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Learning disability

Stephanie Jones-Berry
Too many people with learning disabilities are still being admitted to hospital as inpatients, according to an NHS nurse leader.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
(no author information available yet)
Layla Haidrani, writing in Learning Disability Practice, aims to debunk the myths and misconceptions that parents of children with Down's syndrome face.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Sally Lindsay, Kara Grace Hounsell
PURPOSE: Youth with disabilities are under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in school and in the workforce. One encouraging approach to engage youth's interest in STEM is through robotics; however, such programs are mostly for typically developing youth. The purpose of this study was to understand the development and implementation of an adapted robotics program for children and youth with disabilities and their experiences within it. METHOD: Our mixed methods pilot study (pre- and post-workshop surveys, observations, and interviews) involved 41 participants including: 18 youth (aged 6-13), 12 parents and 11 key informants...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Elena Dukhovny, YanYan Zhou
Increasing speed and accuracy of communication via a speech-generating device (SGD) is an important clinical goal in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The current study, conducted with adults without disabilities using a within-subject experimental design, compared the effects of two different SGD trainings on speed and accuracy of locating words via an SGD interface. During size-centered training, participants were introduced to six large icons that completely filled an SGD screen. During location-centered training, participants were introduced to six small icons on a 40-location screen where other icons were hidden...
October 20, 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
Carrie Guy, Xianfu Wang, Xianglan Lu, Jin Lu, Shibo Li
We report a half-sibling cohort with deletion of 4p16.1, astigmatism, gross and fine motor delay, variable intellectual disability, and variable behavioral concerns. However, two siblings without the deletion also had learning delays and psychological concerns. Thus, variable phenotypic expression was seen and the significance of deletion of 4p16.1 remains unclear.
October 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Nicholas K Schiltz, David F Warner, Jiayang Sun, Paul M Bakaki, Avi Dor, Charles W Given, Kurt C Stange, Siran M Koroukian
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity affects the majority of elderly adults and is associated with higher health costs and utilization, but how specific patterns of morbidity influence resource use is less understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to identify specific combinations of chronic conditions, functional limitations, and geriatric syndromes associated with direct medical costs and inpatient utilization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using the Health and Retirement Study (2008-2010) linked to Medicare claims...
October 6, 2016: Medical Care
Carmen Brankaer, Pol Ghesquière, Anke De Wel, Ann Swillen, Bert De Smedt
Cross-syndrome comparisons offer an important window onto understanding heterogeneity in mathematical learning disabilities or dyscalculia. The present study therefore investigated symbolic numerical magnitude processing in two genetic syndromes that are both characterized by mathematical learning disabilities: Turner syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). We further verified whether the phenotypic outcomes of these syndromes emerged from the same or different cognitive processes and therefore examined whether numerical impairments were related to working memory deficits, often observed in these syndromes...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Arvind G Kulkarni, Hussain Bohra, Abhilash Dhruv, Abhishek Sarraf, Anupreet Bassi, Vishwanath M Patil
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present prospective study is to evaluate whether the touted advantages of minimal invasive-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) translate into superior, equal, or inferior outcomes as compared to open-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (O-TLIF). This is the first study from the Indian subcontinent prospectively comparing the outcomes of MI-TLIF and O-TLIF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive cases of open and MI-TLIF were prospectively followed up...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
(no author information available yet)
Are occupational therapists (OTs) the key to tackling obesity in people with learning disabilities? Rebecca Haythorne, an OT student says the profession can play a crucial role by providing health promotion, education and bespoke exercise routines. OTs must urge carers to collaborate with the person in their care to help them become independent and develop the skills to gain control of their weight.
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
Tara Lally
In my final year of learning disability nursing at Queen's University Belfast, I travelled to Romania with a team of nursing students for our 4-week elective placement.
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
Jamie Valis, Michelle Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Previous literature suggests that individuals with disabilities have increased rates of obesity and decreased participation in physical activity contributing to overall higher incidence of secondary health conditions compared to the general population without disabilities. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this research study was to examine the differences in physical activity rates for college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Learning Disabilities (LD)...
September 13, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Wei-Shan Tsao, Hsi-Pao Hsieh, Yi-Ting Chuang, Min-Muh Sheu
PURPOSE: Students with cognitive impairment are at increased risk of suffering from visual impairment due to refractive errors and ocular disease, which can adversely influence learning and daily activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular and visual status among students at the special education school in Hualien. METHODS: All students at the National Hualien Special Education School were evaluated. Full eye examinations were conducted by a skilled ophthalmologist...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
R Whittle, G Mansell, P Jellema, D van der Windt
BACKGROUND: Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychosocial interventions for low back pain (LBP) have been found to have only small effects on disability outcomes. Investigations of the specific mechanisms that may lead to an improvement in outcome have therefore been called for. METHODS: We present an application of the causal inference approach to mediation analysis using the example of a cluster RCT in a primary care population with (sub)acute LBP randomized to either usual GP care (n = 171) or a minimal psychosocial intervention (n = 143)...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Iliana I Karipidis, Georgette Pleisch, Martina Röthlisberger, Christoph Hofstetter, Dario Dornbierer, Philipp Stämpfli, Silvia Brem
Learning letter-speech sound correspondences is a major step in reading acquisition and is severely impaired in children with dyslexia. Up to now, it remains largely unknown how quickly neural networks adopt specific functions during audiovisual integration of linguistic information when prereading children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. Here, we simulated the process of learning letter-speech sound correspondences in 20 prereading children (6.13-7.17 years) at varying risk for dyslexia by training artificial letter-speech sound correspondences within a single experimental session...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Suzie Mudge, Juliet Rosie, Susan Stott, Denise Taylor, Nada Signal, Kathryn McPherson
OBJECTIVE: To enhance understanding of the experiences of ageing with cerebral palsy (CP) in adulthood with a particular focus on experiences with health services. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive methodology was applied to capture adults' views of ageing with CP and related interactions with health services. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with data systematically coded and interpreted by grouping information into categories. Themes that encompassed the categories were identified through thematic analysis...
October 13, 2016: BMJ Open
Ann-Catherine Sullivan
The purpose of this study was to (a) identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus and (b) to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students' attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was structured to provide a sense of empowerment to students to make their own decisions and learn for themselves so they do not feel a lack of power in their lives...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
J Painter, L Trevithick, R P Hastings, B Ingham, A Roy
BACKGROUND: In meeting the needs of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) who access health services, a brief, holistic assessment of need is useful. This study outlines the development and testing of the Learning Disabilities Needs Assessment Tool (LDNAT), a tool intended for this purpose. METHOD: An existing mental health (MH) tool was extended by a multidisciplinary group of ID practitioners. Additional scales were drafted to capture needs across six ID treatment domains that the group identified...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Lindsey Edwards, Lynne Aitkenhead, Dawn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the relationship between short-term memory capacity and reading skills in adolescents with cochlear implants. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A between-groups design compared a group of young people with cochlear implants with a group of hearing peers on measures of reading, and auditory and visual short-term memory capacity. The groups were matched for non-verbal IQ and age. The adolescents with cochlear implants were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Programme at a specialist children's hospital...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Marie Geurten, Steve Majerus, Caroline Lejeune, Corinne Catale
We present a new measure of everyday memory, the Questionnaire of Memory (Q-MEM), which is specifically adapted for the ecological assessment of memory disorders in school-age children and constructed with four sections tapping effortful/intentional learning, automatic/procedural learning, prospective memory/organization, and working memory. Confirmatory Factor Analyses supported the Q-MEM's four-factor structure in 700 five-to twelve-year-old children. The analyses also revealed a good internal reliability and a good test-retest fidelity...
October 11, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Antoine Tanet, Annik Hubert-Barthelemy, Graciela C Crespin, Nicolas Bodeau, David Cohen, Catherine Saint-Georges
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who also exhibit severe-to-moderate ranges of intellectual disability (ID) still face many challenges (i.e., less evidence-based trials, less inclusion in school with peers). METHODS: We implemented a novel model called the "Developmental and Sequenced One-to-One Educational Intervention" (DS1-EI) in 5- to 9-year-old children with co-occurring ASD and ID. The treatment protocol was adapted for school implementation by designing it using an educational agenda...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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