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Intermittant fasting

Susana C A Póvoas, Carlo Castagna, Carlos Resende, Eduardo Filipe Coelho, Pedro Silva, Rute Santos, Rita Pereira, Peter Krustrup
Recreational team handball is an intermittent high-intensity exercise mode with physiological demands in the range of those found to enhance health and physical fitness of sedentary adults. We examined the effects of a short-term team handball-based training programme on physical fitness and metabolic and cardiovascular health of sedentary 33-55-year-old former male team handball players. Twenty-four participants were divided into team handball (THG; n =15) and control groups (CG; n =9) and evaluated at baseline and postintervention...
2018: BioMed Research International
David J Clayton, Jack Biddle, Tyler Maher, Mark P Funnell, Jack A Sargeant, James A King, Carl J Hulston, David J Stensel, Lewis J James
Intermittent energy restriction (IER) involves short periods of severe energy restriction interspersed with periods of adequate energy intake, and can induce weight loss. Insulin sensitivity is impaired by short-term, complete energy restriction, but the effects of IER are not well known. In randomised order, fourteen lean men (age: 25 (sd 4) years; BMI: 24 (sd 2) kg/m2; body fat: 17 (4) %) consumed 24-h diets providing 100 % (10 441 (sd 812) kJ; energy balance (EB)) or 25 % (2622 (sd 204) kJ; energy restriction (ER)) of estimated energy requirements, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g of glucose drink) after fasting overnight...
November 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Renan Santos Caldeira, Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Daniela Sayuri Inoue, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Paula Alves Monteiro, Bruna de Melo Giglio, Gustavo Duarte Pimentel, Peter Hofmann, Fábio Santos Lira
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies have postulated High Intensity Intermittent Training (HIIT) as a superior strategy to reduce body fat. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects HIIT and steady-state training (SST) on body composition, leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) levels, and hunger perception in physically active non-obese men. METHODS: Twenty men performed five weeks of HIIT (5 km - 1 min running at 100% speed correspondent to VȩO2peak - v VȩO2peak - interspersed with 1-min passive recovery; n = 10) or SST (5 km at 70% of vVȩO2peak continuously; n = 10) three times a week...
December 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Chuanfei Dong, Liang Wang, Yi-Min Huang, Luca Comisso, Amitava Bhattacharjee
The plasmoid instability in evolving current sheets has been widely studied due to its effects on the disruption of current sheets, the formation of plasmoids, and the resultant fast magnetic reconnection. In this Letter, we study the role of the plasmoid instability in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence by means of high-resolution direct numerical simulations. At a sufficiently large magnetic Reynolds number (R_{m}=10^{6}), the combined effects of dynamic alignment and turbulent intermittency lead to a copious formation of plasmoids in a multitude of intense current sheets...
October 19, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Tongtong Li, Mengting Qi, François-Joël Gatesoupe, Dongcan Tian, Weihua Jin, Jun Li, Qiang Lin, Shijin Wu, Huan Li
Fasting influences the overall physiology of fish, and the knowledge how the gut microbiota, growth performances, and immune function in response to intermittent and long-term fasting is still insufficient. Here, we characterized the effects of fasting on the host-gut microbiota in crucian carp, which would enhance our insight into physiological adaptation to fasting. To achieve this, we investigated the gut microbial communities of crucian carp with different fasting stress, and corresponding immune and growth parameters...
October 21, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Christina Potter, Rebecca L Griggs, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Peter J Rogers
Many believe that eating three meals each day is healthy and that skipping meals can be detrimental. What remains unclear is whether this belief undermines attempts to restrict energy intake by skipping meals. In an online survey, participants (N = 312) with experience of intermittent fasting (IF) reported their beliefs about healthy meal and snack frequency, as well as their non-fasting-dasy and fasting-day eating patterns. They also reported their level of concern with fasting-day meal patterns and their concern to generate fullness when selecting foods...
October 17, 2018: Appetite
Chen-Jan Chiu, Chih-Wen Chi, Hui-Ru Hsieh, Yu-Chuen Huang, Huey-June Wu, Yu-Jen Chen
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT1) on polarization of macrophages in young football players.Fourteen male football players (19.9 ± 1.4 years old) were enrolled in this study. YYIRT1 was performed with 20-meter shuttle runs at increasing speeds and 10-second active recovery in a 5-meter distance between runs till exhaustion. Fasting blood samples were collected before and immediately after YYIRT1. Analysis for macrophage polarization by flow cytometry, reactive oxygen species (ROS) by flow cytometry, biochemical parameters by chemical reactions, and serum cytokines by ELISA were performed...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Decai Tian, Xiaodong Zhu, Rong Xue, Peng Zhao, Yuanrong Yao
History In November 2012, a previously healthy 31-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 2-month history of right-sided numbness, diplopia, and intermittent nausea and dizziness. She did not have a history of fever, weight loss, headache, photophobia, seizure, or extremity weakness. Physical examination revealed left abduction limitation and right-sided hypoesthesia. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were absent, and pathergy test results were negative. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal complete and differential blood counts, normal serum chemistry, and normal immune function...
November 2018: Radiology
Fabian Bonk, Denny Popp, Sören Weinrich, Heike Sträuber, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Hauke Harms, Florian Centler
Background: Demand-driven biogas production could play an important role for future sustainable energy supply. However, feeding a biogas reactor according to energy demand may lead to organic overloading and, thus, to process failures. To minimize this risk, digesters need to be actively steered towards containing more robust microbial communities. This study focuses on acetogenesis and methanogenesis as crucial process steps for avoiding acidification. We fed lab-scale anaerobic digesters with volatile fatty acids under various feeding regimes and disturbances...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Bridgette Wells, Anne L Burnum, Juliet Armstrong, Susan Sanchez, James B Stanton, Melinda S Camus
A 6-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair cat was presented to the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a 3-year history of a nonhealing wound on the right tarsus. The wound temporarily resolved with medical management, but intermittently recurred when antimicrobials were discontinued. At presentation, the wound had become refractory to antimicrobial therapy. Physical examination revealed a 1 cm diameter crust along the medial aspect of the right tarsus. Proximal to the crust, were 2 non-painful, fluctuant swollen areas that were free of drainage...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Christopher J Hanrahan, Marc D Lindley, Michelle Mueller, Daniel Kim, Daniel Sommers, Glen Morrell, Andrew Redd, Kristi Carlston, Vivian S Lee
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of established non-gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography protocols with Gd-enhanced MR angiography at 3T for evaluating lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2014 to 2015, 20 patients with PAD and intermittent claudication (16 men; age range, 51-76 y; Fontaine stage II) underwent 3-station (abdominopelvic, thigh, and calf) non-Gd MR angiography and bolus-chase Gd MR angiography protocols performed at 3T (Siemens Tim Trio), including quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) MR angiography for all 3 stations and a combination of quadruple inversion recovery (QIR) MR angiography for the abdominopelvic station and electrocardiogram-gated fast spin echo (ECG-FSE) MR angiography for the extremities...
November 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Suleiman Furmli, Rami Elmasry, Megan Ramos, Jason Fung
This case series documents three patients referred to the Intensive Dietary Management clinic in Toronto, Canada, for insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. It demonstrates the effectiveness of therapeutic fasting to reverse their insulin resistance, resulting in cessation of insulin therapy while maintaining control of their blood sugars. In addition, these patients were also able to lose significant amounts of body weight, reduce their waist circumference and also reduce their glycated haemoglobin level.
October 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Siying Wei, Jingyu Zhao, Shuo Wang, Meiqin Huang, Yining Wang, Yan Chen
Continuous deficiency of leucine, a member of branched chain amino acids, is able to reduce obesity and improve insulin sensitivity in mice. Intermittent fasting has been shown to be effective in intervention of metabolic disorders including diabetes. However, it is unknown whether intermittent leucine deprivation can intervene in type 2 diabetes progression. We administered leucine-deprived food every other day in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetes model, for a total of eight weeks to investigate the interventional effect of intermittent leucine deprivation...
September 2018: Heliyon
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Yoohun Noh, Bich Na Shin, Sung-Su Kim, Joon Ha Park, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Minah Song, Hyunjung Kim, Jae-Chul Lee, Jun-Hwan Yong, Il Jun Kang, Yun Lyul Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Jong Dai Kim
Intermittent fasting has been shown to have neuroprotective effects against transient focal cerebral ischemic insults. However, the effects of intermittent fasting on transient global ischemic insult has not been studied much yet. The present study examined effects of intermittent fasting on endogenous antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the hippocampus and investigated whether the fasting protects neurons 5 days after 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were randomly subjected to either ad libitum or alternate‑day intermittent fasting for two months and assigned to sham surgery or transient ischemia...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Li Ma, Qiuming Gao, Weiqian Tian, Qiang Zhang, Hong Xiao, Zeyu Li, Hang Zhang, Xuehui Tian
Large size reduced graphene oxide MRG-900-10 with lateral size of several micrometers and thickness of 4-6 monosheets is prepared via combined microwave intermittent heating and extraction process. The MRG-900-10 has high C/O molar ratio (5.89) and content of sp2 C (69.0%), which lead to a fast electronic transmission in the sample. Besides, the MRG-900-10 possesses a large specific surface area of 568.2 m2 g-1, which increases the contact surface area between the active material and the electrolyte, thus enhancing the electrons and ions transports in the interfaces when used as the electrode material in supercapacitor...
September 21, 2018: ChemSusChem
Praveen Maurye, Arpita Basu, Malay Naskar, Tapas Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Jayanta Kumar Biswas
Recent advancements in biochemical sciences have facilitated researchers to explore the structure and function of macro molecules in a cell. PAGE is one of the most favored and adapted laboratory techniques. Due to its simple and economical procedures, several variants or new modifications are routinely observed in the basic electrophoresis technique that comprises gel casting, electrophoresis, staining, and imaging process which consequently necessitates additional apparatuses/components in the laboratory...
September 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
Leo Pruimboom, Frits A J Muskiet
Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) are the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. They ensue from the sum of modern anthropogenic risk factors, including high calorie nutrition, malnutrition, sedentary lifestyle, social stress, environmental toxins, politics and economic factors. Many of these factors are beyond the span of control of individuals, suggesting that CNCD are inevitable. However, various studies, ours included, show that the use of intermittent challenges with hormetic effects improve subjective and objective wellbeing of individuals with CNCD, while having favourable effects on immunological, metabolic and behavioural indices...
November 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Kartik Mani, Ali Javaheri, Abhinav Diwan
Adaptive responses that counter starvation have evolved over millennia to permit organismal survival, including changes at the level of individual organelles, cells, tissues, and organ systems. In the past century, a shift has occurred away from disease caused by insufficient nutrient supply toward overnutrition, leading to obesity and diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiometabolic disease. The burden of these diseases has spurred interest in fasting strategies that harness physiological responses to starvation, thus limiting tissue injury during metabolic stress...
September 14, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Jasmin J Samaras, Bernardo Abecasis, Margarida Serra, Andrea Ducci, Martina Micheletti
Cardiomyocytes (CMs), derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), have the potential to be used in cardiac repair. Addition of physical cues, such as electrical and mechanical stimulations, have proven to significantly effect morphology, density, cardiogenesis, maturity and functionality of differentiated CMs. This work combines rigorous fluid dynamics investigation and flow frequency analysis with iPSC differentiation experiments to identify and quantify the flow characteristics leading to a significant increase of differentiation yield...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Yun Wang, Li Wen, Shi Zhou, Yong Zhang, Xin-Hao Wang, You-Yu He, Allan Davie, Suzanne Broadbent
AIMS: The aims of this study were to determine the effects of four weeks of intermittent exposure to a moderate hypoxia environment (15% oxygen), and compare with the effects of exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, GLUT4 translocation, insulin receptor phosphorylation, Akt-dependent GSK3 phosphorylation and Akt activity in skeletal muscle of obese mice with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice that developed type 2 diabetes with a high-fat-diet (55% fat) (fasting blood glucose, FBG = 13...
2018: PloS One
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