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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732363/human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-associations-with-immune-mediated-disease-and-infection-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#1
Alice M Doherty, Caroline J Lodge, Shyamali C Dharmage, Xin Dai, Lars Bode, Adrian J Lowe
Complex sugars found in breastmilk, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), may assist in early-life immune programming and prevention against infectious diseases. This study aimed to systematically review the associations between maternal levels of HMOs and development of immune-mediated or infectious diseases in the offspring. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched (last search on 22 February 2018) according to a predetermined search strategy. Original studies published in English examining the effect of HMOs on immune-mediated and infectious disease were eligible for inclusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670780/syphilis-related-eye-disease-presenting-as-bilateral-papilledema-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-hemorrhage-and-anterior-uveitis-in-a-penicillin-allergic-patient
#2
Jamie Dietze, Shane Havens
Purpose . Treponema pallidum is known as the "great masquerader" for its many presentations and ocular findings in patients who are infected and develop secondary and tertiary stage of syphilis. Syphilitic ocular manifestations include uveitis, chorioretinitis, retinitis, vasculitis, vitritis, and panuveitis all with or without decreased visual acuity. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to expedite the progression of syphilis when patients are coinfected, thus compounding the potential ophthalmic presentations...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526609/assessing-effects-of-behavioral-intervention-on-treatment-outcomes-among-patients-initiating-hiv-care-rationale-and-design-of-iengage-intervention-trial
#3
R Modi, K R Amico, A Knudson, A O Westfall, J Keruly, H M Crane, E B Quinlivan, C Golin, J Willig, A Zinski, R Moore, S Napravnik, L Bryan, M S Saag, M J Mugavero
During the initial year of HIV diagnosis, while patients are often overwhelmed adjusting to this life changing diagnosis, they must develop self-care behaviors for attending regular medical care visits and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence to achieve and sustain viral suppression (VS). Maintaining "HIV adherence" and integrating it into one's daily life is required to sustain VS over time. The HIV care continuum or "treatment cascade," an epidemiological snapshot of the national epidemic in the United States (US), indicates that a minority of persons living with HIV (PLWH) have achieved VS...
March 8, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490875/migration-and-risk-of-hiv-acquisition-in-rakai-uganda-a-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Oluwasolape Olawore, Aaron A R Tobian, Joseph Kagaayi, Jeremiah M Bazaale, Betty Nantume, Grace Kigozi, Justine Nankinga, Fred Nalugoda, Gertrude Nakigozi, Godfrey Kigozi, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Robert Ssekubugu, John S Santelli, Steven J Reynolds, Larry W Chang, David Serwadda, Mary K Grabowski
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, migrants typically have higher HIV prevalence than non-migrants; however, whether HIV acquisition typically precedes or follows migration is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of HIV after migration in Rakai District, Uganda. METHODS: In a prospective population-based cohort of HIV-negative participants aged 15-49 years in Rakai, Uganda, between April 6, 1999, and Jan 30, 2015, we assessed the association between migration and HIV acquisition...
April 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376495/therapeutic-potential-of-n-heterocyclic-analogs-as-anti-inflammatory-agents
#5
Ashwani K Dhingra, Bhawna Chopra, Jagdeep S Dua, Deo N Prasad
BACKGROUND: Various mediators and anti-inflammatory drugs were used since from a long time but it is still a challenge for the medicinal chemists to treat or reduce the symptoms of inflammatory diseases. Most of the clinically used anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs, Coxibs and GCs are allied with considerable toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The search of novel anti-inflammatory agent is not an ending process. Although the drug treatment has been improved steadily but yet, it is still there is a need to develop more potent therapeutic agents...
2017: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352723/which-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-t-cell-counts-benefit-most-from-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-a-post-hoc-subgroup-analysis-of-the-start-trial
#6
Jean-Michel Molina, Birgit Grund, Fred Gordin, Ian Williams, Mauro Schechter, Marcello Losso, Matthew Law, Ernest Ekong, Noluthando Mwelase, Athanasios Skoutelis, Martin J Wiselka, Linos Vandekerckhove, Thomas Benfield, David Munroe, Jens D Lundgren, James D Neaton
BACKGROUND: Immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in asymptomatic adults with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL, as recommended, might not always be possible in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify subgroups of individuals who would benefit most from immediate treatment. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in asymptomatic, HIV-positive adults previously untreated with ART. Participants with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL were randomly assigned to receive immediate ART or to defer ART until CD4 counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
April 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198911/xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-a-prospective-multicentre-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#7
Susan E Dorman, Samuel G Schumacher, David Alland, Pamela Nabeta, Derek T Armstrong, Bonnie King, Sandra L Hall, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Daniela M Cirillo, Nestani Tukvadze, Nino Bablishvili, Wendy Stevens, Lesley Scott, Camilla Rodrigues, Mubin I Kazi, Moses Joloba, Lydia Nakiyingi, Mark P Nicol, Yonas Ghebrekristos, Irene Anyango, Wilfred Murithi, Reynaldo Dietze, Renata Lyrio Peres, Alena Skrahina, Vera Auchynka, Kamal Kishore Chopra, Mahmud Hanif, Xin Liu, Xing Yuan, Catharina C Boehme, Jerrold J Ellner, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that has improved the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, but its sensitivity is inadequate in patients with paucibacillary disease or HIV. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) was developed to overcome this limitation. We compared the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra with that of Xpert for detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, diagnostic accuracy study, we recruited adults with pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms presenting at primary health-care centres and hospitals in eight countries (South Africa, Uganda, Kenya, India, China, Georgia, Belarus, and Brazil)...
January 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190726/socio-demographic-health-related-and-individual-correlates-of-diagnostic-self-testing-by-lay-people-results-from-a-representative-survey-in-germany
#8
Pinar Kuecuekbalaban, Silke Schmidt, Manfred Beutel, Kerstin Weidner, Martina de Zwaan, Elmar Braehler, Holger Muehlan
INTRODUCTION: A broad range of self-tests (testing for e.g. HIV, cancer, hepatitis B/C) have become available and can be conducted by lay consumers without the help of a health professional. The aims of this study were to (a) investigate the prevalence of self-testing, (b) identify the most frequently used self-tests, and (c) explore the associations between socio-demographic, health-related and individual factors with self-testing. METHODS: A face-to-face plus paper-pencil cross-sectional survey was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174315/workshop-report-nucleic-acid-delivery-devices-for-hiv-vaccines-workshop-proceedings-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases-bethesda-maryland-usa-may-21-2015
#9
Bruce G Weniger, Ian E Anglin, Tina Tong, Michael Pensiero, Jeffrey K Pullen
On May 21st, 2015, the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on delivery devices for nucleic acid (NA) as vaccines in order to review the landscape of past and future technologies for administering NA (e.g., DNA, RNA, etc.) as antigen into target tissues of animal models and humans. Its focus was on current and future applications for preventing and treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease, among other infectious-disease priorities...
January 25, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171817/hiv-prevention-efforts-and-incidence-of-hiv-in-uganda
#10
M Kate Grabowski, David M Serwadda, Ronald H Gray, Gertrude Nakigozi, Godfrey Kigozi, Joseph Kagaayi, Robert Ssekubugu, Fred Nalugoda, Justin Lessler, Thomas Lutalo, Ronald M Galiwango, Fred Makumbi, Xiangrong Kong, Donna Kabatesi, Stella T Alamo, Steven Wiersma, Nelson K Sewankambo, Aaron A R Tobian, Oliver Laeyendecker, Thomas C Quinn, Steven J Reynolds, Maria J Wawer, Larry W Chang
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect of a combination strategy for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the incidence of HIV infection, we analyzed the association between the incidence of HIV and the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and medical male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Changes in population-level viral-load suppression and sexual behaviors were also examined. METHODS: Between 1999 and 2016, data were collected from 30 communities with the use of 12 surveys in the Rakai Community Cohort Study, an open, population-based cohort of persons 15 to 49 years of age...
November 30, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132162/what-recent-history-has-taught-us-about-responding-to-emerging-infectious-disease-threats
#11
Catharine I Paules, Robert W Eisinger, Hilary D Marston, Anthony S Fauci
Presidential administrations face any number of unexpected crises during their tenure, and global pandemics are among the most challenging. As of January 2017, one of the authors had served under 5 presidents as the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. During each administration, the government faced unexpected pandemics, ranging from the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which began during the Reagan administration, to the recent Zika outbreak in the Americas, which started during the Obama administration...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076438/stevens-johnson-syndrome-versus-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-with-secondary-syphilis
#12
Sarah Micozzi, Patricia Rojas Perez-Ezquerra, Cristina Morales-Cabeza, Cristina Diez, Manuel De Barrio
BACKGROUND: HIV positive patients can suffer many complications due to infectious diseases. A sever drug reaction to some of the drugs involved in the treatment can overlap the symptoms of the infections, making the diagnosis very difficult. We present the case of a 28-year-old-man, HIV positive, with secondary syphilis, who developed a Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) caused by one of the many drugs he received. The SJS was overlapped with a possible Jarisch Herxheimer Reaction, which complicated the diagnosis of the skin reaction...
2017: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053397/combined-intravitreal-and-systemic-antibiotic-therapy-in-a-patient-with-syphilitic-uveitis
#13
Arjun B Sood, William A Pearce, Kimberly A Workowski, James Lockwood, Steven Yeh
PURPOSE: To report the novel use of combined intravitreal and systemic antibiotic therapy in a patient with syphilitic panuveitis and discuss the management of ocular syphilis. METHODS: Case report Results: A 45-year old heterosexual male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with 1 month of blurry vision in both eyes. Clinical examination revealed a bilateral panuveitis. The patient denied history of genital lesions or rash, but did complain of difficulty hearing bilaterally...
October 20, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978417/detection-and-treatment-of-fiebig-stage-i-hiv-1-infection-in-young-at-risk-women-in-south-africa-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Krista L Dong, Amber Moodley, Douglas S Kwon, Musie S Ghebremichael, Mary Dong, Nasreen Ismail, Zaza M Ndhlovu, Jenniffer M Mabuka, Daniel M Muema, Karyn Pretorius, Nina Lin, Bruce D Walker, Thumbi Ndung'u
BACKGROUND: HIV incidence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains high and their inclusion in vaccine and cure efforts is crucial. We aimed to establish a cohort of young women detected during Fiebig stage I acute HIV infection in whom treatment was initiated immediately after diagnosis to advance research in this high-risk group. METHODS: 945 women aged 18-23 years in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, who were HIV uninfected and sexually active consented to HIV-1 RNA testing twice a week and biological sampling and risk assessment every 3 months during participation in a 48-96 week life-skills and job-readiness programme...
January 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973412/global-hiv-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-a-perspective-and-report-of-a-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases-consultation
#15
Catherine Godfrey, Michael C Thigpen, Keith W Crawford, Patrick Jean-Phillippe, Deenan Pillay, Deborah Persaud, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Mark Wainberg, Elliot Raizes, Joseph Fitzgibbon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964756/differences-in-health-related-quality-of-life-between-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-people-in-zambia-and-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-baseline-survey-of-the-hptn-071-popart-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ranjeeta Thomas, Ronelle Burger, Abigail Harper, Sarah Kanema, Lawrence Mwenge, Nosivuyile Vanqa, Nomtha Bell-Mandla, Peter C Smith, Sian Floyd, Peter Bock, Helen Ayles, Nulda Beyers, Deborah Donnell, Sarah Fidler, Richard Hayes, Katharina Hauck
BACKGROUND: The life expectancy of HIV-positive individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approaching that of HIV-negative people. However, little is known about how these populations compare in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aimed to compare HRQoL between HIV-positive and HIV-negative people in Zambia and South Africa. METHODS: As part of the HPTN 071 (PopART) study, data from adults aged 18-44 years were gathered between Nov 28, 2013, and March 31, 2015, in large cross-sectional surveys of random samples of the general population in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962920/allergy-and-immunology-in-africa-challenges-and-unmet-needs
#17
Yehia M El-Gamal, Elham M Hossny, Zeinab A El-Sayed, Shereen M Reda
The tremendous increase in allergy in the African continent cannot simply be explained by the change in public hygiene. There are many "prehygiene" communities with sewage-contaminated water supplies, helminth infestations, bare footedness, and poor housing, and still there is a high prevalence of allergic disease. Africans can be exposed to many risk factors facilitating severe asthma and wheezing, including airborne viruses, smoke, indoor dampness, cockroaches, and poor access to health care. Although the reporting on food allergy is inadequate to perform systematic reviews or meta-analyses, the available data suggest that food allergy is underdiagnosed...
November 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961208/how-can-elispot-add-information-to-improve-knowledge-on-tropical-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Josué da Costa Lima-Junior, Fernanda Nazaré Morgado, Fátima Conceição-Silva
Elispot has been used as an important tool for detecting immune cells' products and functions and has facilitated the understanding of host-pathogen interaction. Despite the incredible diversity of possibilities, two main approaches have been developed: the immunopathogenesis and diagnosis/prognosis of infectious diseases as well as cancer research. Much has been described on the topics of allergy, autoimmune diseases, and HIV-Aids, however, Elispot can also be applied to other infectious diseases, mainly leishmaniasis, malaria, some viruses, helminths and mycosis usually classified as tropical diseases...
September 29, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
January 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780227/insights-into-the-immune-manipulation-mechanisms-of-pollen-allergens-by-protein-domain-profiling
#20
Seema Patel, Aruna Rani, Arun Goyal
Plant pollens are airborne allergens, as their inhalation causes immune activation, leading to rhinitis, conjunctivitis, sinusitis and oral allergy syndrome. A myriad of pollen proteins belonging to profilin, expansin, polygalacturonase, glucan endoglucosidase, pectin esterase, and lipid transfer protein class have been identified. In the present in silico study, the protein domains of fifteen pollen sequences were extracted from the UniProt database and submitted to the interactive web tool SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool), for finding the protein domain profiles...
October 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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