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MicroRNAs and early detection

Yun Su, HongBin Fang, Feng Jiang
BACKGROUND: Abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expressions and promoter methylation of genes detected in sputum may provide biomarkers for non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we evaluate the individual and combined analysis of the two classes of sputum molecular biomarkers for NSCLC detection. RESULTS: We analyze expression of 3 miRNAs (miR-21, miR-31, and miR-210) and methylation of 3 genes (RASSF1A, PRDM14, and 3OST2), which were previously identified as potential biomarkers for NSCLC, in sputum of a set of 117 stage I NSCLC patients and 174 cancer-free smokers...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Seshasailam Venkateswaran, Maria Angélica Luque-González, Mavys Tabraue-Chávez, Mario Antonio Fara, Barbara López-Longarela, Victoria Cano-Cortes, Francisco Javier López-Delgado, Rosario María Sánchez-Martín, Hugh Ilyine, Mark Bradley, Salvatore Pernagallo, Juan José Díaz-Mochón
Over the last decade, circulating microRNAs have received attention as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In particular, microRNA122 has been demonstrated to be an early and more sensitive indicator of drug-induced liver injury than the widely used biomarkers such as alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Recently, microRNA122 has been used in vitro to assess the cellular toxicity of new drugs and as a biomarker for the development of a rapid test for drug overdose/liver damage. In this proof-of-concept study, we report a PCR-free and label-free detection method that has a limit of detection (3 standard deviations) of 15 fmoles of microRNA122, by integrating a dynamic chemical approach for "Single Nucleobase Labelling" with a bead-based platform (Luminex(®)) thereby, in principle, demonstrating the exciting prospect of rapid and accurate profiling of any microRNAs related to diseases and toxicology...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Ryo Uratani, Yuji Toiyama, Takahito Kitajima, Mikio Kawamura, Junichiro Hiro, Minako Kobayashi, Koji Tanaka, Yasuhiro Inoue, Yasuhiko Mohri, Takao Mori, Toshio Kato, Ajay Goel, Masato Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: Although there is a growing interest in developing circulating microRNA (miRNA) as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for the detection of high-risk colorectal adenomas and early-stage CRCs, but the comparative diagnostic significance of serum vs. exosomal miRNAs remains unexplored. METHODS: Based upon published literature, we performed an initial discovery step by investigating the expression of a miRNA panel in 20 normal colonic mucosa, 27 adenomas, and 19 CRC tissues...
2016: PloS One
Zhen Wang, Jun-Qiang Chen, Jin-Lu Liu, Lei Tian
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Exosome is an important part of TME. Exosomes are small vesicles formed in vesicular bodies with a diameter of 30-100 nm and a classic "cup" or "dish" morphology. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins, which are shuttled from a donor cell to recipient cells. Exosomes secreted from tumor cells are called tumor-derived (TD) exosomes. There is emerging evidence that TD exosomes can construct a fertile environment to support tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and premetastatic niche preparation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Y Xiao, Y Y DU, C Gao, W Kong
OBJECTIVE: To study the change of microRNA during the early stage of high phosphorus induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and its related mechanism. METHODS: The in vitro calcification model was created through stimulating VSMC cell line A7r5 with high Pi (2.6 mmol/L) for 7 d. The calcification was validated through ocresolphthalein complexone colorimetry to detect the cellular calcium content, real-time PCR to measure the calcification-related gene expression and alizarin red staining to observe the formation of calcium nodules...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Mathijs van de Vrie, Jeroen K Deegens, Michael Eikmans, Johan van der Vlag, Luuk B Hilbrands
Urine represents a non-invasive source in which proteins and nucleic acids can be assessed. Such analytes may function as biomarkers to monitor kidney graft pathology at every desired frequency, thereby providing a time window to prevent graft damage by therapeutic intervention. Recently, several proteins have been measured in urine as markers of graft injury. However, the specificity is limited, and measuring urinary proteins generally lacks the potential to predict early kidney graft damage. Currently, urinary mRNA and microRNA are being investigated to evaluate the prognostic value of changes in gene expression during the initial stages of graft damage...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Alexander W Scott, Viswanadham Garimella, Colin M Calabrese, Chad A Mirkin
Novel biotin-polyethylene glycol (biotin-PEG) gold nanoparticle probes have been synthesized and used as universal constructs for the detection of protein (prostate-specific antigen, PSA) and nucleic acid targets (microRNAs) from a single sample. Microarray assays based upon these probes enabled sensitive detection of biomarker targets (50 fM for nucleic acid targets and 1 pg/μL for the PSA target). Ways of detecting biomarkers, including nucleic acids and proteins, are necessary for the clinical diagnosis of many diseases, but currently available diagnostic platforms rely primarily on the independent detection of proteins or nucleic acids...
October 14, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
P Karásek, M Hermanová
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive disease with 5-year overall survival not exceeding 5%. In the Czech Republic, the incidence of this tumor has been increasing; according to recent statistics, the Czech Republic is already number one worldwide in the occurrence of this malignancy. Delayed diagnosis due to asymptomatic course of the disease in the early stages is characteristic for this disease. AIM: The objective of this article is to give an overview of the most important factors, which according to current knowledge of pancreatic adenocarcinoma have a prognostic and predictive potential...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Fabio Arturo Grieco, Guido Sebastiani, Jonas Juan-Mateu, Olatz Villate, Laura Marroqui, Laurence Ladrière, Ksenya Tugay, Romano Regazzi, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Francesco Dotta, Décio L Eizirik
Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease leading to beta cell destruction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression and organ formation. They participate in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, but the nature of miRNAs contributing to beta cell death in T1D and their target genes remain to be clarified.We performed a miRNA expression profile on human islet preparations exposed to the cytokines IL-1β+IFN-γ. Confirmation of miRNAs and target genes modification in human beta cells was performed by real-time qPCR...
October 13, 2016: Diabetes
Dongmei Xi, Jizhen Shang, Enguo Fan, Jin-Mao You, Shusheng Zhang, Hua Wang
The accurate discrimination of microRNAs (miRNAs) with highly similar sequences would greatly facilitate the screening and early diagnosis of diseases. In the present work, a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified probe was designed and used for α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore to selectively and specifically identify miRNAs. The hybridization of the LNA probe with the target miRNAs generated unique long-lived signals in the nanopore thus facilitated an accurate discrimination of miRNAs with similar sequences, even a single-nucleotide difference...
October 13, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Keli Su, Tingcui Zhang, Yongrui Wang, Guijun Hao
BACKGROUND: Recently, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be stably detectable in plasma/serum and to function as potent biomarkers in various cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of plasma miRNA-195 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigate its diagnostic and prognostic value. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to evaluate plasma miRNA-195 levels in 100 NSCLC patients and 100 healthy volunteers...
August 24, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Heedoo Lee, Duo Zhang, Ziwen Zhu, Charles S Dela Cruz, Yang Jin
Intercellular communications between lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages play an essential role in host defense against acute lung injury. Hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress is an established model to mimic human lung injury. We show that after hyperoxia-associated oxidative stress, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and culture medium of lung epithelial cells. Microvesicles (MVs), but not exosomes (Exos) or apoptotic bodies (Abs), are the main type of EVs found in the early stages after hyperoxia...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Peng Chen, Huasi Zhao, Jingjing Huang, Xizhong Yan, Yunfei Zhang, Yongshun Gao
MicroRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) has previously been reported to play an important role in tumor development and progression. However, it functions differently regarding different kinds of malignant tumor, and its role and mechanism in gastric cancer (GC) still lacks investigation. In this study, we detected the relationship between miR-17-5p and the development of GC by qRT-PCR, and it turned out that the level of miR-17-5p was significantly higher in GC patients than that in normal controls, and the aberrant expression of miR-17-5p was correlated with lymph node metastasis...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Wenwen Tu, Huijuan Cao, Long Zhang, Jianchun Bao, Xuhui Liu, Zhihui Dai
Using Au nanoparticles (NPs) decorated water-soluble ZnSe-COOH nanoflakes (NFs), an ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensing strategy based on the dual signal amplification was proposed. As a result of the localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au NPs, the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum of Au NPs overlapped with emission spectra of ZnSe-COOH NFs, which generated efficient resonant energy transfer (RET) between ZnSe-COOH NFs and Au NPs. The RET improved photoelectric conversion efficiency of ZnSe-COOH NFs and significantly amplified PEC signal...
October 10, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ilaria Bononi, Manola Comar, Andrea Puozzo, Mariarita Stendardo, Piera Boschetto, Sara Orecchia, Roberta Libener, Roberto Guaschino, Silvia Pietrobon, Manuela Ferracin, Massimo Negrini, Fernanda Martini, Massimo Bovenzi, Mauro Tognon
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a fatal cancer, is an occupational disease mostly affecting workers ex-exposed to asbestos fibers. The asbestos, a cancerogenic mineral of different chemical composition, was widely employed in western Countries in industrial manufactures of different types. MPM may arise after a long latency period, up to five decades. MPM is resistant to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Altogether, these data indicate that the identification of new and specific markers are of a paramount importance for an early diagnosis and treatment of MPM...
October 3, 2016: Oncotarget
Alberto Izzotti, Roumen Balansky, Gancho Ganchev, Marietta Iltcheva, Mariagrazia Longobardi, Alessandra Pulliero, Marta Geretto, Rosanna T Micale, Sebastiano La Maestra, Mark Steven Miller, Vernon E Steele, Silvio De Flora
Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to dysregulate microRNA expression profiles in the lungs of mice, rats, and humans, thereby modulating several pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis and other CS-related diseases. We designed a study aimed at evaluating (a) the expression of 1135 microRNAs in the lung of Swiss H mice exposed to mainstream CS during the first 4 months of life and thereafter kept in filtered air for an additional 3.5 months, (b) the relationship between lung microRNA profiles and histopathological alterations in the lung, (c) intergender differences in microRNA expression, and (d) the comparison with microRNA profiles in blood serum...
October 5, 2016: Oncotarget
Deyao Wu, Xiaobing Niu, Huixing Pan, Yunfeng Zhou, Zichun Zhang, Ping Qu, Jian Zhou
MicroRNA (miR)-429 has been frequently reported to be downregulated in various tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, gastric cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and endometrial endometrioid carcinoma. The present study investigated the effects of miR-429 on human RCC A498 and 786-O cells. Following transfection of cells with miR-429 mimics and scrambled control, MTT, cell migration, cell invasion and luciferase assays were performed. In addition, western blotting was performed in order to assess the expression of specificity protein 1 (Sp1), which was predicted to be a target of miR-429 by TargetScan...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Elena Piegari, Rosa Russo, Donato Cappetta, Grazia Esposito, Konrad Urbanek, Carmela Dell'Aversana, Lucia Altucci, Liberato Berrino, Francesco Rossi, Antonella De Angelis
New strategies to prevent and early detect the cardiotoxic effects of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOXO) are required. MicroRNAs emerged as potential diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approaches in cardiovascular diseases. MiR-34a has a role in cardiac dysfunction and ageing and is involved in several cellular processes associated with DOXO cardiotoxicity. Our in vitro and in vivo results indicated that after DOXO exposure the levels of miR-34a are enhanced in cardiac cells, including Cardiac Progenitor Cells (CPCs)...
September 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Yuqiang Sun, Xiaofeng Wang, Zeyang Wang, Yuanyang Zhang, Ningwei Che, Xiadong Luo, Zeshi Tan, Xu Sun, Xinyu Li, Kang Yang, Guanyu Wang, Lan Luan, Yaoling Liu, Xiao Zheng, Minghai Wei, Huakun Cheng, Jian Yin
OBJECTIVE: Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed in specific diseases, suggesting possible use as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression levels of miR-129-2-3p and miR-935 in cortical brain tissue and plasma samples from controls and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients to evaluate the utility of these measures as diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: The study was divided into three phases...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Javier Martinez-Useros, Jesus Garcia-Foncillas
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal types of tumour, and its incidence is rising worldwide. Although survival can be improved when these tumours are detected at an early stage, this cancer is usually asymptomatic, and the disease only becomes apparent after metastasis. The only prognostic biomarker approved by the FDA to date is carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9); however, the specificity of this biomarker has been called into question, and diagnosis is usually based on clinical parameters...
2016: BioMed Research International
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