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India infections

Sudip Kumar Dutta, Tamanash Bhattacharya, Anusri Tripathi
This is the first study reporting whole genome sequences of two CHIKV strains (KJ679577 and KJ679578) isolated from Eastern Indian patients sera during 2010-2011 outbreak, both of which were of ECSA genotype, but from different subgroups: Indian Ocean outbreak and ECSA subtypes. Furthermore, viral sequences were analyzed using different in-silico approaches to identify potential genetic variations that might have functional implications on various aspects of virus replication, viral protein functionality, immunogenicity and transmission...
July 2018: 3 Biotech
Matthew J Mimiaga, Beena Thomas, Kenneth H Mayer, Kristen S Regenauer, Alpana Dange, C Andres Bedoya, Shruta Rawat, Vinoth Balu, Conall O'Cleirigh, Katie B Biello, Vivek Anand, Soumya Swaminathan, Steven A Safren
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a key group at risk for HIV acquisition and transmission. They are also an extremely marginalized and stigmatized population, facing immense psychosocial stressors including, but not limited to, stigma, homophobia, discrimination, criminalization, low self-esteem, low self-acceptance, distress, and, as a result, high rates of mental health problems. Although these multi-level psychosocial problems may put MSM at high risk for HIV acquisition and transmission, currently HIV prevention interventions in India do not address them...
July 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Scott M Baliban, Jessica C Allen, Brittany Curtis, Mohammed N Amin, Andrew Lees, R Nageswara Rao, Gangadhara Naidu, Ramasamy Venkatesan, D Yogeswara Rao, Vadrevu Krishna Mohan, Krishna M Ella, Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon
Typhoid fever due to Salmonella Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections caused by serovars Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (STm) are major pediatric health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Typhoid has high complication rates, and iNTS infections have high case fatality rates; moreover, emerging antimicrobial resistance is diminishing treatment options. Vi capsule-based typhoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV™), licensed in India and pre-qualified by the World Health Organization, elicits durable immunity when administered to infants, but no iNTS vaccines are licensed or imminent...
July 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Candasamy Sadanandane, Purushothaman Jambulingam, Kummankottil P Paily, Narendran Pradeep Kumar, Ayanar Elango, Kulandaisamy Athisaya Mary, Sundararajan Agatheswaran, Thirumal Sankari, Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra
Outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high fatality and disability, are reported every year in the Gorakhpur region of Uttar Pradesh, India, with the etiology of >60% of the cases being attributed to scrub typhus. In the present study, the prevalence of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiological agent of scrub typhus, was investigated among animal hosts and their ectoparasitic trombiculid mites prevalent in AES-reported areas of Gorakhpur. A total of 154 rodents/shrews were collected using 777 Sherman traps set in 12 study villages, and the overall trap rate was 19...
July 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Hari Kishan Raju, Shanmugavelu Sabesan, Swaminathan Subramanian, Purushothaman Jambulingam
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the leading causes of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia, particularly India. The major vector transmitting the disease, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, breeds in paddy field and its associated water bodies. The incidence of human infection usually occurs after the peak in vector abundance. Earlier, an association between JE vector abundance and paddy growth was demonstrated in Bellary district of Karnataka state, India, using radar satellite (RISAT 1) data. In this study, an attempt has been made to validate this phenomenon with the data collected from Uttar Pradesh state, using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data...
July 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Komal Raj Rijal, Bipin Adhikari, Prakash Ghimire, Megha Raj Banjara, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Mallika Imwong, Kesinee Chotivanich, Kedar Prasad Ceintury, Bibek Kumar Lal, Garib Das Thakur, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee
Malaria is endemic in the southern plain of Nepal which shares a porous border with India. More than 80% cases of malaria in Nepal are caused by Plasmodium vivax . The main objective of this study was to review the epidemiology of P. vivax malaria infections as recorded by the national malaria control program of Nepal between 1963 and 2016. National malaria data were retrieved from the National Malaria program in the Ministry of Health, Government of Nepal. The epidemiological trends and malariometric indicators were analyzed...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Amritpal Kaur, Rajan Bhagat, Navjot Kaur, Nusrat Shafiq, Vikas Gautam, Samir Malhotra, Vikas Suri, Ashish Bhalla
Background: Tremendous infectious disease burden and rapid emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens continues to burden our healthcare system. Antibiotic stewardship program often implements antibiotic policies that help in preventing unnecessary use of antibiotics and in optimizing management. To develop such a policy for management of infections in the emergency unit, it is important to analyze the information regarding antibiotic prescription patterns in patients presenting to the emergency room referred from various healthcare settings...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
Parasuraman Ganeshkumar, Manoj V Murhekar, Veeraraghavadoss Poornima, Velusamy Saravanakumar, Krishnendu Sukumaran, Anandan Anandaselvasankar, Denny John, Sanjay M Mehendale
INTRODUCTION: Dengue is the most extensively spread mosquito-borne disease; endemic in more than 100 countries. Information about dengue disease burden, its prevalence, incidence and geographic distribution is critical in planning appropriate control measures against dengue fever. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of dengue fever in India. METHODS: We searched for studies published until 2017 reporting the incidence, the prevalence or case fatality of dengue in India...
July 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Farah Saeed, Muhammad Naeem Sattar, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Muhammad Hamza, Shahid Mansoor, Imran Amin
Cotton crop has been severely affected by multiple begomoviruses in Pakistan and India. In our previous study, we found okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCuV), cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMuA) infecting cotton in Pakistan. The current study was designed to investigate the infectivity of OELCuV and its ability to trans-replicate non-cognate CLCuMuB. Agro-infectious clones containing the partial tandem repeats of OELCuV and CLCuMuB were constructed and the infectivity assays were carried out through Agrobacterium mediated transformation in the model host species Nicotiana benthamiana under controlled conditions...
July 13, 2018: Virus Research
K K Gupta, A Singh, A K Singh, S K Singh, M Tripathi, R K Gupta, K N Prasad
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. Swine cysticercosis results in economic losses for pig farmers in disease endemic areas. Consumption of cysticercotic pork leads to taeniasis in humans. Eggs excreted in the faeces of T. solium carriers disseminate to humans and pigs through the faecal-oral route, thus maintaining the life cycle in endemic areas. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay was developed using whole crude T. solium cysticercus antigens (WCA) for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Sujogya Kumar Panda, Raju Das, Pieter Leyssen, Johan Neyts, Walter Luyten
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Knowledge on the use of plants for different ailments by the tribals of the Chirang Reserve Forest (CRF, Northeast India) was used to assess the potential of these plants for treating viral, bacterial and fungal infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fieldwork in the CRF documented the use of plants for the treatment of various human ailments. The ethnobotanical data were analyzed using different quantitative indices viz. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Relative Frequency Citation (RFC), Fidelity Level (FL), Relative Popularity Level (RPL) and Rank Order Priority (ROP)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mailan Natarajan, Deepika Kumar, Jharna Mandal, Niranjan Biswal, Selvaraj Stephen
BACKGROUND: Emergence of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and hybrid E. coli (harboring genes of more than one DEC pathotypes) strains have complicated the issue of growing antibiotic resistance in diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). This ongoing evolution occurs in nature predominantly via horizontal gene transfers involving the mobile genetic elements like integrons notably class 1 integron. This study was undertaken to determine the virulence pattern and antibiotic resistance among the circulating DEC strains in a tertiary care center in south of India...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Rahul Kaul, Paras Angrish, Parul Jain, Subrata Saha, Ashok V Sengupta, Shantanu Mukherjee
Introduction: Dental infections are multimicrobial in origin with their etiological factors involving a combination of Gram-positive, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobes, and obligate anaerobic bacteria. Thus, antibiotics and analgesics account for a great majority of medicines prescribed by the dental surgeons. Inappropriate prescription of antibiotics by health care professionals has become a worldwide issue nowadays. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to:• Determine the pattern of antibiotic prescription among dentists of Kolkata...
March 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Mahesh Eswarappa, Sarita Suryadevara, Manns Manohar John, Mahesh Kumar, Sujeeth Bande Reddy, Mohammed Suhail
Introduction: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare, life-threatening necrotizing infection of the kidney. The mortality rate for EPN is as high as 25%. We conducted a retrospective study at MS Ramaiah Hospital between January 2011 and May 2016 to observe the clinical, biochemical, and microbiological patterns of EPN at our institute. Methods: The clinical and laboratory data, imaging findings, and microbiological patterns of 51 patients chosen for the study were recorded...
July 2018: KI Reports
D B Zala, Vikram Khan, M Kakadiya, A A Sanghai, V K Das
The presence of chronological infection by the multi serotype of dengue virus (DENV) is a major contributing factor for the induction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). The results indicate that all serotype of dengue along with concurrent infection were reported from the third smallest Union Territory of India furthermore, rare serotype DENV 4, gradually spreads in new areas of India. Therefore, a need to understand the epidemiology of locally circulating serotype and accordingly the control strategy can be implemented...
August 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Abdul Rauf, Sunit Singhi, Karthi Nallasamy, Mandeep Walia, Pallab Ray
Acute febrile illnesses (AFIs) in children from the developing world can have varying etiologies. Awareness of local epidemiology helps in prioritizing investigations and empiric treatment. This prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care center in North India, aiming to determine the burden, etiology, and outcome of AFI other than pneumonia and diarrhea in hospitalized children. A total of 613 consecutive children aged 3 months to 12 years with febrile illness of < 7 days during four selected months of 2014 representing different seasons were screened for eligibility...
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anna T Valson, Riyaz A Asad, Radhika C Radhakrishnan, Shampa Sinha, Shibu Jacob, Santosh Varughese, Veerasamy Tamilarasi
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) penetration in India remains low despite the huge chronic kidney disease burden and unmet need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). In order to understand the socioeconomic reasons that govern patients' preference for hemodialysis (HD), we carried out an opinion survey among prevalent in-center HD patients at our institution using a multiple response questionnaire that was verbally administered to them at the dialysis facility by the investigators. Close to 80% were self-financed and 49...
July 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
M Hisamuddin, A Tazeen, M Abdullah, M Islamuddin, N Parveen, A Islam, M I Faizan, A Hamza, I H Naqvi, H N Verma, A Malik, A Ahmed, S Parveen
Co-circulation of Chikungunya and Dengue viral infections (CHIKV and DENV) have been reported mainly due to transmission by common Aedes vector. The purpose of the study was to identify and characterise the circulating strains of CHIKV and DENV in DENV endemic region of New Delhi during 2016. CHIKV and DENV were identified in the blood samples (n = 130) collected from suspected patients by RT-PCR. CHIKV was identified in 26 of 65 samples (40%). Similarly, DENV was detected in 48 of 120 samples (40%). Co-infection with both the viruses was identified in five (9%) of the samples...
July 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Sulekha Akhila, Vengotuparambil Suresh Sukanya, Anu Anto, Shyamala Karunakaran
The objective of the study was to evaluate the status of parasitic infections in captive snakes of Kerala. Faecal samples were collected from captive snakes of State Museums and Zoos of Thrissur and Thiruvananthapuram. Parasites were screened by direct smear, sedimentation, simple floatation and Shaether’s sugar floatation method. Fortynine snakes from 15 species were screened and 35 (71.4%) were found to be positive. While 80% of the snakes from Thrissur were found to be positive for parasitic infections, 70...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Ewan Hunter, Michael Cliff, Margaret Armstrong, Hadi Manji, Hans Rolf Jäger, Peter Chiodini, Mike Brown
Background: Neurocysticercosis is the commonest infectious cause of epilepsy in endemic countries, and accounts for a greater number of cases worldwide than any other single pathology. Infection is associated with long-term exposure in low-income countries, although acquisition after travel has been recognized. The standard of care in the UK is inpatient treatment with anti-helminthic drugs and steroids. Methods: The authors reviewed all cases of neurocysticercosis managed at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in London, England, between 2001 and 2015...
July 3, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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