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Growth trajectory preterm infants

Xiaomei Cong, Wanli Xu, Rachael Romisher, Samantha Poveda, Shaina Forte, Angela Starkweather, Wendy A Henderson
The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Rui V Simões, Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Mónica Cruz-Lemini, Elisenda Eixarch, Núria Bargalló, Magdalena Sanz-Cortes, Eduard Gratacós
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and premature birth represent two independent problems that may occur simultaneously, and contribute to impaired neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in frontal lobe metabolic profiles of one-year-old IUGR infants born prematurely (P-IUGR) and adequate for gestational age controls, both premature (P-AGA) and born at term (T-AGA), and their association with brain structural and biophysical parameters, and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Christopher R Pierson, Fahd Al Sufiani
Improved survival rates in premature infants and more sensitive neuroimaging techniques have expanded the scope of recognized neurodevelopmental disabilities in this vulnerable population and have implicated a role for cerebellar pathology in their origin. Although supratentorial pathologies are well studied, cerebellar pathology has been under-recognized in premature infants. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise description of established acquired cerebellar pathologies in premature infants including cerebellar atrophy/hypoplasia, hemorrhage, and infarction...
October 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Emily F Gregory, Matthew A Goldshore, Janice L Henderson, Robert D Weatherford, Nakiya N Showell
BACKGROUND: Obesity is widespread and treatment strategies have demonstrated limited success. Changes to obstetrical practice in response to obesity may support obesity prevention by influencing offspring growth trajectories. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined growth among infants born to obese mothers who participated in Nutrition in Pregnancy (NIP), a prenatal nutrition intervention at one urban hospital. NIP participants had Medicaid insurance and BMIs of 30 kg/m(2) or greater...
June 2016: Childhood Obesity
J A Roelants, I V Koning, M M A Raets, S P Willemsen, M H Lequin, R P M Steegers-Theunissen, I K M Reiss, M J Vermeulen, P Govaert, J Dudink
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preterm neonates are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment, but reliable, bedside-available markers to monitor preterm brain growth during hospital stay are still lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of corpus callosum-fastigium length as a new cranial sonography marker for monitoring of preterm brain growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this longitudinal prospective cohort study, cranial ultrasound was planned on the day of birth, days 1, 2, 3, and 7 of life; and then weekly until discharge in preterm infants born before 29 weeks of gestational age...
August 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Violeta L Botellero, Jon Skranes, Knut Jørgen Bjuland, Gro C Løhaugen, Asta Kristine Håberg, Stian Lydersen, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Marit S Indredavik, Marit Martinussen
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth at very low birth weight (VLBW) poses a risk for cerebellar abnormalities and increased psychiatric morbidity compared with reference populations. We aimed to study cerebellar volumes (grey and white matter; GM, WM) and mental health in VLBW individuals and controls at 15 and 19 years of age, as well as changes between the two time points. METHODS: Forty VLBW (≤1500 g) and 56 control adolescents were included in the study at 15 years of age, and 44 VLBW and 60 control adolescents at 19 years of age...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Tomoko Nishimura, Nori Takei, Kenji J Tsuchiya, Ryosuke Asano, Norio Mori
BACKGROUND: We investigate patterns of neurodevelopmental trajectories in infants, using a representative population, and identify risk factors that predict delayed growth. METHODS: Participating infants (n = 952; 82.8% of the total sample) were assessed by Mullen Scales of Early Learning at seven time points, from 1 month to 24 months of age. Mothers were recruited in early pregnancy and data on demographic characteristics were collected during pregnancy. Trajectory patterns were investigated using latent class growth analysis, and risk factors for the derived trajectory classes were investigated by multinomial logistic regression...
April 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Niels Rochow, Preeya Raja, Kai Liu, Tanis Fenton, Erin Landau-Crangle, Susanne Göttler, Andrea Jahn, Sauyoung Lee, Sandra Seigel, Douglas Campbell, Matthias Heckmann, Johannes Pöschl, Christoph Fusch
BACKGROUND: International guidelines suggest that growth of preterm infants should match intrauterine rates. However, the trajectory for extrauterine growth may deviate from the birth percentile due to an irreversible, physiological loss of extracellular fluid during postnatal adaptation to extrauterine conditions. To which "new" physiological growth trajectory preterm infants should adjust to after completed postnatal adaptation is unknown. This study analyzes the postnatal growth trajectories of healthy preterm infants using prospective criteria defining minimal support, as a model for physiological adaptation...
June 2016: Pediatric Research
Brian A Darlow, L John Horwood, Lianne J Woodward, John M Elliott, Richard W Troughton, Mark J Elder, Michael J Epton, Josh D Stanton, Maureen P Swanney, Ross Keenan, Tracy R Melzer, Victoria A McKelvey, Karelia Levin, Margaret G Meeks, Eric A Espiner, Vicky A Cameron, Julia Martin
BACKGROUND: Very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) is associated with increased morbidity and costs of health care in childhood. Emerging evidence suggests these infants face a range of health and social problems as young adults. We studied all New Zealand very low birth weight infants born in 1986 (when 58% were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids) in infancy, with later follow-up at 7 to 8 years and 23 to 24 years. We now aim to assess the cohort at 26-28 years compared with controls...
2015: BMC Pediatrics
Zhiwei Zhao, Ming Ding, Zubin Hu, Qiong Dai, Ambika Satija, Aiqin Zhou, Yusong Xu, Xuan Zhang, Frank B Hu, Haiqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence has been provided on the trajectories of length, weight, and bone mineral density (BMD) among preterm infants in early life in Asian countries. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study, which included 652 late preterm (gestational age: 34-36.9 weeks), 486 moderate preterm (32-33.9), 291 very preterm (28-31.9), 149 extremely preterm infants (≤ 28.9) and 1434 full-term peers (≥ 37) during the first 12 months of corrected age in Wuhan, China...
2015: BMC Pediatrics
M Berry, C Gray, K Wright, R Dyson, I Wright
Preterm birth is common and the associated short-term morbidity well described. The adult-onset consequences of preterm birth are less clear, but cardiovascular and metabolic health may be adversely affected. Although large animal models of preterm birth addressing important short-term issues exist, long-term studies are hampered by significant logistical constraints. Current small animal models of prematurity require terminal caesarean section of the mother; both caesarean birth and early maternal care modify offspring adult cardio-metabolic function...
April 2015: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Saskia N de Wildt, D Tibboel, J S Leeder
Drug metabolism importantly determines drug concentrations. The efficacy and safety of many drugs prescribed for children are, therefore, dependent on intraindividual and interindividual variation in drug-metabolising enzyme activity. During growth and development, changes in drug-metabolising enzyme activity result in age-related differences in drug disposition, most pronounced in preterm infants and young infants. The shape of the developmental trajectory is unique to the drug-metabolising enzyme involved in the metabolism of individual drugs...
December 2014: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Dominic Holland, Linda Chang, Thomas M Ernst, Megan Curran, Steven D Buchthal, Daniel Alicata, Jon Skranes, Heather Johansen, Antonette Hernandez, Robyn Yamakawa, Joshua M Kuperman, Anders M Dale
IMPORTANCE: The very early postnatal period witnesses extraordinary rates of growth, but structural brain development in this period has largely not been explored longitudinally. Such assessment may be key in detecting and treating the earliest signs of neurodevelopmental disorders. OBJECTIVE: To assess structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the whole brain and regions of interest in infants during the first 3 months after birth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Serial structural T1-weighted and/or T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained for 211 time points from 87 healthy term-born or term-equivalent preterm-born infants, aged 2 to 90 days, between October 5, 2007, and June 12, 2013...
October 2014: JAMA Neurology
J E Harding, J G B Derraik, M J Berry, A L Jaquiery, J M Alsweiler, B E Cormack, F H Bloomfield
Approximately 10% of all babies worldwide are born preterm, and preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal mortality in developed countries. Although preterm birth is associated with adverse short- and long-term health outcomes, it is not yet clear whether this relationship is causal. Rather, there is evidence that reduced foetal growth, preterm birth and the long-term health effects of both of these may all arise from a suboptimal intrauterine environment. Further, most infants born preterm also experience suboptimal postnatal growth, with potential adverse effects on long-term health and development...
June 2013: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Gary L Darmstadt, Saifuddin Ahmed, A S M Nawshad Uddin Ahmed, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Topical applications of emollients such as sunflower seed oil and Aquaphor have been shown to reduce the incidence of bloodstream infections and mortality of preterm infants in resource-poor settings. The causal mechanism for prevention of infection through cutaneous portals of entry is not well understood. METHODS: We examined the relationship between skin condition score as a measure of skin barrier integrity and risk for bloodstream infection, and the effect of emollients on that relationship...
November 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Alicia J Spittle, Deanne K Thompson, Nisha C Brown, Karli Treyvaud, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Katherine J Lee, Carmen C Pace, Joy Olsen, Leesa G Allinson, Angela T Morgan, Marc Seal, Abbey Eeles, Fiona Judd, Lex W Doyle, Peter J Anderson
BACKGROUND: Infants born <30 weeks' gestation are at increased risk of long term neurodevelopmental problems compared with term born peers. The predictive value of neurobehavioural examinations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants has been reported for subsequent impairment. Yet there is little knowledge surrounding earlier neurobehavioural development in preterm infants prior to term equivalent age, and how it relates to perinatal factors, cerebral structure, and later developmental outcomes...
2014: BMC Pediatrics
Alessandra Sansavini, Jill Pentimonti, Laura Justice, Annalisa Guarini, Silvia Savini, Rosina Alessandroni, Giacomo Faldella
UNLABELLED: Survival rate of extremely low gestational age (ELGA) newborns has increased over 80% in the last 15 years, but its consequences on the short- and longer-term developmental competencies may be severe. The aim of this study was to describe growth trajectories of linguistic, motor and cognitive skills among ELGA children, compared to full-term (FT) peers, from the first to the third year of life, a crucial period for development. Growth curve analysis was used to examine individual and group differences in terms of initial status at 12 months and rate of growth through the second and the third year of life with five points of assessment...
May 2014: Journal of Communication Disorders
Deanne K Thompson, Cristina Omizzolo, Christopher Adamson, Katherine J Lee, Robyn Stargatt, Gary F Egan, Lex W Doyle, Terrie E Inder, Peter J Anderson
The effects of prematurity on hippocampal development through early childhood are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to (1) compare the shape of the very preterm (VPT) hippocampus to that of full-term (FT) children at 7 years of age, and determine if hippocampal shape is associated with memory and learning impairment in VPT children, (2) compare change in shape and volume of the hippocampi from term-equivalent to 7 years of age between VPT and FT children, and determine if development of the hippocampi over time predicts memory and learning impairment in VPT children...
August 2014: Human Brain Mapping
Nelly Padilla, Georgios Alexandrou, Mats Blennow, Hugo Lagercrantz, Ulrika Ådén
Premature exposure to the extrauterine environment negatively affects the brains' developmental trajectory. Our aim was to determine whether extremely preterm (EPT) infants, with no evidence of focal brain lesions, show morphological brain differences when compared with term-born infants. Additionally, we investigated associations between perinatal factors and neuroanatomical alterations. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired at term-equivalent age (TEA) from 47 EPT infants born before 27 weeks of gestation, and 15 healthy, term-born controls...
July 2015: Cerebral Cortex
Jessica Rose, Rachel Vassar, Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Ximena Stecher Guzman, David K Stevenson, Naama Barnea-Goraly
At near-term age the brain undergoes rapid growth and development. Abnormalities identified during this period have been recognized as potential predictors of neurodevelopment in children born preterm. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter (WM) microstructure in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants to better understand regional WM developmental trajectories at near-term age. DTI scans were analyzed in a cross-sectional sample of 45 VLBW preterm infants (BW≤1500g, GA≤32weeks) within a cohort of 102 neonates admitted to the NICU and recruited to participate prior to standard-of-care MRI, from 2010 to 2011, 66/102 also had DTI...
February 1, 2014: NeuroImage
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