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MicroRNAs and early detection

Octavia Ramayanti, Sandra A W M Verkuijlen, Putri Novianti, Chantal Scheepbouwer, Branislav Misovic, Danijela Koppers-Lalic, Jan van de Weering, Lisa Beckers, Marlinda Adham, Debora Martorelli, Jaap M Middeldorp, D Michiel Pegtel
Cell-free microRNA (miRNA) in biofluids released by tumors in either protein or vesicle-bound form, represent promising minimally-invasive cancer biomarkers. However, a highly abundant non-tumor background in human plasma and serum complicates the discovery and detection of tumor-selective circulating miRNAs. We performed small RNA sequencing on serum and plasma RNA from Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) patients. Collectively, Epstein Barr virus-encoded miRNAs, more so than endogenous miRNAs, signify presence of NPC...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Shulin Huang, Xiaohui Tan, Zhongcheng Huang, Zihua Chen, Paul Lin, Sidney W Fu
Liver metastasis is a primary factor of prognosis and long-term survival for patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). Colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM), is a complex biological process involving multiple factors and steps, and its mechanisms are yet to be discovered. In recent years, small noncoding RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proven to play an important role in tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers, including CRC. Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs, including those from exosomes secreted by tumor cells in circulation, could be used as promising biomarkers in early cancer detection, treatment, and prognosis...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Sadhana A Samant, Vinodkumar Pillai, Mahesh Gupta
Many chronic diseases are associated with unintentional loss of body weight, which is termed as cachexia. Cachexia is a complex multifactorial syndrome associated with the underlying primary disease, and characterized by loss of skeletal muscle with or without loss of fat tissue. Patients with cachexia face dire symptoms like dyspnea, fatigue, edema, exercise-intolerance and low responsiveness to medical therapy, which worsen quality of life. Since cachexia is not a stand-alone disorder, treating primary disease, such as cancer, takes precedence for the physician, and it remains mostly a neglected illness...
November 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
J Dai, G-Y Yu, H-L Sun, G-T Zhu, G-D Han, H-T Jiang, X-M Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of microRNA-210 on the spinal cord injury (SCI) and its underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mouse SCI model was established. Mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups, namely the sham operation group (sham group), surgery group (SCI group), surgery+NC group (SCI+NC group) and surgery+microRNA-210 overexpression group (SCI+microRNA-210 mimics group). The mRNA levels of microRNA-210 and the key genes in the JAK-STAT pathway of the four groups were detected by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) at different time points...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Kevin M Elias, Jing Guo, Robert C Bast
Early detection of ovarian cancer could reduce mortality by 10% to 30%. Effective screening requires high sensitivity (>75%) and extremely high specificity (99.7%). Clinical trials suggest the best specificity is achieved with 2-stage strategies in which increasing serum CA125 level triggers transvaginal sonography to detect a malignant pelvic mass, although evidence for such approaches improving overall survival has been limited. Screening may be improved by combining CA125 with novel biomarkers, such as autoantibodies, circulating tumor DNA, or microRNAs...
December 2018: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Catarina Coutinho, Álvaro Somoza
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs, the dysregulation of which has been associated with the progression of several human diseases, including cancer. Interestingly, these molecules can be used as biomarkers for early disease diagnosis and can be found in a variety of body fluids and tissue samples. However, their specific properties and very low concentrations make their detection rather challenging. In this regard, current detection methods are complex, cost-ineffective, and of limited application in point-of-care settings or resource-limited facilities...
November 3, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jovana Stojanovic, Alessia Tognetto, Danilo Francesco Tiziano, Emanuele Leoncini, Brunella Posteraro, Roberta Pastorino, Stefania Boccia
OBJECTIVE: The early identification of gastric cancer (GC) represents a major clinical challenge. We conducted systematic review of studies evaluating the miRNA expression profiling as diagnostic tool in GC. METHODS: We performed a search of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases for studies on diagnostic miRNAs and GC, published in English up to October, 2017. Eligibility criteria included case-control studies evaluating blood or tissue-based miRNA expression profiles, and incorporating at least two detection phases (screening and validation)...
November 2, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Yulian Mytsyk, Victor Dosenko, Michał Andrzej Skrzypczyk, Yuriy Borys, Yuriy Diychuk, Askold Kucher, Vasyl Kowalskyy, Serhyi Pasichnyk, Oleh Mytsyk, Lubov Manyuk
Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3% of adult malignancies and more than 90% of kidney neoplasms. High rates of undiagnostic percutaneous kidney biopsies and difficulties in reliable pre-operative differentiation between malignant and benign renal tumors using contemporary imaging techniques result in large numbers of redundant surgeries. Absence of specific biomarkers for early detection and monitoring complicates on-time diagnosis of the disease and relapse. For the patients followed up after having a nephrectomy, a noninvasive and sensitive biomarker enabling early detection of disease relapse would be extremely useful...
2018: Central European Journal of Urology
Philip Gillespie, Sylvain Ladame, Danny O'Hare
High-throughput profiling/sensing of nucleic acids has recently emerged as a highly promising strategy for the early diagnosis and improved prognosis of a broad range of pathologies, most notably cancer. Among the potential biomarker candidates, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length, are of particular interest due to their role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Developing miRNA sensing technologies that are quantitative, ultrasensitive and highly specific has proven very challenging because of their small size, low natural abundance and the high degree of sequence similarity among family members...
October 30, 2018: Analyst
Ilona Kaszak, Anna Ruszczak, Szymon Kanafa, Kamil Kacprzak, Magdalena Król, Piotr Jurka
Mammary tumors are the second most common neoplasia in dogs. Due to the high similarity of canine mammary tumors (CMT) to human breast cancers (HBC), human biomarkers of HBC are also detectable in cases of CMT. The evaluation of biomarkers enables clinical diagnoses, treatment options and prognosis for bitches suffering from this disease. The aim of this article is to give a short summary of the biomarkers of CMT based on current literature. Very promising biomarkers are miRNAs, cancer stem cells, and circulating tumor cells, as well as mutations of the breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 gene (BRCA2)...
October 29, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Jiquan Jiang, Bin Zhang, Chi Zhang, Yifu Guan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes, and their aberrant expressions are associated with various diseases. The levels of miRNAs can be useful biomarkers for cellular events or disease diagnosis; thus, sensitive and selective detection of microRNAs is of great significance in understanding biological functions of miRNAs, early-phase diagnosis of cancers, and discovery of new targets for drugs. However, traditional approaches for the detection of miRNAs are usually laborious and time-consuming, with a low sensitivity...
October 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Suguru Maruyama, Shinji Furuya, Kensuke Shiraishi, Hiroki Shimizu, Hidenori Akaike, Naohiro Hosomura, Yoshihiko Kawaguchi, Hidetake Amemiya, Hiromichi Kawaida, Makoto Sudo, Shingo Inoue, Hiroshi Kono, Daisuke Ichikawa
AIM: To investigate the clinical utility of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer (AFPGC)-specific microRNA (miRNA) for monitoring and prognostic prediction of patients. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive miRNA array-based approach to compare miRNA expression levels between AFP-positive and AFP-negative cells in three patients with primary AFPGC. We next examined the expression levels of the selected miRNAs in five AFPGC and ten non-AFPGC tissue samples by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to validate their utility...
October 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Ali Mohammadpour, Maryam Derakhshan, Hassan Darabi, Pegah Hedayat, Mohammad Momeni
Melanoma is known as an aggressive tumor which shows an increasing incidence and poor prognosis in the metastatic phase. Hence, it seems that diagnosis and effective management (including early diagnosis, choosing of the effective therapeutic platform, caring, and training of patients for early detection) are major aspects of melanoma therapy. Early detection of melanoma is a key point for melanoma therapy. There are various diagnosis options such as assessing of biopsy, imaging techniques, and biomarkers (i...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Dina Sabry, Sahar E M El-Deek, Moataz Maher, Mona A H El-Baz, Hala M El-Bader, Eman Amer, Elham A Hassan, Wael Fathy, Heba E M El-Deek
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Novel non-invasive, high diagnostic value screening test is urgently needed to improve survival rate, treatment and prognosis. Stable, small, circulating microRNA (miRNA) offers unique opportunities for the early diagnosis of several diseases. It acts as tumor oncogenes or suppressors and involve in cell death, survival, and metastasis. Communication between miRNA and carcinogenesis is critical but it still not clear and needs further investigation...
October 24, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Chen Xu, Hao Zhang, Wenchao Zhou, Huiqiao Wu, Xiaolong Shen, Yuanyuan Chen, Mingfang Liao, Yang Liu, Wen Yuan
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The presence of ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can lead to symptomatic spinal cord compression and myelopathy. The surgical approach in patients with myelopathy is influenced by the presence of OPLL. Diagnose of OPLL currently requires computed tomography which incurs a large dose of radiation. Circulating disease-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as promising diagnostic markers with no radiation and easy accessibility for OPLL patients...
October 20, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Lingyan Zhai, Minxiang Li, Weilun Pan, Yun Chen, Minmin Li, Jianxin Pang, Lei Zheng, Jinxiang Chen, Wenjun Duan
Breast cancer is the second cause of cancer mortality in women globally. Early detection, treatment, and metastasis monitoring are of great importance to favorable prognosis. Although conventional diagnostic methods, such as breast X-ray mammography and image positioning biopsy, are accurate, they could cause radioactive or invasive damage to patients. Liquid biopsy as a non-invasive method is convenient for repeated sampling in clinical cancer prognostic, metastatic evaluation, and relapse monitoring. MicroRNAs encased in exosomes circulating in biofluids are promising candidate cancer biomarkers due to their cancer-specific expression profiles...
October 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Margaret M Ryan, Diane Guévremont, Bruce G Mockett, Wickliffe C Abraham, Joanna M Williams
Pathological changes underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) begin decades before the classical symptoms of memory loss become evident. As microRNAs are released from neurons and enter the bloodstream, circulating microRNAs may be reflective of AD progression and are ideal candidates as biomarkers for early-stage disease detection. Here, we provide a novel, in-depth analysis of how plasma microRNAs alter with aging, the most prominent risk factor for AD, and with development of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mariko Murata
Infection and inflammation account for approximately 25% of cancer-causing factors. Inflammation-related cancers are characterized by mutagenic DNA lesions, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-nitroguanine. Our previous studies demonstrated the formation of 8-oxodG and 8-nitroguanine in the tissues of cancer and precancerous lesions due to infection (e.g., Opisthorchis viverrini-related cholangiocarcinoma, Schistosoma haematobium-associated bladder cancer, Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer, human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer, Epstein-Barr virus-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma) and pro-inflammatory factors (e...
October 20, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Fariah I Gaba, Chirag C Sheth, Veronica Veses
BACKGROUND: More than 90% of malignant tumors of the head and neck are oral squamous cell carcinomas. Early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using salivary biomarkers could prevent malignant transformations and enhance patient survival. METHODS: A systematic search in MEDLINE and the Central Register of Controlled Trials and meta-analysis were undertaken to identify the screening potential of six salivary biomarkers for early oral squamous cell carcinoma detection: interleukins IL-8 and IL1-β, DUSP-1 and S100P messenger RNAs, and miR125a and miR200a microRNAs...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
H-W Qu, Y Jin, Z-L Cui, X-B Jin
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether microRNA-373-3p could inhibit the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) by targeting and degrading AKT1. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression levels of microRNA-373-3p and AKT1 in PCa tissues and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPN) tissues were detected by quantitative Real-Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). According to the follow-up data, survival curves and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to investigate whether microRNA-373-3p could be served as a biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis of PCa...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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