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Catabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029082/decreased-homocysteine-trans-sulfuration-in-hypertension-with-hyperhomocysteinemia-relationship-with-insulin-resistance
#1
Paolo Tessari, Monica Vettore, Lucia Puricelli, Diego Cecchet, Anna Coracina, Edward Kivanuka
Context: Homocysteine is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and is increased in essential hypertension. Insulin stimulates homocysteine catabolism in healthy individuals. However, the mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia and its relationship with insulin resistance in essential hypertension are unknown. Objective: To investigate whole-body methionine and homocysteine kinetics, and the effects of insulin, in essential hypertension. Design & Setting: Eight hypertensive male subjects, and six male normotensive controls, were infused with L-[methyl-2H3,1-13C]methionine for 6 hrs...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028707/icu-acquired-weakness-chronic-critical-illness-and-the-persistent-inflammation-immunosuppression-and-catabolism-syndrome
#2
Tyler John Loftus, Frederick Allen Moore, Lyle L Moldawer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027734/high-resolution-visualization-and-exo-proteomics-reveal-the-physiological-role-of-xlnr-and-arar-in-plant-biomass-colonization-and-degradation-by-aspergillus-niger
#3
Joanna E Kowalczyk, Claire Khosravi, Samuel Purvine, Alice Dohnalkova, William B Chrisler, Galya Orr, Errol Robinson, Erika Zink, Ad Wiebenga, Mao Peng, Evy Battaglia, Scott Baker, Ronald P de Vries
In A. niger, two transcription factors, AraR and XlnR, regulate the production of enzymes involved in degradation of arabinoxylan and catabolism of the released L-arabinose and D-xylose. Deletion of both araR and xlnR in leads to reduced production of (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes and reduced growth on arabinan, arabinogalactan and xylan. In this study we investigated the colonization and degradation of wheat bran by the A. niger reference strain CBS 137562 and araR/xlnR regulatory mutants using high-resolution microscopy and exo-proteomics...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027458/stringent-response-induced-by-phosphate-limitation-promotes-purine-salvage-in-agrobacterium-fabrum
#4
Smitha Sivapragasam, Dinesh K Deochand, Jacob K Meariman, Anne Grove
Agrobacterium fabrum induces tumor growth in susceptible plant species. The upregulation of virulence genes that occurs when the bacterium senses plant-derived compounds is enhanced by acidic pH and limiting inorganic phosphate. Nutrient starvation may also trigger the stringent response, and purine salvage is among the pathways expected to be favored under such conditions. We show here that phosphate limitation induces the stringent response, as evidenced by production of (p)ppGpp, and that the xdhCSML operon encoding the purine salvage enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase is upregulated ~15-fold...
October 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026147/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-cartilage-development-and-osteoarthritis
#5
Masashi Nagao, John L Hamilton, Ranjan Kc, Agnes D Berendsen, Xuchen Duan, Chan Wook Cheong, Xin Li, Hee-Jeong Im, Bjorn R Olsen
Genome wide studies indicate that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), and increased VEGF expression correlates with increased disease severity. VEGF is also a chondrocyte survival factor during development and essential for bone formation, skeletal growth and postnatal homeostasis. This raises questions of how the important embryonic and postnatal functions of VEGF can be reconciled with an apparently destructive role in OA. Addressing these questions, we find that VEGF acts as a survival factor in growth plate chondrocytes during development but only up until a few weeks after birth in mice...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024819/a-modular-metabolic-engineering-approach-for-the-production-of-1-2-propanediol-from-glycerol-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Zia-Ul Islam, Mathias Klein, Maximilian R Aßkamp, Anders S R Ødum, Elke Nevoigt
Compared to sugars, a major advantage of using glycerol as a feedstock for industrial bioprocesses is the fact that this molecule is more reduced than sugars. A compound whose biotechnological production might greatly profit from the substrate's higher reducing power is 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO). Here we present a novel metabolic engineering approach to produce 1,2-PDO from glycerol in S. cerevisiae. Apart from implementing the heterologous methylglyoxal (MG) pathway for 1,2-PDO formation from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and expressing a heterologous glycerol facilitator, the employed genetic modifications included the replacement of the native FAD-dependent glycerol catabolic pathway by the `DHA pathway´ for delivery of cytosolic NADH and the reduction of triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity for increased precursor (DHAP) supply...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022868/the-nitrogen-regulated-response-regulator-nrra-is-a-conserved-regulator-of-glycogen-catabolism-in-%C3%AE-cyanobacteria
#7
Shigeki Ehira, Yuka Shimmori, Satoru Watanabe, Hiroaki Kato, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Masayuki Ohmori
Cyanobacteria acclimatize to nitrogen deprivation by changing cellular metabolism. The nitrogen-regulated response regulator A (NrrA) is involved in regulation of carbon metabolism in response to nitrogen deprivation. However, it has not been elucidated whether these regulatory functions of NrrA are particular to a few model strains or are general among diverse cyanobacteria. In this study, we showed that regulation and functions of NrrA were highly conserved among β-cyanobacteria, which included physiologically and ecologically diverse strains...
October 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022195/high-lc3-beclin-expression-correlates-with-poor-survival-in-glioma-a-definitive-role-for-autophagy-as-evidenced-by-in-vitro-autophagic-flux
#8
Padmakrishnan Cj, Easwer Hv, Vinod Vijayakurup, Girish R Menon, Suresh Nair, Srinivas Gopala
Recent studies suggest the role of autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process, in determining the response of gliomas to treatment either positively or negatively. The study attempts to characterize autophagy in low and high-grade glioma by investigating the autophagic flux and clinical significance of autophagy proteins (LC3 and beclin 1) in a group of glioma patients. We evaluated the expression of autophagic markers in resected specimens of low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) tissues, by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting...
October 11, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021745/tyramine-actions-on-drosophila-flight-behavior-are-affected-by-a-glial-dehydrogenase-reductase
#9
Stefanie Ryglewski, Carsten Duch, Benjamin Altenhein
The biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate insect motor behavior in an antagonistic manner. OA generally enhances locomotor behaviors such as Drosophila larval crawling and flight, whereas TA decreases locomotor activity. However, the mechanisms and cellular targets of TA modulation of locomotor activity are incompletely understood. This study combines immunocytochemistry, genetics and flight behavioral assays in the Drosophila model system to test the role of a candidate enzyme for TA catabolism, named Nazgul (Naz), in flight motor behavioral control...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020919/cell-wall-metabolism-and-hexose-allocation-contribute-to-biomass-accumulation-in-high-yielding-extreme-segregants-of-a-saccharum-interspecific-f2-population
#10
Ching Man Wai, Jisen Zhang, Tyler C Jones, Chifumi Nagai, Ray Ming
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is an emerging dual-purpose biofuel crop for energy and sugar production, owing to its rapid growth rate, high sucrose storage in the stems, and high lignocellulosic yield. It has the highest biomass production reaching 1.9 billion tonnes in 2014 worldwide. RESULTS: To improve sugarcane biomass accumulation, we developed an interspecific cross between Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum 'MOL5829'. Selected F1 individuals were self-pollinated to generate a transgressive F2 population with a wide range of biomass yield...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020740/positive-and-relaxed-selection-associated-with-flight-evolution-and-loss-in-insect-transcriptomes
#11
T Fatima Mitterboeck, Shanlin Liu, Sarah J Adamowicz, Jinzhong Fu, Rui Zhang, Wenhui Song, Karen Meusemann, Xin Zhou
The evolution of powered flight is a major innovation that has facilitated the success of insects. Previously, studies of birds, bats, and insects have detected molecular signatures of differing selection regimes in energy-related genes associated with flight evolution and/or loss. Here, using DNA sequences from more than 1000 nuclear and mitochondrial protein-coding genes obtained from insect transcriptomes, we conduct a broader exploration of which gene categories display positive and relaxed selection at the origin of flight as well as with multiple independent losses of flight...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020628/molecular-mechanism-by-which-prominent-human-gut-bacteroidetes-utilize-mixed-linkage-beta-glucans-major-health-promoting-cereal-polysaccharides
#12
Kazune Tamura, Glyn R Hemsworth, Guillaume Déjean, Theresa E Rogers, Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Eric C Martens, Harry Brumer
Microbial utilization of complex polysaccharides is a major driving force in shaping the composition of the human gut microbiota. There is a growing appreciation that finely tuned polysaccharide utilization loci enable ubiquitous gut Bacteroidetes to thrive on the plethora of complex polysaccharides that constitute "dietary fiber." Mixed-linkage β(1,3)/β(1,4)-glucans (MLGs) are a key family of plant cell wall polysaccharides with recognized health benefits but whose mechanism of utilization has remained unclear...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019426/anti-catabolic-neurohormonal-blockade-to-improve-skeletal-muscle-during-disease
#13
Alessio Molfino, Maria Ida Amabile, Maurizio Muscaritoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019163/enzyme-replacement-therapy-in-a-patient-of-heterozygous-fabry-disease-clinical-and-pathological-evaluations-by-repeat-kidney-biopsy-and-a-successful-pregnancy
#14
Yoichi Iwafuchi, Hiroki Maruyama, Tetsuo Morioka, Seiko Noda, Hiroshi Nagata, Yuko Oyama, Ichiei Narita
Fabry disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder of glycosphingolipid catabolism caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal hydrolase alpha-galactosidase A (ɑ-Gal A). A 20-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of proteinuria and persistent macroscopic hematuria. Based on the typical renal pathological findings, deficient activity of the ɑ-Gal A, and heterozygous mutation in the ɑ-Gal A gene, she was diagnosed with Fabry disease. After 1 year of enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase alfa at 0...
October 10, 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018446/autophagy-proteins-in-phagocyte-endocytosis-and-exocytosis
#15
REVIEW
Christian Münz
Autophagy was initially described as a catabolic pathway that recycles nutrients of cytoplasmic constituents after lysosomal degradation during starvation. Since the immune system monitors products of lysosomal degradation via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II restricted antigen presentation, autophagy was found to process intracellular antigens for display on MHC class II molecules. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that the molecular machinery of autophagy serves phagocytes in many more membrane trafficking pathways, thereby regulating immunity to infectious disease agents...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017947/integrated-profiling-of-global-metabolomic-and-transcriptomic-responses-to-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-infection-in-olive-flounder
#16
Se-Young Cho, Yong Kook Kwon, Miso Nam, Bipin Vaidya, Seok Ryel Kim, Sunghoon Lee, Joseph Kwon, Duwoon Kim, Geum-Sook Hwang
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is one of the most serious viral pathogen that infects farmed fish. In this study, we measured the replication of VHSV increased steadily at 9, 24, 72, and 120 h after infection and progression of necrosis was observed at 72 hpi. We performed transcriptomic and metabolomics profiling of kidney tissues collected at each infection time using Illumina HiSeq2000 and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy to investigate the mechanisms of VHSV infection in the kidneys of olive flounder...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017758/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacological-characterization-of-asp8477-a-novel-highly-selective-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibitor
#17
Tomonari Watabiki, Noriko Tsuji, Tetsuo Kiso, Tohru Ozawa, Fumie Narazaki, Shuichiro Kakimoto
Although exogenous agonists for cannabinoid (CB) receptors are clinically effective for treating chronic pain, global activation of brain CB receptors causes frequent central nervous system (CNS) side-effects. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a primary catabolic enzyme for anandamide (AEA), an endogenous CB. Recently, we discovered a novel FAAH inhibitor, 3-pyridyl 4-(phenylcarbamoyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (ASP8477). In vitro studies demonstrated that ASP8477 inhibited human FAAH-1, FAAH-1 (P129T) and FAAH-2 activity with IC50 values of 3...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016798/broad-phylogenetic-occurrence-of-the-oxygen-binding-hemerythrins-in-bilaterians
#18
Elisa M Costa-Paiva, Carlos G Schrago, Kenneth M Halanych
Animal tissues need to be properly oxygenated for carrying out catabolic respiration and, as such, natural selection has presumably favored special molecules that can reversibly bind and transport oxygen. Hemoglobins, hemocyanins, and hemerythrins (Hrs) fulfill this role, with Hrs being the least studied. Knowledge of oxygen-binding proteins is crucial for understanding animal physiology. Hr genes are present in the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota; however, within Animalia, Hrs has been reported only in marine species in six phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Priapulida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, and Arthropoda)...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016371/inflammation-in-bone-physiology-and-pathology
#19
Iannis E Adamopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone is constantly being remodeled throughout adult life through constant anabolic and catabolic actions that maintain tissue homeostasis. A number of hormones, cytokines growth factors, and the proximity of various cells to bone surfaces influence this process. Inflammatory changes at the bone microenvironment result in alterations leading to both excessive bone loss and bone formation. Detailed understanding of the physiological and pathological mechanisms that dictate these changes will allow us to harness inflammatory signals in bone regeneration...
October 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016348/parp-1-and-parp-2-activity-in-cancer-induced-cachexia-potential-therapeutic-implications
#20
Esther Barreiro, Joaquim Gea
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and mass loss is a characteristic feature in patients with chronic diseases including cancer and acute conditions such as critical illness. Maintenance of an adequate muscle mass is crucial for the patients' prognosis irrespective of the underlying condition. Moreover, aging-related sarcopenia may further aggravate the muscle wasting process associated with chronic diseases and cancer. Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation has been demonstrated to contribute to the pathophysiology of muscle mass loss and dysfunction in animal models of cancer-induced cachexia...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
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