanqing Liu
Danshen, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza , one of the most investigated medicinal plants with well-defined phytochemical constituents, has shown prominent clinical outcomes for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticoagulant activities to attain vascular protection and additional benefits for cancer therapy. More recently, activation of neutrophil and excessive formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been observed in pathological conditions of metastatic cancers; thus, we hypothesized that suppression of NETs could account for an essential cellular event underlying Danshen-mediated reduction of the incidence of metastasis...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Ajay Kumar, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Sudha Verma, Kumar Abhishek, Ashish Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Pradeep Das
Mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) is a central regulator of growth and immunity of host cells. It's involvement in cancer and tuberculosis is well documented but least explored in Leishmania donovani invasion of host cells. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate the role of mTOR in M2 macrophage polarization for Leishmania survival. We observed that Leishmania infection activated host m-TOR pathway characterized by phosphorylation of m-TOR, 70S6K and 4-EBP1. Inhibition of m-TOR resulted in decreased parasite load and percent infectivity...
September 6, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Jaya Gautam, Suhrid Banskota, Prakash Chaudhary, Sadan Dahal, Dong-Guk Kim, Han-Eol Kang, Iyn-Hyang Lee, Tae-Gyu Nam, Byeong-Seon Jeong, Jung-Ae Kim
Enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and the subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with lung cancer. In the present study, fifty 6-amino-2,4,5-trimethylpyridin-3-ol derivatives were screened for anticancer activity by targeting NOX2-derived ROS. The compounds suppressed ROS production and decreased cancer cell viability (R2  = 0.79). Among the derivatives, the compound coded BJ-1207, which contained a 4-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)piperidine moiety, exhibited the most effective anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cell line and eight other cancer cell lines, including H1299, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HT-29, SW620, Mia PaCa-2, PANC-1, and U937...
October 1, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Mohamed G Ewees, Basim A S Messiha, Mohamed S Abdel-Bakky, Asmaa M A Bayoumi, Ali A Abo-Saif
Cisplatin (CP) is one of the most potent anti-cancer drugs used against different types of cancer. Its use is limited due to its nephrotoxicity. This study is aimed to evaluate the role of a super oxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic agent, tempol, in protection against CP nephrotoxicity in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: Group-1: Normal control group, Group-2: CP group (single dose of CP 6 mg/kg, i.p.), Group-3 and Group-4: Tempol-treated groups (50 mg/kg p.o. and 100 mg/kg p.o. respectively) daily for a week before CP injection and continued for an additional four days after CP injection...
August 1, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Salman Ul Islam, Jung Ho Lee, Adeeb Shehzad, Eun-Mi Ahn, You Mie Lee, Young Sup Lee
Inflammation is considered the root cause of various inflammatory diseases, including cancers. Decursinol angelate (DA), a pyranocoumarin compound obtained from the roots of Angelica gigas , has been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of DA on the MAP kinase and NFκB signaling pathways and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were investigated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage (Raw 264...
July 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mai O Kadry, Rehab M Abdel-Megeed, Emad El-Meliegy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Nanotechnology is a promising era of medicine for developing targeted drug delivery system. Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) have attracted increasing attention for their wide applications as anticancer drugs. This article is concerned with the therapeutic index of chitosan nanoparticles against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC was induced in rats via repeated DEN administration in a dose of 200 mg/kg BW IP, 2 weeks later rats received (2 ml/kg BW) CCl4 orally for 2 months followed by daily treatment with chitosan nanoparticles in an oral dose of 12 mg/kg for 1 month...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Almudena Espín-Pérez, Julian Krauskopf, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Karin van Veldhoven, Fan Chung, Paul Cullinan, Jolanda Piepers, Marcel van Herwijnen, Nadine Kubesch, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Paolo Vineis, Jos C S Kleinjans, Theo M C M de Kok
Diesel vehicle emissions are the major source of genotoxic compounds in ambient air from urban areas. These pollutants are linked to risks of cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory infections and adverse neurological effects. Biological events associated with exposure to some air pollutants are widely unknown but applying omics techniques may help to identify the molecular processes that link exposure to disease risk. Most data on health risks are related to long-term exposure, so the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of short-term exposure (two hours) to air pollutants on the blood transcriptome and microRNA expression levels...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Su Jeong Ha, Jangho Lee, Joon Park, Young Ho Kim, Nam Hyouck Lee, Young Eon Kim, Kyung-Mo Song, Pahn-Shick Chang, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sung Keun Jung
Validation of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical targets is essential for the prediction of physiological and side effects. Epidemiologic evidence and molecular studies suggest that non-melanoma skin cancer is directly associated with excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of syringic acid on UVB-induced signaling and skin carcinogenesis, and determine the molecular targets. Treatment of human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells with syringic acid resulted in the suppression of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and prostaglandin E2 expression as well as activator protein-1 activity...
June 7, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Xin You, Mingzhe Ma, Guoxin Hou, Yumin Hu, Xi Shi
Introduction: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOX) are frequently deregulated in several human malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC). NOX-derived reactive oxygen species have been reported to contribute to gastric carcinogenesis and cancer progression. However, the expression and prognostic role of individual NOX in GC patients remain elusive. Methods and materials: We investigated genetic alteration and mRNA expression of NOX family in GC patients via the cBioPortal, Human Protein Atlas, and Oncomine databases...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
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