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Biomarker preterm infants

Charalampos Dokos, Christos Tsakalidis, Kyriakoula Manaridou, George Koliakos
Background Almost 30% of the premature infants have low body weight and bone mineral density due to prematurity. There is no consensus of screening premature neonates for metabolic bone disease; therefore, it is important to investigate the use of bone biochemical parameters. Latest studies involved the activity of acetylcholinesterase as a mediator in bone remodeling. It is hypothesized that there is a possible correlation of bone biochemical biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in premature infants...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Shaon Sengupta, Karen M Puopolo
Antibiotic stewardship programmes aim to optimise antimicrobial use to prevent the emergence of resistance species and protect patients from the side effects of unnecessary medication. The high incidence of systemic infection and associated mortality from these infections leads neonatal providers to frequently initiate antibiotic therapy and make empiric antibiotic courses one of the main contributors of antibiotic use in the neonatal units. Yet, premature infants are also at risk for acute life-threatening complications associated with antibiotic use such as necrotising enterocolitis and for long-term morbidities such as asthma...
November 13, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Amira M Aker, Kelly K Ferguson, Zaira Y Rosario, Bhramar Mukherjee, Akram N Alshawabkeh, José F Cordero, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to certain xenobiotics has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the associations of triclocarban, phenols and parabens in a cohort of 922 pregnant women in Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats Program (PROTECT). METHODS: Urinary triclocarban, phenols and parabens were measured at three time points in pregnancy (visit 1: 16-20 weeks, visit 2: 20-24 weeks, visit 3: 24-28 weeks gestation)...
October 31, 2018: Environmental Research
Chuen-Bin Jiang, Yu-Mei Hsueh, Guang-Lin Kuo, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Jui-Hsing Chang, Ling-Chu Chien
The neurological prognoses of very low birth weight preterm (VLBWP) children during the first 2 years of life will influence their neurodevelopment during subsequent childhood years and adolescence. The objective of this study was to systemic investigate relationships of urinary arsenic (As) concentrations, the As methylation capability, and toenail As concentrations on cognitive, language, and motor development in VLBWP children under 24 months of corrected age.Participants (n = 60) in our study were recruited from October 2010 to April 2013...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maria Luisa Tataranno, Serafina Perrone, Mariangela Longini, Caterina Coviello, Maria Tassini, Antonio Vivi, Marco Calderisi, Linda S deVries, Floris Groenendaal, Giuseppe Buonocore, Manon J N L Benders
Background and Objective: Early identification of neonates at risk for brain injury is important to start appropriate intervention. Urinary metabolomics is a source of potential, noninvasive biomarkers of brain disease. We studied the urinary metabolic profile at 2 and 10 days in preterm neonates with normal/mild and moderate/severe MRI abnormalities at term equivalent age. Methods: Urine samples were collected at two and 10 days after birth in 30 extremely preterm infants and analyzed using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2018: Disease Markers
Hamid Abbasi, Paul P Drury, Christopher A Lear, Alistair J Gunn, Joanne O Davidson, Laura Bennet, Charles P Unsworth
The timing of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in preterm infants is often uncertain and there are few biomarkers to determine whether infants are in a treatable stage of injury. We evaluated whether epileptiform sharp waves recorded from the parietal cortex could provide early prediction of neuronal loss after HI. Preterm fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) underwent acute HI induced by complete umbilical cord occlusion for 25 minutes (n = 6) or sham occlusion (control, n = 6). Neuronal survival was assessed 7 days after HI by immunohistochemistry...
November 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clair-Yves Boquien
Human milk is the best food for newborn nutrition. There is no ideal composition of human milk and also no easy way to control the complexity of its nutritional quality and the quantity received by breastfed infants. Pediatricians and nutritionists use charts of infant growth (weight, size, head circumference) and neurodevelopment criteria that reflect the food that these infants receive. These charts reflect first the infant physiology and likely reflect the composition of human milk when infants are breastfed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
S Graspeuntner, S Waschina, S Künzel, N Twisselmann, T K Rausch, K Cloppenborg-Schmidt, J Zimmermann, D Viemann, E Herting, W Göpel, J F Baines, C Kaleta, J Rupp, C Härtel, J Pagel
Background: Gut dysbiosis has been suggested as a major risk factor for the development of late-onset sepsis (LOS), a main cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to assess specific signatures of the gut microbiome including metabolic profiles in preterm infants <34 weeks of gestation preceding LOS. Methods: In a single center cohort fecal samples of preterm infants were prospectively collected during the period of highest vulnerability for LOS (day 7, 14, 21 of life)...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Renata H Benjamin, Laura E Mitchell, Mark A Canfield, Adrienne T Hoyt, Dejian Lai, Tunu A Ramadhani, Suzan L Carmichael, Amy P Case, D Kim Waller
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationships between maternal fish consumption and pregnancy outcomes in a large, population-based sample of women in the USA. DESIGN: We collected average fish consumption prior to pregnancy using a modified version of the semi-quantitative Willett FFQ. We estimated adjusted OR (aOR) and 95 % CI for associations between different levels of fish consumption and preterm birth (<37 weeks), early preterm birth (<32 and <35 weeks) and small-for-gestational-age infants (SGA; <10th percentile)...
October 17, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Tadamune Kinjo, Hirosuke Inoue, Takeshi Kusuda, Junko Fujiyoshi, Masayuki Ochiai, Yasushi Takahata, Satoshi Honjo, Yuhki Koga, Toshiro Hara, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a neonatal preleukemic syndrome that occurs exclusively in neonates with Down syndrome (DS). Most affected infants spontaneously resolve, although some patients culminate in hepatic failure despite the hematological remission. It is impossible to determine the patients who are at high risk of progressive liver disease and leukemic transformation. The objective is to search for biomarkers predicting the development of hepatic failure in DS infants with TAM...
September 24, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Ajay Rajaram, Gemma Bale, Matthew Kewin, Laura B Morrison, Ilias Tachtsidis, Keith St Lawrence, Mamadou Diop
Preterm infants born with very low birth weights are at a high risk of brain injury, in part because the premature brain is believed to be prone to periods of low cerebral blood flow (CBF). Tissue damage is likely to occur if reduction in CBF is sufficient to impair cerebral energy metabolism for extended periods. Therefore, a neuromonitoring method that can detect reductions in CBF, large enough to affect metabolism, could alert the neonatal intensive care team before injury occurs. In this report, we present the development of an optical system that combines diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for monitoring CBF and broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (B-NIRS) for monitoring the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO) - a key biomarker of oxidative metabolism...
June 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Emily A Morris, Meher R Juttukonda, Chelsea A Lee, Niral J Patel, Sumit Pruthi, Manus J Donahue, Lori C Jordan
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is elevated and inversely related to hematocrit level in anemic former very-low-birth-weight infants near term. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of non-sedated preterm infants (post-menstrual age = 36 ± 2 weeks) over a range of hematocrits (0.23-0.49). Anatomical (T1 -W, T2 -W, and diffusion-weighted), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and OEF 3-T MRI were utilized. Statistical analysis included Spearman's rank-order correlation testing between study variables and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) calculated between consecutively acquired OEF scans...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Jacqueline M Lauer, Christopher P Duggan, Lynne M Ausman, Jeffrey K Griffiths, Patrick Webb, Edgar Agaba, Nathan Nshakira, Hao Q Tran, Andrew T Gewirtz, Shibani Ghosh
Background: Adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth and stunting at birth, have long-term health implications. The relation between adverse birth outcomes and chronic, asymptomatic gastrointestinal inflammation (environmental enteric dysfunction-EED) is poorly understood. Objective: We aimed to examine the relation between maternal EED and adverse birth outcomes in a sample of pregnant Ugandan women and their newborn infants. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study in Mukono, Uganda...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Anat Schonblum, Liat Arnon, Eyal Ravid, Liat Salzer, Eran Hadar, Israel Meizner, Arnon Wiznitzer, Aron Weller, Lee Koren
Maintaining pregnancy to term is important as preterm delivery is a risk factor for impaired infant development, which may have negative long-term consequences. Therefore, developing biomarkers that can predict pregnancy longevity during early gestation is essential for the prevention of preterm birth. Here we explored whether maternal hair testosterone and cortisol, representing the pre-conception and first trimester periods respectively, may be used to predict pregnancy longevity. We recruited 125 pregnant women that contributed hair samples and answered a personal information questionnaire that included pre-conception smoking...
September 12, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Sofia El Manouni El Hassani, Hendrik J Niemarkt, Hager Said, Daniel J C Berkhout, Anton H van Kaam, Richard A van Lingen, Marc A Benninga, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
Fecal volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis has shown great potential as a noninvasive diagnostic biomarker for a variety of diseases. Before clinical implementation, the factors influencing the outcome of VOC analysis need to be assessed. Recent studies found that the sampling conditions can influence the outcome of VOC analysis. However, the dietary influences remains unknown, especially in (preterm) infants. Therefore, we assessed the effects of feeding composition on fecal VOC patterns of preterm infants (born at <30 weeks gestation)...
September 11, 2018: Sensors
Josef Neu, Mohan Pammi
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of preterm infants and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Although the pathogenesis of NEC is not clear, microbial dysbiosis, with a bloom of the phylum Proteobacteria, has been reported. Antibiotics and the use of H2 blockers, which affect the gut microbiome, are associated with increased incidence of NEC. In association with dysbiosis, inflammatory processes are upregulated with increased Toll-like receptor signaling, leading to translocation of nuclear factor kappa-β, a transcription factor that induces transcription of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
August 17, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Vianney Gilard, Alexandra Chadie, François-Xavier Ferracci, Marie Brasseur-Daudruy, François Proust, Stéphane Marret, Sophie Curey
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a frequent complication in extreme and very preterm births. Despite a high risk of death and impaired neurodevelopment, the precise prognosis of infants with IVH remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate and predictive factors of evolution to post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) requiring a shunt, in newborns with IVH and to report their neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age. METHODS: Among all preterm newborns admitted to the department of neonatalogy at Rouen University Hospital, France between January 2000 and December 2013, 122 had an IVH and were included in the study...
August 31, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Viral G Jain, Vaibhav Goyal, Vikas Chowdhary, Namita Swarup, Ravinder J Singh, Arbinder Singal, Prem Shekhawat
STUDY QUESTION: Does cord blood androgen level obtained at birth affect the AGD in human newborns? SUMMARY ANSWER: In human newborns, though males have a significantly longer AGD compared to females (as early as 22 weeks of gestation) the AGD is not affected by androgen levels at birth in both the sexes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Animal studies have reported a critical time period in early fetal life, termed the masculinization programming window (MPW) during which AGD is fixed by in utero androgen action and is unaffected by testosterone levels later during gestation...
September 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Christoph M Rüegger, Peter G Davis, Jeanie L Cheong
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious birth complication affecting term and late preterm newborns. Although therapeutic hypothermia (cooling) has been shown to be an effective therapy for neonatal HIE, many cooled infants have poor long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. In animal models of neonatal encephalopathy, inhaled xenon combined with cooling has been shown to offer better neuroprotection than cooling alone. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of xenon as an adjuvant to therapeutic hypothermia on mortality and neurodevelopmental morbidity, and to ascertain clinically important side effects of xenon plus therapeutic hypothermia in newborn infants with HIE...
August 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Jegen Kandasamy, Kalsang Dolma, Manimaran Ramani, Ranjit Kumar, Landon Wilson, Zubair H Aghai, Stephen Barnes, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
The pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is not well understood. We previously identified differences in the airway microbiome at birth between preterm infants who were BPD-predisposed versus those who were BPD-resistant. In this study, we attempted to identify mechanisms by which the airway microbiome could modify the risk for BPD. We used a software-based method to predict the metagenome of the tracheal aspirate (TA) microbiome from 16s rRNA sequencing data in preterm infants and to identify functional ortholog genes that were differentially abundant in BPD-predisposed and BPD-resistant infants...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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