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Microglia alzheimer's disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242722/recent-progress-in-the-development-of-tspo-pet-ligands-for-neuroinflammation-imaging-in-neurological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Md Maqusood Alam, Jihye Lee, Sang-Yoon Lee
Neuroinflammation is heavily associated with various neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. It is strongly characterized by the activation of microglia which can be visualized using position emission tomography (PET). Traditionally, translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been the preferred target for imaging the inflammatory progression of the microglial component. TSPO is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and present in very low concentrations in the healthy human brain, but is markedly upregulated in response to brain injury and inflammation...
December 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234401/trans-cinnamaldehyde-inhibits-microglial-activation-and-improves-neuronal-survival-against-neuroinflammation-in-bv2-microglial-cells-with-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation
#2
Yan Fu, Pin Yang, Yang Zhao, Liqing Zhang, Zhangang Zhang, Xianwen Dong, Zhongping Wu, Ying Xu, Yongjun Chen
Background: Microglial activation contributes to neuroinflammation and neuronal damage in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. It has been suggested that neurodegenerative disorders may be improved if neuroinflammation can be controlled. trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia possesses potent anti-inflammatory capability; we thus tested whether TCA presents neuroprotective effects on improving neuronal survival by inhibiting neuroinflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234273/indirubin-derivative-7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime-7bio-attenuates-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-cognitive-impairments-in-mice
#3
Liping Chen, Chunhui Huang, Jieyi Shentu, Minjun Wang, Sicheng Yan, Fei Zhou, Zaijun Zhang, Chuang Wang, Yifan Han, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui
Indirubins are natural occurring alkaloids extracted from indigo dye-containing plants. Indirubins could inhibit various kinases, and might be used to treat chronic myelocytic leukemia, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. 7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (7Bio), an indirubin derivative derived from indirubin-3-oxime, possesses inhibitory effects against cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), two pharmacological targets of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we have discovered that 2...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230021/markers-of-microglia-in-post-mortem-brain-samples-from-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
K E Hopperton, D Mohammad, M O Trépanier, V Giuliano, R P Bazinet
Neuroinflammation is proposed as one of the mechanisms by which Alzheimer's disease pathology, including amyloid-β plaques, leads to neuronal death and dysfunction. Increases in the expression of markers of microglia, the main neuroinmmune cell, are widely reported in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease, but the literature has not yet been systematically reviewed to determine whether this is a consistent pathological feature. A systematic search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PsychINFO for articles published up to 23 February 2017...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229786/seed-induced-a%C3%AE-deposition-is-modulated-by-microglia-under-environmental-enrichment-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Stephanie Ziegler-Waldkirch, Paolo D Errico, Jonas-Frederic Sauer, Daniel Erny, Shakuntala Savanthrapadian, Desirée Loreth, Natalie Katzmarski, Thomas Blank, Marlene Bartos, Marco Prinz, Melanie Meyer-Luehmann
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by severe neuronal loss as well as the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ), which ultimately leads to plaque formation. Although there is now a general agreement that the aggregation of Aβ can be initiated by prion-like seeding, the impact and functional consequences of induced Aβ deposits (Aβ seeding) on neurons still remain open questions. Here, we find that Aβ seeding, representing early stages of plaque formation, leads to a dramatic decrease in proliferation and neurogenesis in two APP transgenic mouse models...
December 11, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223144/role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-neurovascular-repair-processing
#6
REVIEW
Yoon Kyung Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). Endogenous CO production occurring at low concentrations is thought to have several useful biological roles. In mammals, especially humans, a proper neurovascular unit comprising endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons is essential for the homeostasis and survival of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the regeneration of neurovascular systems from neural stem cells and endothelial precursor cells after CNS diseases is responsible for functional repair...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221948/cnb-001-a-synthetic-pyrazole-derivative-of-curcumin-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-nitric-oxide-production-through-the-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p38-mapk-pathways-in-microglia
#7
Tatsuhiro Akaishi, Kazuho Abe
CNB-001, a pyrazole derivative of curcumin, has been found to exert neuroprotective and memory-enhancing effects that may be effective for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Since aberrant activation of microglia is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of CNB-001 on microglia-mediated inflammatory responses. In primary cultured rat microglia, CNB-001 (1-10µM) suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and the potency of CNB-001 was stronger than curcumin...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221639/nerve-growth-factor-released-from-collagen-scaffolds-protects-axotomized-cholinergic-neurons-of-the-basal-nucleus-of-meynert-in-organotypic-brain-slices
#8
Bettina M Foidl, Buket Ucar, Alina Schwarz, Ana L Rebelo, Abhay Pandit, Christian Humpel
BACKGROUND: Alzheimeŕs disease is accompanied by cell death of cholinergic neurons, resulting in cognitive impairment and memory loss. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the most potent protein to support survival of cholinergic neurons. New METHOD: Organotypic brain slices of the basal nucleus of Meynert (nBM) are a valuable tool to study cell death of axotomized cholinergic neurons, as well as protective effects of NGF added into the medium. The aim of the present study is to use collagen scaffolds crosslinked with polyethylineglycole and load with NGF to target delivery of NGF to organotypic nBM brain slices...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217476/sumo1-impact-on-alzheimer-disease-pathology-in-an-amyloid-depositing-mouse-model
#9
Erin Knock, Shinsuke Matsuzaki, Hironori Takamura, Kanayo Satoh, Grace Rooke, Kyung Han, Hong Zhang, Agnieszka Staniszewski, Taiichi Katayama, Ottavio Arancio, Paul E Fraser
Small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) conjugated or bound to target proteins can affect protein trafficking, processing and solubility. SUMOylation has been suggested to play a role in the amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative diseases. The current study examines the impact of SUMO1 on processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) leading to the production and deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. An in vivo model of these pathways was developed by the generation of double transgenic mice over-expressing human SUMO1 and a mutant APP...
December 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#10
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207498/steppogenin-isolated-from-cudrania-tricuspidata-shows-antineuroinflammatory-effects-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways-in-lps-stimulated-bv2-and-primary-rat-microglial-cells
#11
Dong-Cheol Kim, Tran Hong Quang, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim
Excessive microglial stimulation has been recognized in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), HIV-associated dementia (HAD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and stroke. When microglia are stimulated, they produce proinflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) derived from cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
December 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207277/laser-captured-microglia-in-the-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-brain-reveal-unique-regional-expression-profiles-and-suggest-a-potential-role-for-hepatitis-b-in-the-alzheimer-s-brain
#12
Diego Mastroeni, Jennifer Nolz, Shobana Sekar, Elaine Delvaux, Geidy Serrano, Lori Cuyugan, Winnie S Liang, Thomas G Beach, Joseph Rogers, Paul D Coleman
Expression array data from dozens of laboratories, including our own, show significant changes in expression of many genes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared with normal controls. These data typically rely on brain homogenates, and information about transcripts specific to microglia and other central nervous system (CNS) cell types, which far outnumber microglia-specific transcripts, is lost. We therefore used single-cell laser capture methods to assess the full range of microglia-specific expression changes that occur in different brain regions (substantia nigra and hippocampus CA1) and disease states (AD, Parkinson's disease, and normal controls)...
November 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198136/hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-gene-expression-changes-in-the-cell-types-of-the-brain
#13
Erica M Weekman, Abigail E Woolums, Tiffany L Sudduth, Donna M Wilcock
High plasma levels of homocysteine, termed hyperhomocysteinemia, are a risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment and dementia, which is the second leading cause of dementia. While hyperhomocysteinemia induces microhemorrhages and cognitive decline in mice, the specific effect of hyperhomocysteinemia on each cell type remains unknown. We took separate cultures of astrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells and treated each with moderate levels of homocysteine for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr...
November 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198015/the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-4-5-bromo-3-chloro-2-hydroxybenzyl-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic-acid-in-lipopolysaccharide-activated-primary-microglial-cells
#14
Xiang Cao, Yuexinzi Jin, He Zhang, Linjie Yu, Xinyu Bao, Fei Li, Yun Xu
Over-activated microglial cells are known to be implicated in various neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis. Our previous reports have shown that ZL006, a compound with a hydrophobic ring A and a hydrophilic ring B with a carboxyl group, exhibited stronger neuroprotective activity in vitro and in vivo. However, the directly anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in the central nervous system (CNS) have not been elucidated. In the present study, as a part of our ongoing screening experiment to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of new compounds, a newly synthesized 4-((5-bromo-3-chloro-2-hydroxybenzyl) amino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (LX007) was used to examine whether it could reduce the inflammatory responses of activated microglia...
December 2, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197626/microglia-key-players-in-neurodevelopment-and-neuronal-plasticity
#15
Luba Sominsky, Simone De Luca, Sarah J Spencer
Microglia are the primary innate immune cells in the CNS. Since their initial discovery and characterization, decades of research have revealed their unique roles not only in maintaining immune homeostasis, but also being indispensable to brain development and cognitive function. As such, microglia drive synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning, neurogenesis and neuronal activity. Microglia-specific mutations are implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders, and dysregulation of microglial function is strongly linked to several pathologies, including cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196883/magnesium-lithospermate-b-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv2-microglial-cells-and-attenuates-neurodegeneration-in-lipopolysaccharide-injected-mice
#16
Yaojun Tai, Yujiao Qiu, Zhicheng Bao
Chronic inflammation in the brain plays a critical role in major neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglia, the resident macrophages and intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS), appear to be the main effectors in this pathological process. Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) is one of the major bioactive components of Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been documented to protect neurons against multiple types of neuronal injury...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196460/microglia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
David V Hansen, Jesse E Hanson, Morgan Sheng
Proliferation and activation of microglia in the brain, concentrated around amyloid plaques, is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human genetics data point to a key role for microglia in the pathogenesis of AD. The majority of risk genes for AD are highly expressed (and many are selectively expressed) by microglia in the brain. There is mounting evidence that microglia protect against the incidence of AD, as impaired microglial activities and altered microglial responses to β-amyloid are associated with increased AD risk...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196167/cathepsin-b-links-oxidative-stress-to-the-activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome
#18
Hua Bai, Bo Yang, Wenfeng Yu, Yan Xiao, Dejun Yu, Qifang Zhang
Oxidative stress-mediated activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia is critical in the development of neurodegerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD). However, the mechanism underlying oxidative stress activates NLRP3 inflammasome remains exclusive. Here we demonstrated cathepsin B (CTSB) as a regulator of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by H2O2. H2O2 induced IL-1β secretion in NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent manner. H2O2 treatment increased CTSB activity, which in turn activated NLRP3 inflammasome, and subsequently processed pro-caspase-1 cleavage into caspase-1, resulting in IL-1 β secretion...
November 28, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189146/transforming-growth-factor-beta-type-i-role-in-neurodegeneration-implications-for-alzheimer%C3%A2-s-disease
#19
Lisbell D Estrada, Luciana Oliveira-Cruz, Daniel Cabrera
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Alzheimer's symptoms include memory loss and cognitive decline. Pathologically, the hallmarks of Alzheimer´s are the presence of Amyloid beta-plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Unfortunately, no cure is presently available and current treatments are only symptomatic. Transforming growth factor beta type I (TGF-β1) is a trophic factor involved in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity...
November 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181126/rhinacanthin-c-alleviates-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibrils-toxicity-on-neurons-and-attenuates-neuroinflammation-triggered-by-lps-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-interferon-%C3%AE-in-glial-cells
#20
Kai-An Chuang, Ming-Han Li, Ni-Hsuan Lin, Chih-Hsuan Chang, I-Huang Lu, I-Hong Pan, Tomoya Takahashi, Ming-Der Perng, Shu-Fang Wen
Neuroinflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compounds that suppress neuroinflammation have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for AD. Rhinacanthin C (RC), a naphthoquinone ester found in Rhinacanthus nasutus Kurz (Acanthaceae), is currently proposed as an effective molecule against inflammation. However, the exact role of RC on neuroinflammation remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated RC effect on modulating lipopolysaccharides (LPS), amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), or interferon-γ- (IFN-γ-) evoked pathological events in neurons and glia...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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