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India infections

M Y Ganaie, S Qureshi, Z Kashoo, S A Wani, M I Hussain, R Kumar, R Maqbool, P Sikander, M S Banday, W A Malla, P Mondal, R I N Khan
Bovine mastitis causes severe economic losses to dairy farmers. Staphylococcus aureus, is one of the most important pathogen implicated in etiology of clinical and subclinical mastitis in bovines. In view of increasing antimicrobial resistance alternatives to antibiotic therapy are much needed. The present decade has witnessed a renewed interest in phage based therapeutics and diagnostics. The present study, describes isolation and characterization of two lytic phages SAJK-IND and MSP against Staphylococcus aureus having a potential to be used in therapy against mastitis...
September 15, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Ramya Uppuluri, Dhaarani Jayaraman, Meena Sivasankaran, Shivani Patel, Venkateswaran Vellaichamy Swaminathan, Lakshman Vaidhyanathan, Sathishkumar Kandath, Revathi Raj
OBJECTIVE: To share experience of over 15 years in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with primary immunodeficiency disorders. DESIGN: Medical record review. SETTING: A referral center for pediatric hemato-oncological disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Children (<18 y) diagnosed to have primary immune deficiencies who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2002 and August 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disease-free survival, morbidity and mortality...
August 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Shunsuke Takadama, Yuka Yamagishi, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Takkan Morishima, Masataka Deie, Hiroshige Mikamo, Norihisa Noguchi
Acute septic arthritis (ASA) caused by Staphylococcus aureus can lead to fulminant arthritis and cause permanent joint destruction. In particular, infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) becomes intractable and severe owing to limitation of therapeutic drugs. Here, we report the case of a young patient with ASA without any record of overseas travel, who was infected by the Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Bengal-Bay clone, which is a predominant community-acquired MRSA in India...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Manoj Murhekar, Ashish Bavdekar, Asha Benakappa, Sridhar Santhanam, Kuldeep Singh, Sanjay Verma, Gajanan N Sapkal, Nivedita Gupta, Valsan Philip Verghese, Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Asha Mary Abraham, Shyama Choudhary, Gururajrao N Deshpande, Suji George, Garima Goyal, Parul Chawla Gupta, Ishani Jhamb, Deepa John, Swetha Philip, Sandeep Kadam, Ravinder Kaur Sachdeva, Praveen Kumar, Anjali Lepcha, S Mahantesh, S Manasa, Urvashi Nehra, Sanjay Kumar Munjal, Vijaya Lakshmi Nag, Sadanand Naik, Naga Raj, Jagat Ram, R K Ratho, C G Raut, Manoj Kumar Rohit, R Sabarinathan, Sanjay Shah, Pratibha Singh, Mini P Singh, Ashish Tiwari, Neelam Vaid
Rubella infection during pregnancy can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or a constellation of congenital malformations known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The 11 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are committed to the elimination of measles and control of rubella and CRS by 2020. Until 2016, when the Government of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated surveillance for CRS in five sentinel sites, India did not conduct systematic surveillance for CRS...
September 14, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Beatrijs B N Hoorweg, Arjan R Jansz, Roland H H van Balkom
BACKGROUND: On returning from a period in a country where tuberculosis is endemic, e.g. a medical internship abroad, screening for tuberculosis takes place. The tuberculin skin test (Mantoux test) and the interferon-γ release assay test are available for this purpose. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a 23-year-old female medical intern who was treated preventively with a tuberculostatic drug due to a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) following an internship in India...
August 30, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Virginia Diaz, Edgardo Abalos, Guillermo Carroli
BACKGROUND: Almost 358,000 women die each year in childbirth, mainly in low-income countries. More than half of all maternal deaths occur within 24 hours of giving birth; severe bleeding in the postpartum period is the single most important cause. Depending on the rate of blood loss and other factors, such as pre-existing anaemia, untreated postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) can lead to hypovolaemic shock, multi-organ dysfunction, and maternal death, within two to six hours.This review investigated different methods for estimating blood loss...
September 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shuvra Neel Baul, Rajib De, Prakas Kumar Mandal, Swagnik Roy, Tuphan Kanti Dolai, Prantar Chakrabarti
Background: Burkholderia cepacia , an aerobic gram-negative bacillus, is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital ward. It poses little risk of infection to healthy people; however it is a known important opportunistic pathogen causing morbidity and mortality due to its intrinsic resistance to most of the antibiotics in hospitalized patients. Small hospital outbreaks are frequent. B. cepacia may occur as an opportunistic infection in hemato-oncology patients. Here we present an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia infection in hematology ward of our institute...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Minu Bharati, Dhiraj Saha
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes belonging to genus Aedes are the prime vectors of several arboviral diseases such as Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya worldwide. Every year numerous cases of dengue infections occur throughout the world, proper control of which depends on efficient vector control. However the onset of insecticide resistance has resulted in failure of vector control approaches. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was carried out to unveil the degree of prevailing insecticide resistance along with its underlying mechanisms among the primary dengue vector in dengue endemic districts of West Bengal, India through standard WHO protocol...
2018: PloS One
Jacquelyn Horsington, Charles Nfon, Jose L Gonzales, Nagendrakumar Singanallur, Hilary Bittner, Wilna Vosloo
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1 is prevalent in countries considered high risk for incursion into Australia, and has recently been responsible for a number of outbreaks in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Turkey. In vitro vaccine matching has shown a number of contemporary FMDV Asia-1 strains vary antigenically to the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine strain, which could result in poor protection with use of this vaccine. Therefore it was important to test the ability of the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine to protect sheep from challenge with a recent, heterologous strain at different days post-vaccination (dpv), including in an emergency vaccination scenario (challenge 4 or 7 dpv)...
October 1, 2018: Vaccine
Tanuja Saswat, Nalinee Sahoo, Sagarika Muduli, Nagen Kumar Debata, Subhasis Chattopadhyay, Soma Chattopadhyay
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is spatio-temporally related to Dengue virus (DENV) infection and mostly undiagnosed due to similar primary symptoms. In 2013, a high rate (36%) of co-infection of DENV and CHIKV was reported in Odisha. Hence, the hospital based study was continued to synthesis current epidemiological understanding of their single distribution or co-infection. Suspected DENV patients serum samples were tested for DENV and CHIKV by serology and RT-PCR. The positive samples were used for analysis of mutation, selection pressure and phylogenetic relationship...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
D Chowdhury, P S Saravanamurthy, A Chakrabartty, S Purohit, S S Iyer, A Agarwal, K M Gopal, P Mishra
OBJECTIVES: To explore the vulnerabilities and risks of HIV infection among female migrants compared with male migrants in the Thane district of Maharashtra, India. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. METHODS: Data from 35,841 migrants (men 96.2% and women 3.8%) were collected using the web-based 'Migrant Service Delivery System.' The data were then analysed in SPSS, version 23.0. Statistical analysis, including Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression, was used to identify factors influencing HIV infection for both male and female migrants...
September 3, 2018: Public Health
Suryanarayana Bettadpura Shamanna, Kiran Kumar Matta, Abdoul Hamide
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on changing trends in HIV positive patients treated with first-line antiretroviral therapy from India. METHODS: The clinical characteristics and short-term outcome were compared between a retrospective group enrolled between January 2006 and March 2007 (06-07 group-100 patients) and a prospective group enrolled between February 2011 and March 2012 (10-12 group-85 patients). RESULTS: Median age was 36 and 38 years in 06-07 and 10-12 groups, respectively...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Vikas Agarwal, Vinita Agrawal, Amita Aggarwal, Parshant Aggarwal, Abhra C Chowdhury, Parasar Ghosh, Avinash Jain, Able Lawrence, Durga P Misra, Ramnath Misra, Madhusmita M Mohapatra, Alok Nath, Vir S Negi, Sapan Pandya, Vishnu V Reddy, Shiva Prasad, Aman Sharma, Vineeta Shobha, Yogesh P Singh, Saumya R Tripathy, Anupam Wakhlu
INTRODUCTION: Ten to 15% of patients with sarcoidosis have associated arthritis. Chronic arthritis is fairly uncommon. There is a paucity of data on articular manifestations of the disease from India. METHODS: Case records of adult patients with sarcoidosis presenting to 11 rheumatology centers from 2005 to 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Joint involvement was assessed clinically, classified as acute or chronic depending on duration of symptoms less or greater than 6 months, respectively...
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Balaji Govindan, Karunakaran Maduravasagam
Context: Even though condom offers more than 90% protection against human immunodeficiency viral infections (human immunodeficiency virus) and few sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the overall use of condom in India is low. Many studies revealed that the significant barriers for not using condom were lack of privacy in stores, cultural differences, etc. Aims: We intended to find out the reasons for not using condoms in patients attending the STI clinic, by using questionnaire, and had applied machine learning tool to predict those reasons for not using condoms, from the data collected...
January 2018: Indian journal of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS
Swastika Suvirya, Mukesh Shukla, Sucheta Pathania, A K Singhal, Jyotsana Agarwal
Context: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are one of the most catastrophic events of health causing huge psychosocial and economic morbidity consequences. Aim: The study aims to study the clinico-epidemiological profile and high-risk sexual behavior among clients attending STI clinic at tertiary care hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at STI clinic, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh...
January 2018: Indian journal of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS
Manoj V Murhekar, M Ashok, K Kanagasabai, Vasna Joshua, M Ravi, R Sabarinathan, B K Kirubakaran, R Ramachandran, Vishal Shete, Nivedita Gupta, Sanjay M Mehendale
Hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses (HAV and HEV) are the most common etiologies of viral hepatitis in India. To better understand the epidemiology of these infections, laboratory surveillance data generated during 2014-2017, by a network of 51 virology laboratories, were analyzed. Among 24,000 patients tested for both HAV and HEV, 3,017 (12.6%) tested positive for HAV, 3,865 (16.1%) for HEV, and 320 (1.3%) for both HAV and HEV. Most (74.6%) HAV patients were aged ≤ 19 years, whereas 76.9% of HEV patients were aged ≥ 20 years...
September 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Aishwarya Govindaswamy, Vijeta Bajpai, Vivek Trikha, Samarth Mittal, Rajesh Malhotra, Purva Mathur
Elizabethkingia meningoseptica ( E. meningoseptica ) is a non-fermenting gram negative organism that is commonly detected in the soil and water but is rarely reported to cause human infection. However it is emerging as a nosocomial pathogen in patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs). Infections caused by this organism have a high mortality rate due to lack of effective therapeutic regimens and its intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics. We report our experience in managing Elizabethkingia meningoseptica ( E...
August 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Kavitha Saravu, Chaitanya Tellapragada, Shrivathsa Kulavalli, Wilbin Xavier, Shashikiran Umakanth, Gouthami Brahmarouphu, Navyasree Kola Srinivas, Jagadish Puralae Channabasavaiah, Anzil Bava, Abdul Vahab Saadi, Vasudev Guddattu, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Krishnamurthy Bhat
BACKGROUND: Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria requires treatment with a blood schizonticide and a hypnozoitocide (primaquine) to eradicate the dormant liver stages. There has been uncertainty about the operational effectiveness and optimum dosing of the currently recommended 14-day primaquine (PQ) course. METHODS: A two centre, randomized, open-label, two arm study was conducted in South India. Patients were randomized to receive either high dose (0.5 mg base/kg body weight) or conventional dose (0...
September 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Amit Goel, Nicole Seguy, Rakesh Aggarwal
INTRODUCTION: Burden of hepatitis C in India is not known. We therefore conducted a systematic review of the available data on anti-HCV seroprevalence in the Indian population. METHODS: We searched several publication databases for English language papers that reported data on anti-HCV seroprevalence from India, and also identified other unpublished sources of such data. Data on groups likely to represent seroprevalence in general population and in selected high-risk groups were extracted and subjected to meta-analysis...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Michelangelo Auteri, Francesco La Russa, Valeria Blanda, Alessandra Torina
Insecticide resistance is an increasing problem worldwide that limits the efficacy of control methods against several pests of health interest. Among them, Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are efficient vectors of relevant pathogens causing animal and human diseases worldwide, including yellow fever, chikungunya, dengue, and Zika. Different mechanisms are associated in conferring resistance to chemical insecticides. One of the most widespread and analysed mechanisms is the knockdown resistance ( kdr ) causing resistance to DDT and pyrethroids...
2018: BioMed Research International
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