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India infections

Shanthala Kumar, Palanisamy Sundararaj, Honnavalli N Kumara, Arijit Pal, K Santhosh, S Vinoth
Relocation is one of the mitigating measures taken by either local people or related officers to reduce the human-bonnet macaque Macaca radiata conflict in India. The review on relocations of primates in India indicates that monkeys are unscreened for diseases or gastrointestinal parasites (henceforth endoparasites) before relocation. We collected 161 spatial samples from 20 groups of bonnet macaque across their distribution range in south India and 205 temporal samples from a group in Chiksuli in the central Western Ghats...
2018: PloS One
Keerti Kaumudee Dixit, Sandeep Verma, Om Prakash Singh, Dharmendra Singh, Akhil Pratap Singh, Ratan Gupta, Narendra Singh Negi, Pradeep Das, Shyam Sundar, Ruchi Singh, Poonam Salotra
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has targeted elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) by 2020. Despite distinctive decline seen in the number of VL cases in ISC, there is still a quest for development of a diagnostic test which has the utility for detection of active infection and relapse cases and as a test of cure. The present study validated the sensitivity and specificity of SYBR Green I based closed tube LAMP assay reported by us for diagnosis of VL...
November 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Satinder Pal Singh, Balbir Bagicha Singh, Deepali G Kalambhe, Devendra Pathak, Rabinder Singh Aulakh, Navneet K Dhand
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercosis remains a neglected zoonotic disease in India. The current study was planned to estimate the prevalence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in the Punjab state of India, to compare this prevalence with the disease prevalence in pigs reared outside Punjab and to assess the distribution of the parasite in pig carcasses. METHODS: Two slaughter shops were selected in each of the 22 districts of Punjab. Pigs slaughtered on the day/s of inspection were post-mortem inspected to identify the presence of T...
November 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rangapura K Pradeep, Murikoli Nimisha, Vidya Pakideery, Joju Johns, George Chandy, Samitha Nair, Leena Chandrasekhar, Karapparambu G Ajithkumar, Chundiyil K Deepa, Anju Varghese, Reghu Ravindran
The canine and zoonotic dirofilarioses are arthropod-borne parasitic infections caused by nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria, infecting canines, felines and humans throughout the world. Dirofilaria repens was considered as the most common cause of human dirofilariosis in Kerala. In the present study, molecular characterization of Dirofilaria isolates causing dirofilariosis in humans, dogs and jackal from Kerala, South India was undertaken by performing sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene...
October 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Grace Galvin, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Maaz Shaikh, Pinki Maji, Megan Marx Delaney, Danielle E Tuller, Bridget A Neville, Rebecca Firestone, Atul A Gawande, Bhala Kodkany, Vishwajeet Kumar, Katherine E A Semrau
Objectives Vital to implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC), designed to improve delivery of 28 essential birth practices (EBPs), is the availability of safe birth supplies: 22 EBPs on the SCC require one or more supplies. Mapping availability of these supplies can determine the scope of shortages and need for supply chain strengthening. Methods A cross-sectional survey on the availability of functional and/or unexpired supplies was assessed in 284 public-sector facilities in 38 districts in Uttar Pradesh, India...
November 14, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Abha Pandey, Smita Chandra, Ruchira Nautiyal, Vikas Shrivastav
Introduction: Human papilloma virus (HPV) which is causative factor for cervical cancer may interact with p16 leading to malignant transformation of cervical epithelial cells. The present study was conducted to assess the immunoexpression of p16 INK4a in premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix and to correlate it with HPV 16 expression. It was also intended to study the various risk factors which may be associated with cervical cancer in this north Himalayan region of India. Material and Methods: The study included 50 cases of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions and 50 controls diagnosed on histopathology over a period of one year...
October 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Jutang Babat Ain Tiewsoh, Sumeeta Khurana, Abhishek Mewara, Rakesh Sehgal, Ankita Singh
Toxocariasis is a neglected soil-transmitted helminthic infection caused by either Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati where humans get infected by accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs, and the definitive hosts are dogs and cats. This study aims to analyse the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Toxocara-infected patients and assessment of response to standard treatment with review of literature. The clinical details of patients with Toxocara serology positive for IgG antibodies by ELISA in 5 years (2013-2017) were retrospectively analysed...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Muksedur Rahman, Ajanta Sharma, Saurav Patgiri, Ezaz Hussain, Amrit Kumar Borah, Lahari Saikia
Dengue has become endemic in India with outbreaks caused by all the four serotypes occurring almost every year. Dengue cases have been increasing alarmingly in Assam also. This study aimed to identify the dengue serotypes circulating in Assam. Clinically suspected dengue fever cases were included in the study. Viral RNA was extracted using QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). Nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was done for serotyping. The frequency of dengue was 25.23% with a peak during the period from September (22...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Tanu Singhal, Sweta Shah, Reshma Tejam, Pooja Thakkar
Purpose: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious healthcare-associated infection (HAI) now being increasingly reported from hospitals across India. However, there is a paucity of data on the incidence of and impact of control measures on CDI in India. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai from January 2016 to December 2017. All patients with healthcare-onset diarrhoea were tested for C. difficile by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)/toxin assay or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Bhupen Barman, Kaustubh Bora, Kryshanlang G Lynrah, W Valarie Lyngdoh, Mohammad Jamil
Background and Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease (CLD). Although Northeast India is believed to be a HCV hotspot, the proportion of HCV infection and the distribution of HCV genotypes in CLD cases from the region are not known. The objectives of the study were to determine the proportion of HCV infection in newly diagnosed CLD patients from Meghalaya, Northeast India, and further investigate the HCV genotype distribution in those patients...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Priya Madan Yabaji, Aruna Shankarkumar, Akash Shukla, Shobna Bhatia
Purpose: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCV being a ribonucleic acid virus has considerable sequence variability. Assessment of viral load and genotype is necessary for designing treatment strategies and monitoring for viral resistance among HCV-infected cases. HCC is the most common form of liver cancer, often occurring in people with chronic hepatitis B or C. We undertook this study to observe genotype distribution of the virus in HCV patients from Mumbai...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Agila Kumari Pragasam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Shalini Anandan, Vignesh Narasiman, Sujatha Sistla, Arti Kapil, Purva Mathur, Pallab Ray, Chand Wattal, Sanjay Bhattacharya, Vijayashri Deotale, K Subramani, J V Peter, T D Hariharan, I Ramya, S Iniyan, Kamini Walia, V C Ohri
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens that cause severe infections in humans. The burden of carbapenem resistance is particularly high and is on the rise. Very little information is available on the molecular mechanisms and its clonal types of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa seen in Indian hospitals. This study was undertaken to monitor the β-lactamase profile and to investigate the genetic relatedness of the carbapenemase-producing (CP) P...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Shalini Anandan, V Ramasubramanian, Subramanian Swaminathan, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Rajeev Soman, O C Abraham, Vinod C Ohri, Kamini Walia
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health concern across the globe, and it is increasing at an alarming rate. Multiple classes of antimicrobials have been used for the treatment of infectious diseases. Rise in the AMR limits its use and hence the prerequisite for the newer agents to combat drug resistance. Among the infections caused by Gram-negative organisms, beta-lactams are one of the most commonly used agents. However, the presence of diverse beta-lactamases hinders its use for therapy. To overcome these enzymes, beta-lactamase inhibitors are being discovered...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ekta Gupta, Pragya Agarwala
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health problem. HEV infection has been identified as a major cause of enterically transmitted acute sporadic hepatitis in India especially in adult age group. India is hyperendemic for HEV, with the disease presenting both as outbreaks and as cases of acute sporadic viral hepatitis. Most of these outbreaks can be traced to contamination of drinking water supplies with human fecal matter. The last decade has witnessed tremendous change in our understanding of the virus in its epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic approaches, treatment options and the need for vaccination...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Agila Kumari Pragasam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, E Nalini, Shalini Anandan, Keith S Kaye
Infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major health concern, especially hospital-acquired infections, in critically ill individuals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) increases the morbidity and mortality rates associated with pseudomonal infections. In this review, we aim to address two major aspects of P. aeruginosa. The first part of the review will focus on the burden of AMR and its prevailing mechanisms seen in India, while the second part will focus on the challenges and approaches in the management with special emphasis on the role of newer antimicrobial agents...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Parvaiz A Koul, Hyder Mir, Siddhartha Saha, Mandeep S Chadha, Varsha Potdar, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Renu B Lal, Anand Krishnan
Background & objectives: Respiratory tract infections are common among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims which pose a public health risk of spread of respiratory infections. Influenza has been reported from Indian Hajj and Umrah returning pilgrims, but data on other respiratory pathogens are sparse in India. Here we report the presence of common respiratory viral pathogens in returning Hajj and Umrah pilgrims suffering from acute respiratory illness (ARI) in 2014-2015. Methods: Respiratory specimens (nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) were collected from 300 consenting pilgrims with ARI in the past one week and tested for influenza and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and other respiratory viruses using in-house standardized quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Summaiya Baloch, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Imran Taj, Ghulam Muhammad, Abdul Aziz, Wajid Ali, Firdous Bugti, Nasir Ahmed Rind, Farooq Shehzad, Saeed Ahmed Essote
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan in children under 5 years of age and older adults. Therefore; the present research was design to study the different microbiological aspects of Streptococcus pneumoniae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 480 sputum samples were collected from pneumonia patient at different government hospitals of Quetta...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Archana Singal, Deepika Pandhi
Chikungunya (CHK) fever is a re-emerging RNA viral infection caused by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes which presents with a multitude of mucocutaneous manifestations, including a characteristic morbilliform rash, centrofacial pigmentation, aphthae-like lesions, and vesiculobullous lesions sparing mucosae. The majority of these lesions resolve spontaneously and do not require specific therapy. With regular and cyclical outbreaks in many countries for many decades, it is obligatory for dermatologists to be aware of the different skin lesions in the wake of early diagnosis and the need for conservative management...
October 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
Samantha Myers, Gurleen Khosa, I Fan Kuo, Donica Janzen, Silvia Alessi-Severini
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become the standard treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C infections because of their high cure rates and favourable side effect profiles; however, access to this new class of agents has been limited because of its high cost.  Public payers across Canada have implemented strict criteria for drug coverage in order to contain expenditures. Efforts have been made to improve access to medication for this high-burden condition. Recent coverage criteria across national and international jurisdictions have been compared...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sumanth Gandra, Katie K Tseng, Anita Arora, Bhaskar Bhowmik, Matthew L Robinson, Bishnu Panigrahi, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Eili Y Klein
Background: The threat posed by antibiotic resistance is of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as their rates of antibiotic use increase. However, an understanding of the burden of resistance is lacking in LMICs, particularly for multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, ten hospital study of the relationship between MDR pathogens and mortality in India. Patient-level antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST) results for Enterococcus spp...
November 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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