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MicroRNAs and early detection

Ridong Wu, Shi Tang, Mian Wang, Xiangdong Xu, Chen Yao, Shenming Wang
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs play crucial roles in various types of diseases. However, to date, no information about the role of miR-497 in the development of atherosclerosis has been reported. This study investigated the possible role of miR-497 in vascular endothelial cell injury during the early stage of atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression level of miR-497 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to ox-LDL was detected using qRT-PCR...
2016: PloS One
Farah J Nassar, Rihab Nasr, Rabih Talhouk
Breast cancer is a major health problem that affects one in eight women worldwide. As such, detecting breast cancer at an early stage anticipates better disease outcome and prolonged patient survival. Extensive research has shown that microRNA (miRNA) are dysregulated at all stages of breast cancer. miRNA are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules that can modulate gene expression and are easily accessible and quantifiable. This review highlights miRNA as diagnostic, prognostic and therapy predictive biomarkers for early breast cancer with an emphasis on the latter...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Shokoufeh Delkhahi, Mahdi Rahaie, Fereshteh Rahimi
MicroRNAs are small RNAs which regulate gene expression by translational repression or degradation of messenger RNAs. Regards to important role of these biomolecules in human disease progress, to produce sensitive, simple and cost-effective assays for microRNAs are in urgent demand. miR-137 in Alzheimer's patients has demonstrated its potential as non-invasive biomarkers in blood for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and prognosis. This paper describes a novel, sensitive and specific microRNA assay based on Colorimetric detection of gold nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction amplification (HCR)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
Mina Hosseini, Sara Khatamianfar, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Reza Nedaeinia, Mojtaba Shafiee, Mina Maftouh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Soudabeh Shahid Sales, Amir Avan
Exosome-encapsulated microRNAs are being suggested as a new class novel biomarker and diagnostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer. These particles are released from many cell types into the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane. They contain a wide variety of information, including proteins, lipids, RNAs, non-transcribed RNAs, microRNAs, which can be circulated in various body fluids (e.g., blood, salvia, ascites, urine). Exosomes can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and thereby modulate the functional of recipient cells and play a key role in disease progression or facilitate metastasis in cancers...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Keqiang Zhang, Xiwei Wu, Jinhui Wang, Joshua Lopez, Weiying Zhou, Lu Yang, Shizhen Emily Wang, Dan J Raz, Jae Y Kim
Esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. It typically has a poor overall prognosis because of diagnosis in advanced stages. Sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of esophageal cancer are urgently needed to reduce the high mortality of this disease. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as a novel non-invasive biomarker for cancer diagnosis due to its high stability and specificity. In this study, we profiled circulating miRNAs in serum of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) using the Solexa sequencing analysis...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohammed Ziada, Abubaker Elshaikh, Amrita Datta, Hogyoung Kim, Krzysztof Moroz, Sudesh Srivastav, Raju Thomas, Jonathan L Silberstein, Krishnarao Moparty, Fatma Elzahraa H Salem, Ola H El-Habit, Asim B Abdel-Mageed
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American men. Early diagnosis is a prerequisite to improving therapeutic benefits. However, the current clinical biomarkers for PC do not reliably decipher indolent PC from other urogenital disorders. Thus, effective clinical intervention necessitates development of new biomarkers for early detection of PC. The present study aimed to identify the miRNA signature in organ-confined (Gleason Score 6) prostate tumors...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jian-Dong Liu, Qun Xin, Chun-Sheng Tao, Pei-Feng Sun, Peng Xu, Bing Wu, Liang Qu, Shu-Zhong Li
In order to determine whether microRNA (miR)-300 is a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in osteosarcoma, the miR-300 levels in serum of 114 osteosarcoma patients and 114 healthy controls were compared, followed by serum analysis of the differences between the pre-operative and post-operative sera of these osteosarcoma patients. It was observed that the concentration levels of miR-300 in the serum of osteosarcoma patients was significantly higher than those in the serum of healthy controls (P<0.01). Furthermore, the concentration levels of miR-300 in the post-operative serum were significantly reduced when compared with the pre-operative serum levels (P<0...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
Wei Cai, Shunbi Xie, Ying Tang, Yaqin Chai, Ruo Yuan, Jin Zhang
A label-free electrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of miRNA-155 was presented by coupling enzyme-catalyzed in situ generation of electronic mediator for signal introduction with catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) induced target recycling amplification strategy. In this work, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was adopted to hydrolyze inactive substrate 1-naphthyl phosphate (NPP) to produce phosphate ion (PO4(3-)), which could further react with acidic molybdate to form abundant molybdophosphate anion (PMo12O40(3-)) on the surface of electrode...
January 15, 2017: Talanta
Purushottam Narute, Nitin Seam, Margaret Tropea, Carolea Logun, Rongman Cai, Junfeng Sun, James H Shelhamer, G Umberto Meduri, Anthony F Suffredini
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA) control gene transcription by binding to and repressing the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA). Their role in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is undefined. METHODS: Blood leukocytes from 51 patients enrolled in a prior randomized trial of corticosteroids for ARDS were analyzed. After screening eight patients with microarrays for altered miRNA expression, 25 miRNAs were selected for further analysis using RT-PCR in all 51 patients...
November 21, 2016: Shock
Kai Zhang, Ke Wang, Xue Zhu, Minhao Xie
Imaging of microRNA (miRNA) in living cells could facilitate the monitoring of the expression and distribution of miRNA and research on miRNA-related diseases. Given the low expression levels and even down-regulation of cellular miRNA that is associated with some diseases, enzyme-free amplification strategies are imperative for intracellular miRNA assay. In this work, we report an entropy-driven reaction for amplification assay miRNA with a detection limit of 0.27 pM. The resulting signal amplification provides excellent recognition and signal enhancement of specific miRNAs in living cells...
January 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Suwen Yang, Wei Wang, Hong Jin, Yuhong Zhong, Xinyou Xie
Objective: To detect the expression of miR-221/222 in serum and plasma cells in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance(MGUS) and multiple myeloma(MM), and to explore the possibility of miR-221/222 as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis predicting of MGUS and MM. Methods: Bone marrow and serum samples from 14 patients with newly diagnosed MGUS, 81 patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed MM and 10 controls were collected from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University and Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province during January 2013 and December 2015...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Haiyun Liu, Tian Tian, Yuhan Zhang, Longhua Ding, Jinghua Yu, Mei Yan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in a diverse range of biological progress and have been regarded as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Here, we develop a rapid and sensitive miRNA assay on the basis of exponential isothermal amplification in combination with the hairpin probes, which was designed for sensitive detection of miRNA. The binding of target miRNA with a linear DNA template initiates exponential isothermal amplification reaction (EXPAR) and generates the universal triggers which are complementary to the 3' protruding end of hairpin probe1(HP1)...
November 11, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jinpao Hou, Fei Meng, Lawrence W C Chan, William C S Cho, S C Cesar Wong
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths all over the world, in which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~85% of cases. It is well known that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in various cellular processes, mediating post-transcriptional silencing either by mRNA degradation through binding the 3' UTR of target mRNA or by translational inhibition of the protein. In the past decade, miRNAs have also been increasingly identified in biological fluids such as human serum or plasma known as circulating or cell-free miRNAs, and may function as non-invasive diagnostic markers for various cancer types including NSCLC...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Cenny Taslim, Daniel Y Weng, Theodore M Brasky, Ramona G Dumitrescu, Kun Huang, Bhaskar V S Kallakury, Shiva Krishnan, Adana A Llanos, Catalin Marian, Joseph McElroy, Sallie S Schneider, Scott L Spear, Melissa A Troester, Jo L Freudenheim, Susan Geyer, Peter G Shields
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide miRNA expression may be useful for predicting breast cancer risk and/or for the early detection of breast cancer. RESULTS: A 41-miRNA model distinguished breast cancer risk in the discovery study (accuracy of 83.3%), which was replicated in the independent study (accuracy = 63.4%, P=0.09). Among the 41 miRNA, 20 miRNAs were detectable in serum, and predicted breast cancer occurrence within 18 months of blood draw (accuracy 53%, P=0.06). These risk-related miRNAs were enriched for HER-2 and estrogen-dependent breast cancer signaling...
November 9, 2016: Oncotarget
Rainer Surges, Anita Kretschmann, Khalid Abnaof, Marijke van Rikxoort, Kirsten Ridder, Holger Fröhlich, Bénédicte Danis, Rafal M Kaminski, Patrik Foerch, Christian E Elger, Frank Weinsberg, Alexander Pfeifer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and are involved in the pathomechanisms of epilepsy. MiRNAs may also serve as peripheral biomarkers of epilepsy. We investigated the miRNA profile in the blood serum of patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) following a single focal seizure evolving to a bilateral convulsive seizure (BCS) during video-EEG monitoring. Data of 15 patients were included in the final analysis. MiRNA expression was determined using Real Time-PCR followed by thorough bioinformatical analysis of expression levels...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hilal Kazan
Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. Poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying HCC prevents early detection and leads to high mortality. We developed a random forest model that incorporates copy-number variation, DNA methylation, transcription factor, and microRNA binding information as features to predict gene expression in HCC. Our model achieved a highly significant correlation between predicted and measured expression of held-out genes. Furthermore, we identified potential regulators of gene expression in HCC...
2016: BioMed Research International
Wenzhe Wang, Weili Li, Mingjian Ding, Haining Yuan, Jian Yang, Wen Meng, Er Jin, Xiaoju Wang, Shenglin Ma
Current clinical diagnostic methods lack the specificity in detecting lung cancer patients. The issue is particularly critical for stage I and II patients. Considerable evidence showed microRNA plays a very important role in lung carcinogenesis. Here, we identified a panel of 41 miRNAs significantly elevated in patients with lung cancer, of which eight miRNAs were further validated in an independent sample cohort. Classification analysis using the panel of eight miRNAs generated a discriminatory power of 93...
November 3, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Gholamreza Karimi, Nafise Alamolhida, Javad Behravan, Fateme Mosaffa
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. Despite advances in early detection and treatment, it has the second highest mortality rate after lung cancer. Around 85% of breast carcinomas are ER+; thus, antiestrogens like tamoxifen are beneficial. Although, tamoxifen is useful for many patients, plenty of patients respond poorly to initial therapy or recurrence occurs in about 30% of cases, because tamoxifen resistance happens. Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of breast cancer and more than 90% of unsuccessful treatments are because of acquired resistance and MultiDrug Resistance (MDR) is a major contributor...
November 2, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Cheng-Wei Li, Yun-Lin Lee, Bor-Sen Chen
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Mtb is one of the oldest human pathogens, and evolves mechanisms implied in human evolution. The lungs are the first organ exposed to aerosol-transmitted Mtb during gaseous exchange. Therefore, the guards of the immune system in the lungs, such as macrophages (Mϕs) and dendritic cells (DCs), are the most important defense against Mtb infection. There have been several studies discussing the functions of Mϕs and DCs during Mtb infection, but the genome-wide pathways and networks are still incomplete...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Shi Wang, Jiansong Ji, Jingjing Song, Xue Li, Shilong Han, Weishuai Lian, Chuanwu Cao, Xiaoping Zhang, Maoquan Li
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy. The median survival rate remains low, indicating that the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets is critical. Here, we examined the role of microRNA-182 (miR-182) in pancreatic cancer development. Analysis of human pancreatic cancer specimens and cell lines showed that miR-182 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and promotes tumor proliferation and invasion. β-TrCP2 was confirmed as a direct target of miR-182. Silencing of β-TrCP2 increased the levels of β-catenin, which is similar to miR-182 overexpression...
December 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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