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Microglia alzheimer's disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679378/prominent-microglial-activation-in-cortical-white-matter-is-selectively-associated-with-cortical-atrophy-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#1
Daniel T Ohm, Garam Kim, Tamar Gefen, Alfred Rademaker, Sandra Weintraub, Eileen Bigio, M-Marsel Mesulam, Emily Rogalski, Changiz Geula
AIMS: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by selective language impairments associated with focal cortical atrophy favouring the language dominant hemisphere. PPA is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and significant accumulation of activated microglia. Activated microglia can initiate an inflammatory cascade that may contribute to neurodegeneration, but their quantitative distribution in cortical white matter and their relationship with cortical atrophy are unknown...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678518/pattern-recognition-receptors-mediate-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-extracellular-mitochondrial-transcription-factor-a-tfam
#2
Stephanie M Schindler, Matthew G Frank, Jessica L Annis, Steven F Maier, Andis Klegeris
Neuroinflammation is a common pathogenic mechanism for a number of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, contribute to the onset and progression of the neuroinflammation observed in these diseases. Microglia become activated and initiate an inflammatory response by interacting with a diverse set of molecules, including the group of endogenous proteins released upon cell damage, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
April 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676181/identification-of-glia-phenotype-modulators-based-on-select-glial-function-regulatory-signaling-pathways
#3
Sun-Hwa Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Despite the considerable social and economic burden on the healthcare system worldwide due to neurodegenerative diseases, there are currently few disease-altering treatment options for many of these conditions. Therefore, new approaches for both prevention and intervention for neurodegenerative diseases are urgently required. Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity is one of the pathologic hallmarks common to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Current therapeutic approaches to target microglia-mediated neurotoxicity are focused on the identification of glia phenotype modulators (GPMs), which can inhibit the 'classical' pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic phenotypes of microglia...
April 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673550/complex-role-of-chemokine-mediators-in-animal-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Elodie Martin, Cécile Delarasse
Chemokines are a family of cytokines, first described to play a role in the immune system. However, neurons and glial cells also express chemokines and their receptors. In the central nervous system, chemokines are involved in several neural functions, in particular in the control of cell communications and neuronal activity. In pathological conditions, chemokines participate in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), chemokines play a role in the development of the two main lesions, amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669582/galantamine-improves-cognition-hippocampal-inflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-mice
#5
Yi Liu, Yuyun Zhang, Xian Zheng, Tongyong Fang, Xia Yang, Xuan Luo, Anlei Guo, Kelly A Newell, Xu-Feng Huang, Yinghua Yu
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) levels are higher in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and are associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, while neural cholinergic signaling controls inflammation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of galantamine, a clinically approved cholinergic agent, in alleviating LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline as well as the associated mechanism...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668503/tetrahydroxystilbene-glycoside-antagonizes-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-inflammatory-injury-in-microglia-cells-by-regulating-pu-1-expression
#6
Chenli Jiao, Feng Gao, Li Ou, Jinhua Yu, Min Li, Peifeng Wei, Feng Miu
Inhibiting β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglial activation is proposed as an effective strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Tetrahydroxystilbene glycoside (TSG) is the main active ingredient of Polygonum multiflorum and has a wide range of biological properties, including antiinflammation. Here, we focused on the function and regulatory mechanism of TSG in Aβ-induced N9 and BV2 cells. The results showed that Aβ treatment induced the activation of microglia cells and the production of inflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase 2, and prostaglandin E2, which were significantly inhibited by TSG pretreatment...
April 17, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667931/ave0991-a-nonpeptide-analogue-of-ang-1-7-attenuates-aging-related-neuroinflammation
#7
Teng Jiang, Liu-Jun Xue, Yang Yang, Qing-Guang Wang, Xiao Xue, Zhou Ou, Qing Gao, Jian-Quan Shi, Liang Wu, Ying-Dong Zhang
During the aging process, chronic neuroinflammation induced by microglia is detrimental for the brain and contributes to the etiology of several aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. As a newly identified axis of renin-angiotensin system, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MAS1 axis plays a crucial role in modulating inflammatory responses under various pathological conditions. However, its relationship with aging-related neuroinflammation is less studied so far. In this study, by using SAMP8 mice, an animal model of accelerated aging, we revealed that the neuroinflammation in the aged brain might be attributed to a decreased level of Ang-(1-7)...
April 17, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667667/%C3%AE-cyperone-inhibits-lps-induced-inflammation-in-bv-2-cells-through-activation-of-akt-nrf2-ho-1-and-suppression-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#8
Bingxu Huang, Dewei He, Guangxin Chen, Xin Ran, Wenjin Guo, Xingchi Kan, Wei Wang, Dianfeng Liu, Shoupeng Fu, Juxiong Liu
Accumulating evidence has shown that activated microglia cause inflammatory immune response, which could lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. α-Cyperone, one of the main ingredients of Cyperus rotundus oil, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity in activated macrophages. In this study, we found that α-cyperone markedly decreased the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in LPS-induced BV-2 cells...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666700/oil-palm-phenolics-inhibit-the-in-vitro-aggregation-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-into-oligomeric-complexes
#9
Robert P Weinberg, Vera V Koledova, Hyeari Shin, Jennifer H Park, Yew Ai Tan, Anthony J Sinskey, Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi, ChoKyun Rha
Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative disease characterized by the aggregation of amyloid- β peptide (A β ) into toxic oligomers which activate microglia and astrocytes causing acute neuroinflammation. Multiple studies show that the soluble oligomers of A β 42 are neurotoxic and proinflammatory, whereas the monomers and insoluble fibrils are relatively nontoxic. We show that A β 42 aggregation is inhibited in vitro by oil palm phenolics (OPP), an aqueous extract from the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) ...
2018: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662056/neuronal-sphk1-acetylates-cox2-and-contributes-to-pathogenesis-in-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Ju Youn Lee, Seung Hoon Han, Min Hee Park, Bosung Baek, Im-Sook Song, Min-Koo Choi, Yoh Takuwa, Hoon Ryu, Seung Hyun Kim, Xingxuan He, Edward H Schuchman, Jae-Sung Bae, Hee Kyung Jin
Although many reports have revealed the importance of defective microglia-mediated amyloid β phagocytosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanism remains to be explored. Here we demonstrate that neurons in the brains of patients with AD and AD mice show reduction of sphingosine kinase1 (SphK1), leading to defective microglial phagocytosis and dysfunction of inflammation resolution due to decreased secretion of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs). Elevation of SphK1 increased SPMs secretion, especially 15-R-Lipoxin A4, by promoting acetylation of serine residue 565 (S565) of cyclooxygenase2 (COX2) using acetyl-CoA, resulting in improvement of AD-like pathology in APP/PS1 mice...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660443/cell-to-cell-communication-by-extracellular-vesicles-focus-on-microglia
#11
REVIEW
Rosa C Paolicelli, Giorgio Bergamini, Lawrence Rajendran
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are small, nano-to-micrometer vesicles that are released from cells. While initially observed in immune cells and reticulocytes as vesicles meant to remove archaic proteins, now they have been observed in almost all cell types of multicellular organisms. Growing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles, containing lipids, proteins and RNAs, represent an efficient way to transfer functional cargoes from one cell to another. In the central nervous system, the extensive cross-talk ongoing between neurons and glia, including microglia, the immune cells of the brain, takes advantage of secreted vesicles, which mediate intercellular communication over long range distance...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655369/trem2-regulates-innate-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Jiang-Tao Li, Ying Zhang
Recent research has shown that the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) in microglia is closely related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanism of this relationship, however, remains unclear. TREM2 is part of the TREM family of receptors, which are expressed primarily in myeloid cells, including monocytes, dendritic cells, and microglia. The TREM family members are cell surface glycoproteins with an immunoglobulin-like extracellular domain, a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail region...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643512/innate-immune-memory-in-the-brain-shapes-neurological-disease-hallmarks
#13
Ann-Christin Wendeln, Karoline Degenhardt, Lalit Kaurani, Michael Gertig, Thomas Ulas, Gaurav Jain, Jessica Wagner, Lisa M Häsler, Katleen Wild, Angelos Skodras, Thomas Blank, Ori Staszewski, Moumita Datta, Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Vincenzo Capece, Md Rezaul Islam, Cemil Kerimoglu, Matthias Staufenbiel, Joachim L Schultze, Marc Beyer, Marco Prinz, Mathias Jucker, André Fischer, Jonas J Neher
Innate immune memory is a vital mechanism of myeloid cell plasticity that occurs in response to environmental stimuli and alters subsequent immune responses. Two types of immunological imprinting can be distinguished-training and tolerance. These are epigenetically mediated and enhance or suppress subsequent inflammation, respectively. Whether immune memory occurs in tissue-resident macrophages in vivo and how it may affect pathology remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that peripherally applied inflammatory stimuli induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to differential epigenetic reprogramming of brain-resident macrophages (microglia) that persists for at least six months...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627302/inhibitive-effect-of-resveratrol-on-the-inflammation-in-cultured-astrocytes-and-microglia-induced-by-a%C3%AE-1-42
#14
Haifeng Zhao, Qian Wang, Xuejiao Cheng, Xuemin Li, Na Li, Tiantian Liu, Jing Li, Qian Yang, Ruirui Dong, Yusen Zhang, Luping Zhang
Astrocytes and microglia appear central to the initiation and progression of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, inflammation was mimicked by Aβ1-42 treatment of rat astrocytes (RA) and N9 microglia cell lines. Inflammation induced by Aβ1-42 can be inhibited by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamicacid (PDTC), indicating that the NF-κB signal pathway is involved in the inflammation. Then, the inhibitive effects of resveratrol (Res) on the inflammation in RA and N9 cells were assessed by observing the changes in inflammatory factors, chemokines, cell cycle and adhesion molecules on the cell surface...
April 5, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625180/a%C3%AE-oligomer-uptake-and-the-resulting-inflammatory-response-in-adult-human-astrocytes-are-precluded-by-an-anti-a%C3%AE-single-chain-variable-fragment-in-combination-with-an-apoe-mimetic-peptide
#15
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra D Mulder, Maaike A C Herrebout, Johannes C Baayen, Sandra Villegas, Robert Veerhuis
An imbalance between production and clearance of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) initiates the pathological process in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ-specific antibodies seemed promising as therapeutic option in AD mouse models. In patients, however, vascular side-effects and Aβ-antibody complex-induced microglial and/or perivascular macrophage inflammatory responses were encountered. To prevent inflammatory reactions, we designed a single chain variable fragment (scFv-h3D6), based on monoclonal antibody bapineuzumab (mAb-h3D6), but lacking the Fc region...
April 3, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618972/an-inflammation-centric-view-of-neurological-disease-beyond-the-neuron
#16
REVIEW
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Inflammation is a complex biological response fundamental to how the body deals with injury and infection to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and effect repair. Unlike a normally beneficial acute inflammatory response, chronic inflammation can lead to tissue damage and ultimately its destruction, and often results from an inappropriate immune response. Inflammation in the nervous system ("neuroinflammation"), especially when prolonged, can be particularly injurious. While inflammation per se may not cause disease, it contributes importantly to disease pathogenesis across both the peripheral (neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia) and central [e...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615895/hypertension-accelerates-alzheimer-s-disease-related-pathologies-in-pigs-and-3xtg-mice
#17
Yao-Hsiang Shih, Shih-Ying Wu, Megan Yu, Sheng-Huai Huang, Chu-Wan Lee, Meei-Jyh Jiang, Pao-Yen Lin, Ting-Ting Yang, Yu-Min Kuo
Epidemiological studies suggest there is an association between midlife hypertension and increased risk of late-life Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether hypertension accelerates the onset of AD or is a distinct disease that becomes more prevalent with age (comorbidity) remains unclear. This study aimed to test the possible relationship between hypertension and AD pathogenesis. Two animal models were used in this study. For the first model, 7-month-old Lanyu-miniature-pigs were given the abdominal aortic constriction operation to induce hypertension and their AD-related pathologies were assessed at 1, 2, and 3 months after the operation...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611543/intracellular-trafficking-of-trem2-is-regulated-by-presenilin-1
#18
Yingjun Zhao, Xiaoguang Li, Timothy Huang, Lu-Lin Jiang, Zhenqiu Tan, Muxian Zhang, Irene Han-Juo Cheng, Xin Wang, Guojun Bu, Yun-Wu Zhang, Qi Wang, Huaxi Xu
Genetic mutations in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have been linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. In the brain, TREM2 is highly expressed on the cell surface of microglia, where it can transduce signals to regulate microglial functions such as phagocytosis. To date, mechanisms underlying intracellular trafficking of TREM2 remain elusive. Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) catalytic subunit of the γ-secretase complex have been associated with increased generation of the amyloidogenic Aβ (amyloid-β) 42 peptide through cleavage of the Aβ precursor amyloid precursor protein...
December 1, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611482/potential-use-of-nanomedicine-for-the-anti-inflammatory-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
Maria Dolores Cayero-Otero, Ana M Espinosa-Oliva, Antonio J Herrera, Irene Garcia-Dominguez, Mercedes Fernandez-Arevalo, Lucia Martin-Banderas, Rocio M de Pablos
Neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s disease, are a group of disorders that have in common their increasingly high prevalence along with the shortage of effective treatments. In addition, the scientific community faces the challenge of getting the drugs used in these treatments to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reach the brain in sufficient concentration to be able to exert its effect. Hence, researchers across multiple disciplines are working together in order to improve the ability of therapeutics to penetrate the BBB...
April 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601944/cellular-players-that-shape-evolving-pathology-and-neurodegeneration-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Shweta S Puntambekar, Maha Saber, Bruce T Lamb, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and has emerged as a critical risk factor for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). How the inflammatory cascade resulting from mechanical stress, axonal shearing and the loss of neurons and glia following initial impact in TBI, contributes to the development of AD-like disease is unclear. Neuroinflammation, characterized by blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and activation of brain-resident microglia and astrocytes, resulting in secretion of inflammatory mediators and subsequent recruitment of peripheral immune cells has been the focus of extensive research in attempts to identify drug-targets towards improving functional outcomes post TBI...
March 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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