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India infections

Nisar Ahmed, Adeel Riaz, Zahra Zubair, Muhammad Saqib, Sehrish Ijaz, Muhammad Shah Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Ahmed Al-Qahtani, Muhammad Mubin
BACKGROUND: The infection in dogs due to canine parvovirus (CPV), is a highly contagious one with high mortality rate. The present study was undertaken for a detailed genetic analysis of partial VP2 gene i.e., 630 bp isolated from rectal swab samples of infected domestic and stray dogs from all areas of district Faisalabad. Monitoring of viruses is important, as continuous prevalence of viral infection might be associated with emergence of new virulent strains. METHODS: In the present study, 40 rectal swab samples were collected from diarrheic dogs from different areas of district Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2014-15 and screened for the presence of CPV by immunochromatography...
March 15, 2018: Virology Journal
Manisha R Sajnani, D Sudarsanam, Ramesh J Pandit, Tejas Oza, Ankit T Hinsu, Subhash J Jakhesara, Siddhardha Solosanc, Chaitanya G Joshi, Vaibhav D Bhatt
The incidence and severity of respiratory diseases in commercial broiler chicken flocks have increased recently in India because of intensification of the broiler industry. Viral population are predominant in respiratory tract infections and they pose continuous economic burden to poultry industry by causing severe economic losses through decreased productivity [1], [2]. To understand viral metagenome of poultry associated with respiratory infections, we performed DNA virome sequencing and data analysis of broilers from 8 districts of Gujarat State in India...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Luisa Z Moreno, Fabiana Miraglia, Ana P Loureiro, Frederico S Kremer, Marcus R Eslabao, Odir A Dellagostin, Walter Lilenbaum, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Andrea M Moreno
Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation...
March 12, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Vijayan Jasna, Angia Sriram Pradeep Ram, Ammini Parvathi, Telesphore Sime-Ngando
Our understanding on the importance of viral lysis in the functioning of tropical estuarine ecosystem is limited. This study examines viral infection of prokaryotes and subsequent lysis of cells belonging to different morphotypes across a salinity gradient in monsoon driven estuarine ecosystem (Cochin estuary, India). High standing stock of viruses and prokaryotes accompanied by lytic infection rates in the euryhaline/mesohaline region of the estuary suggests salinity to have an influential role in driving interactions between prokaryotes and viruses...
2018: PloS One
Anshu Babbar, Andreas Itzek, Dietmar H Pieper, D Patric Nitsche-Schmitz
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE), belonging to the group C and G streptococci, are human pathogens reported to cause clinical manifestations similar to infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. To scrutinize the distribution of gene coding for S. pyogenes virulence factors in SDSE, 255 isolates were collected from humans infected with SDSE in Vellore, a region in southern India, with high incidence of SDSE infections. Initial evaluation indicated SDSE isolates comprising of 82.35% group G and 17...
March 12, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Richa Aggarwal, Neha Rastogi, Purva Mathur, Kapil Dev Soni, Subodh Kumar, Amit Gupta, Sushma Sagar
Introduction: There have been isolated case reports and reports of outbreak of colistin-resistant Klebsiella from various parts of the world but only two from India and that too from oncology centers. We report cluster of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia bloodstream infection cases from our surgical trauma Intensive Care Unit. Methodology: The study was carried out in surgical ICU of Level-I trauma center. Retrospective analysis of all the five patients with CRK was done...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Shamanth A Shankarnarayan, Sunil Dogra, Dipika Shaw, Khurram Mushtaq, Raees A Paul, Tarun Narang, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Dermatophytosis, the commonest superficial fungal infection, has gained recent attention due to its change of epidemiology and treatment failures. Despite availability of several effective antifungal agents against dermatophytes, the incidence of chronic infection, re-infection and treatment failures are on the rise. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale are the two frequent clinical isolates in India. Consecutive patients (n=195) with suspected dermatophytosis during second half of 2014 were included in this study...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Manoj Kumar, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan, Harshad V Murugkar, Barnalee Saikia, Bharati Singh, Amit Mishra, Sushil K Tripathi, Sonam Agarwal, Shweta Shukla, Diwakar D Kulkarni, Vijendra Pal Singh, Chakradhar Tosh
H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIV), established in terrestrial poultry, have jumped species barriers and caused human infection indicating pandemic potential of the virus. Here, we report isolation, and antigenic and genetic characterization of two H6N2 viruses isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Kerala and Assam, India during 2014 and 2015, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition assay revealed antigenic divergence between the two isolates. This result was corroborated by amino acid differences at 55 positions (15...
March 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
M Joseph John, Amrith Mathew, Sunil Bhat, Anushree Prabhakaran, Biju George, Jacob John
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are more susceptible to infections from vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) than the general population. Indian stem cell transplant registry (ISCTR) post-BMT vaccination guidelines were formulated in 2015. The objective of the survey was to assess the compliance to these guidelines among transplant physicians in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey executed as the quantitative research strategy to explore the various aspects of vaccination practices among transplant physicians in India...
March 9, 2018: Vaccine
Jahnavi Aluri, Maya Gupta, Aparna Dalvi, Snehal Mhatre, Manasi Kulkarni, Gouri Hule, Mukesh Desai, Nitin Shah, Prasad Taur, Ramprasad Vedam, Manisha Madkaikar
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive form of primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) characterized by the deficiency of MHC class II molecules. This deficiency affects the cellular and humoral immune response by impairing the development of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells and Th cell-dependent antibody production by B cells. Affected children typically present with severe respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy available for treating these patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nitika Pradhan, Prakash Pradhan, Sanghamitra Pati, Rupenangshu K Hazra
A retrospective analysis of malaria incidence, patterns and trends in Bargarh, a western district of Odisha, India, over five consecutive years (2012 to 2016) among various socio-demographic components was established from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Bargarh, as well as from district survey reports. The increasing trend in malariometric indices such as the Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER), the Annual Parasite index (API) as well as the Total Positive Rate (TPR) reveals a better surveillance activity but an alarming situation for malaria...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Tilman E Klassert, Surabhi Goyal, Magdalena Stock, Dominik Driesch, Abid Hussain, Luis Carlos Berrocal-Almanza, Rajashekar Myakala, Gaddam Sumanlatha, Vijayalakshmi Valluri, Niyaz Ahmed, Ralf R Schumann, Carlos Flores, Hortense Slevogt
Tuberculosis (TB) is a multifactorial disease governed by bacterial, host and environmental factors. On the host side, growing evidence shows the crucial role that genetic variants play in the susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Such polymorphisms have been described in genes encoding for different cytokines and pattern recognition receptors (PRR), including numerous Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In recent years, several members of the C-type lectin receptors (CTLRs) have been identified as key PRRs in TB pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Gopala, Ekta Khasa, Ashutosh Rao, Madhupriya, G P Rao
Nine vegetable plants species exhibiting phytoplasma suspected symptoms of white/purple leaf, little leaf, flat stem, witches' broom, phyllody and leaf yellowing were observed in experimental fields at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from December 2015 to July 2016. Total DNA extracted from the three healthy and three symptomatic leaves of all the nine vegetables were subjected to PCR assays using phytoplasma specific primers P1/P7 followed by R16F2n/R16R2 and 3Far/3Rev to amplify the 16S rDNA fragments...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Cliodna A M McNulty, Donna M Lecky, Li Xu-McCrae, Deborah Nakiboneka-Ssenabulya, Keun-Taik Chung, Tom Nichols, Helen Lucy Thomas, Mike Thomas, Adela Alvarez-Buylla, Kim Turner, Sahida Shabir, Susan Manzoor, Stephen Smith, Linda Crocker, Peter M Hawkey
Background: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) are increasing in prevalence worldwide and are more difficult to treat than non-ESBLPE. Their prevalence in the UK general population is unknown, as the only previous UK ESBLPE faecal colonization study involved patients with diarrhoea. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of CTX-M ESBLPE faecal colonization in the general adult population of England in 2014, and investigate risk factors. Methods: A stratified random sample of 58 337 registered patients from 16 general practices within four areas of England were invited to participate by returning faeces specimens and self-completed questionnaires...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Akanksha Rawat, Preeti Diwaker, Priyanka Gogoi, Bharat Singh
Background & objectives: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) are the major problem associated with blood transfusion. Accurate estimates of risk of TTIs are essential for monitoring the safety of blood supply. The present study was undertaken to determine the percentage of voluntary donors (VDs) and replacement donors (RDs) and also, to estimate and compare the seroprevalence and changing trends of TTIs amongst VDs and RDs in a regional blood transfusion centre in north India...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Surya Bali, Venkatashiva B Reddy
The National Health Mission tracks the proportion of women delivered by skilled birth attendants (SBAs). We assessed SBAs competence in Madhya Pradesh, India, using structured evaluation tools. It is a cross-sectional study conducted from 2014 to 2015. We evaluated 335 trained SBAs using multistage stratified random sampling. Of total, 335 skilled births attendant selected 41.8% were auxiliary nurse midwife, 47.8% were staff nurse, and 10.4% were lady health visitors. Grouping all provider and knowledge test versions, SBAs were correct on 75...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Ashlesha Kaushik, Sanjay Verma, Praveen Kumar
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is one of the most devastating congenital infections and yet the only one which is vaccine preventable and is a public health challenge for clinicians and policymakers across the developing world including India. The clinical manifestations of CRS include growth retardation, cardiac defects, cataracts, and hearing impairment. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that worldwide over 100,000 babies are born with CRS every year despite the availability of safe and inexpensive vaccines, thus highlighting the need for broader vaccination coverage programs...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Soumya Swaminathan, Sanjay Sarin, Virender Singh Salhotra, Aakshi Kalra, Ashwani Khanna, K K Chopra, M Hanif, K R Umadevi, Syed Hissar, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, C H Surya Prakash, B K Saha, Raghuram Rao, Claudia Denkinger, Catharina Boehme
BACKGROUND: Unlike in adults, diagnosis of TB can be challenging in children, as signs and symptoms of paediatric TB can be very non-specific and similar to other common childhood chest infections, which may lead to under or delayed diagnosis of TB disease. In spite of the increasing availability of rapid high-sensitivity diagnostics in public and private sectors, majority of paediatric TB cases are empirically diagnosed, without laboratory confirmation. To address these diagnostic challenges, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended upfront Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing for the diagnosis of TB in paediatric presumptive pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases...
2018: PloS One
Dustin Anderson, Nabeela Nathoo, Jian-Qiang Lu, Kinga T Kowalewska-Grochowska, Christopher Power
Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic infection that causes intestinal and muscular illnesses in humans. Sarcocystosis was until recently considered rare in humans. To complete their life cycle, Sarcocystis species require both a definitive and an intermediate host. Humans are the definitive host when infected by one of two species: Sarcocystis hominis (from eating undercooked beef) or Sarcocystis suihominis (from eating uncooked pork). Infection with either of these species results in intestinal sarcocystosis, causing a self-limited disease characterized by nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Narendran Gopalan, Ramesh Kumar Santhanakrishnan, Alangudi Natarajan Palaniappan, Pradeep Aravindan Menon, Sekar Lakshman, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Gomathi Narayan Sivaramakrishnan, Devarajulu Reddy, Bhavani Perumal Kannabiran, Hemanth Kumar Kupparam Agiboth, Vijay Krishnamoorthy, Sridhar Rathinam, Chandrasekar Chockalingam, Tamizhselvan Manoharan, MahilMaran Ayyamperumal, Nalini Jayanthi, Kumar Satagopan, Ravichandran Narayanan, Raja Krishnaraja, Sekar Sathiyavelu, Bhanu Kesavamurthy, Chandra Suresh, Murugesan Selvachitiram, Gunasundari Arasan, Stella Susaimuthu, Prabhakaran Rathinam, Prabhakar Angamuthu, Lavanya Jayabal, Lakshmi Murali, Ranjani Ramachandran, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan
Importance: The benefit of daily over thrice-weekly antituberculosis therapy among HIV-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy remains unproven. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens in the treatment of HIV-associated pulmonary TB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted by the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, south India...
March 5, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
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