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Intermittant fasting

Patricia Siques, Julio Brito, Karen Flores, Stefany Ordenes, Karem Arriaza, Eduardo Pena, Fabiola León-Velarde, Ángel L López de Pablo, M C Gonzalez, Silvia Arribas
Background: In chronic hypoxia (CH) and short-term chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) exposure, glycemia and insulin levels decrease and insulin sensitivity increases, which can be explained by changes in glucose transport at skeletal muscles involving GLUT1, GLUT4, Akt, and AMPK, as well as GLUT4 translocation to cell membranes. However, during long-term CIH, there is no information regarding whether these changes occur similarly or differently than in other types of hypoxia exposure. This study evaluated the levels of AMPK and Akt and the location of GLUT4 in the soleus muscles of lean rats exposed to long-term CIH, CH, and normoxia (NX) and compared the findings...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Adrien Combes, Jeanne Dekerle, Valérie Bougault, Frédéric N Daussin
VO2 fluctuations are argued to be an important mechanism underpinning chronic adaptations following interval training. We compared the effect of exercise modality, continuous vs. intermittent realized at a same intensity, on electrical muscular activity, muscular oxygenation and on whole body oxygen uptake. Twelve participants (24 ± 5 years; VO2peak: 43 ± 6 mL· min-1 ·kg-1 ) performed (i) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine peak work rate (WRpeak ); two randomized isocaloric exercises at 70%WRpeak; (ii) 1 bout of 30 min; (iii) 30 bouts of 1 min work intercepted with 1 min passive recovery...
July 5, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Raina L Croff, Phelps Witter Iv, Miya L Walker, Edline Francois, Charlie Quinn, Thomas C Riley, Nicole F Sharma, Jeffrey A Kaye
Background and Objectives: Multimodal interventions are increasingly targeting multiple cognitive decline risk factors. However, technology remains mostly adjunctive, largely prioritizes age relevancy over cultural relevancy, and often targets individual health without lasting, community-wide deliverables. Meanwhile, African Americans remain overburdened by cognitive risk factors yet underrepresented in cognitive health and technology studies. The Sharing History through Active Reminiscence and Photo-imagery (SHARP) program increases physical, social, and cognitive activity within a culturally meaningful context that produces community deliverables-an oral history archive and cognitive health education...
June 29, 2018: Gerontologist
Haris Khan, Maimoona Nawaz
A 51-year-old male was referred to the diabetes clinic by the GP with low HbA1c (13 mmol/mol). His complaints were dizziness and intermittent palpitations for the last two years. No precipitating cause could be identified. He denied any chest pain, shortness of breath or syncope. He had a background of schizophrenia, epilepsy, coeliac disease, depression and dermatitis herpetiformis. He was on dapsone, venlafaxine, procyclidine, furosemide, diazepam, omeprazole, meloxicam and folic acid. On examination, his pulse was 82 beats per minute, blood pressure 131/74 mm of Hg, respiratory rate was 14/minute and his saturations on room air were 94%...
April 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Decai Tian, Xiaodong Zhu, Rong Xue, Peng Zhao, Yuanrong Yao
History In November 2012, a previously healthy 31-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 2-month history of right-sided numbness, diplopia, and intermittent nausea and dizziness. She did not have a history of fever, weight loss, headache, photophobia, seizure, or extremity weakness. Physical examination revealed left abduction limitation and right-sided hypoesthesia. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were absent, and pathergy test results were negative. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal complete and differential blood counts, normal serum chemistry, and normal immune function...
July 2018: Radiology
Tamas Csipo, Gabor A Fulop, Agnes Lipecz, Stefano Tarantini, Tamas Kiss, Priya Balasubramanian, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence is increasing in all age groups, with the biggest impact observed in middle-aged and older adults. A critical mechanism by which obesity promotes vascular pathologies in these patients involves impairment of endothelial function. While endothelial dysfunction in large vessels promotes atherogenesis, obesity-induced microvascular endothelial dysfunction impairs organ perfusion and thereby is causally related to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, intermittent claudication, exercise intolerance, and exacerbates cognitive decline in aging...
June 18, 2018: GeroScience
Garima Agrawal Varshney, Purti Agrawal Saini, Upendra Ghure
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) and ichthyosis vulgaris both are autosomal dominant disorders with incomplete penetrance caused by the deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme and filaggrin protein, respectively. We report a rare case of a 9-year-old boy having two genetic diseases with an unclear association. An acute attack of AIP is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Although rare in the first decade of life, the presence of reddish urine with a typical presentation such as abdominal pain, hypertension, seizure, and paresthesias lead us to the diagnosis of AIP...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Jan Polak, Naresh M Punjabi, Larissa A Shimoda
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. Elevated endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been observed in OSA patients and in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). We examined whether pharmacological blockade of type A and type B ET-1 receptors (ETA and ETB ) would ameliorate glucose intolerance and IR in mice exposed to IH. Subcutaneously implanted pumps delivered BQ-123 (ETA antagonist; 200 nmol/kg/day), BQ-788 (ETB antagonist; 200 nmol/kg/day) or vehicle (saline or propyleneglycol [PG]) for 14 days in C57BL6/J mice (10/group)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, David Gozal, Juan F Masa, José Maria Marin, Zhuanghong Qiao, Jaime Corral, Mónica González, Sergi Marti, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, Carlos Egea, M-Ángeles Sánchez-Quiroga, Francisco J Gómez de Terreros, F Javier Barca
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB), which is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF), is a prevalent condition that promotes metabolic dysfunction, particularly among patients suffering from obstructive hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Exosomes are generated ubiquitously, are readily present in the circulation, and their cargo may exert substantial functional cellular alterations in both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the effects of plasma exosomes on adipocyte metabolism in patients with OHS or in mice subjected to IH or SF mimicking SDB are unclear...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
The-Thien Tran, Celine Vidaillac, Hong Yu, Valerie F L Yong, Dan Roizman, Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Albert Y H Lim, Teck Boon Low, Gan Liang Tan, John A Abisheganaden, Mariko Siyue Koh, Jeanette Teo, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Kunn Hadinoto
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) characterized by permanent bronchial dilatation and recurrent infections has been clinically managed by long-term intermittent inhaled antibiotic therapy among other treatments. Herein we investigated dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) nanoplex with mannitol/lactose as the excipient for NCFB therapy. The DPI of CIP nanoplex was evaluated against DPI of native CIP in terms of their (1) dissolution characteristics in artificial sputum medium, (2) ex vivo mucus permeability in sputum from NCFB and healthy individuals, (3) antibacterial efficacy in the presence of sputum against clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (planktonic and biofilm), and (4) cytotoxicity towards human lung epithelial cells...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Farid Yaghouby, Chathuri Daluwatte, Nicole R Marques, Muzna Khan, Michael Salter, Jordan Wolf, Christina Nelson, John Salsbury, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Michael Kinsky, David G Strauss, George C Kramer, Christopher G Scully
In this paper we describe a data set of multivariate physiological measurements recorded from conscious sheep ( N = 8; 37.4 ± 1.1 kg) during hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was experimentally induced in each animal by withdrawing blood from a femoral artery at two different rates (fast: 1.25 mL/kg/min; and slow: 0.25 mL/kg/min). Data, including physiological waveforms and continuous/intermittent measurements, were transformed to digital file formats (European Data Format [EDF] for waveforms and Comma-Separated Values [CSV] for continuous and intermittent measurements) as a comprehensive data set and stored and publicly shared here (Appendix A)...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Francesca Cignarella, Claudia Cantoni, Laura Ghezzi, Amber Salter, Yair Dorsett, Lei Chen, Daniel Phillips, George M Weinstock, Luigi Fontana, Anne H Cross, Yanjiao Zhou, Laura Piccio
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common in western countries with diet being a potential contributing factor. Here we show that intermittent fasting (IF) ameliorated clinical course and pathology of the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). IF led to increased gut bacteria richness, enrichment of the Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae families and enhanced antioxidative microbial metabolic pathways. IF altered T cells in the gut with a reduction of IL-17 producing T cells and an increase in regulatory T cells...
June 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Mark P Mattson, Thiruma V Arumugam
During aging, the cellular milieu of the brain exhibits tell-tale signs of compromised bioenergetics, impaired adaptive neuroplasticity and resilience, aberrant neuronal network activity, dysregulation of neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis, the accrual of oxidatively modified molecules and organelles, and inflammation. These alterations render the aging brain vulnerable to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and stroke. Emerging findings are revealing mechanisms by which sedentary overindulgent lifestyles accelerate brain aging, whereas lifestyles that include intermittent bioenergetic challenges (exercise, fasting, and intellectual challenges) foster healthy brain aging...
June 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
J V Cabral-Costa, D Z Andreotti, N P Mello, C Scavone, S Camandola, E M Kawamoto
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an important protein with key modulatory functions in cell growth and survival. PTEN is crucial during embryogenesis and plays a key role in the central nervous system (CNS), where it directly modulates neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Loss of PTEN signaling function is associated with cognitive deficits and synaptic plasticity impairment. Accordingly, Pten mutations have a strong link with autism spectrum disorder. In this study, neuronal Pten haploinsufficient male mice were subjected to a long-term environmental intervention - intermittent fasting (IF) - and then evaluated for alterations in exploratory, anxiety and learning and memory behaviors...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Raoul Tibes, Mitesh J Borad, Corina E Dutcus, Larisa Reyderman, Kevie Feit, Andrew Eisen, David A Verbel, Daniel D Von Hoff
BACKGROUND: This phase 1 first-in-human study aimed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities, and safety of E6201, and to establish recommended dosing in patients with advanced solid tumours, expanded to advanced melanoma. METHODS: Part A (dose escalation): sequential cohorts received E6201 intravenously (IV) over 30 min (once-weekly [qw; days (D)1 + 8 + 15 of a 28-day cycle]), starting at 20 mg/m2 , increasing to 720 mg/m2 or the MTD...
June 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Michelle L Headland, Peter M Clifton, Jennifer B Keogh
Intermittent energy restriction is a popular alternative to daily energy restriction for weight loss; however, it is unknown if endothelial function, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is altered by periods of severe energy restriction. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of two consecutive very low energy intake days, which is the core component of the 5:2 intermittent energy restriction diet strategy, on endothelial function compared to consecutive ad libitum eating days. The secondary objective was to explore the effects of these dietary conditions on fasting glucose concentrations...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Najate Achamrah, Yves M Dupertuis, Claude Pichard
Fasting, intermittent or continuous, religious or therapeutic, is knowing a growing craze. Despite few randomized controlled studies, therapeutic fasting is prescribed in various chronic diseases, as diabetes, hypertension and also cancer. Fasting is applied to lose weight in overweight and obese patients. However, weight loss is often associated with fat-free mass loss. Chronic caloric restriction has been associated with longevity in animal studies, while it has been poorly studied in humans to date. Good quality studies are needed to better understand the effects of fasting on health and diseases...
May 30, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Perry S Barboza, Dennis G Jorde
Wintering Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) concentrate in wetlands along the Atlantic coast where natural and anthropogenic disturbances have increased over the last 50 years, a period in which the population of Black Ducks has declined. We studied the sensitivity of Black Ducks to perturbations in food supply that often result from disturbances by storms, predators, and people. In the paper, we characterize the responses of captive Black Ducks to shifts in food quality and availability during winter and apply those measures to a comparison of wild birds...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Luigi Fontana
Cardiovascular ageing and the atherosclerotic process begin very early in life, most likely in utero. They progress over decades of exposure to suboptimal or abnormal metabolic and hormonal risk factors, eventually culminating in very common, costly, and mostly preventable target-organ pathologies, including coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, and vascular dementia. In this Review, we discuss findings from preclinical and clinical studies showing that calorie restriction (CR), intermittent fasting, and adjusted diurnal rhythm of feeding, with adequate intake of specific macronutrients and micronutrients, are powerful interventions not only for the prevention of cardiovascular disease but also for slowing the accumulation of molecular damage leading to cardiometabolic dysfunction...
May 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
James W Larrick, Andrew R Mendelsohn
The United States has the most expensive healthcare system worldwide. Yet measures of health span and life expectancy are well below the major industrialized nations. With the U.S. population aged 65 years and older projected to double by mid-century, a healthcare crisis is looming. Within this context, huge interest and investment have emerged in technologies and drugs to address aging with an expected benefit to health span. The thesis being that such basic interventions will reduce morbidity caused by many chronic diseases wherein biological age itself is the major risk factor...
June 2018: Rejuvenation Research
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