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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220810/simultaneous-efficient-removal-of-oxyfluorfen-with-electricity-generation-in-a-microbial-fuel-cell-and-its-microbial-community-analysis
#1
Qinghua Zhang, Lei Zhang, Han Wang, Qinrui Jiang, Xiaoyu Zhu
The performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to degrade oxyfluorfen was investigated. Approximately 77% of 50 mg/L oxyfluorfen was degraded within 24 h by anodic biofilm. The temperature, pH, and initial oxyfluorfen concentration had a significant effect on oxyfluorfen degrading, and a maximum degradation rate of 94.95% could theoretically be achieved at 31.96 °C, a pH of 7.65, and an initial oxyfluorfen concentration of 120.05 mg/L. Oxyfluorfen was further catabolized through various microbial metabolism pathways...
December 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218503/differential-alterations-in-metabolism-and-proteolysis-related-proteins-in-human-parkinson-s-disease-substantia-nigra
#2
Edna Grünblatt, Josefine Ruder, Camelia Maria Monoranu, Peter Riederer, Moussa Bh Youdim, Silvia A Mandel
Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, with the majority of cases being sporadic or "idiopathic". The aetiology of the sporadic form is still unknown, but there is a broad consensus that Parkinson's disease involves multiple pathways. In previous human post-mortem studies investigating substantia nigra of parkinsonian subjects, gene expression alterations in various metabolic pathways including protein folding, trafficking, aggregation, ubiquitination and oxidative stress were found...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218435/educational-review-measurement-of-gfr-in-special-populations
#3
Guido Filler, Misan Lee
IMPORTANCE: Changes in kidney function are typically followed by the sequential estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Formulae for eGFR work well on a population basis, but there are well-known conditions where they do not work. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing literature on special populations in the pediatric age range and provide recommendations on how to estimate GFR in these populations. FINDINGS: The reliability of creatinine depends on muscle mass, while cystatin C (not widely available) is limited by inflammation and changes in protein catabolism...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217579/structural-basis-for-methylphosphonate-biosynthesis
#4
David A Born, Emily C Ulrich, Kou-San Ju, Spencer C Peck, Wilfred A van der Donk, Catherine L Drennan
Methylphosphonate synthase (MPnS) produces methylphosphonate, a metabolic precursor to methane in the upper ocean. Here, we determine a 2.35-angstrom resolution structure of MPnS and discover that it has an unusual 2-histidine-1-glutamine iron-coordinating triad. We further solve the structure of a related enzyme, hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase from Streptomyces albus (SaHEPD), and find that it displays the same motif. SaHEPD can be converted into an MPnS by mutation of glutamine-adjacent residues, identifying the molecular requirements for methylphosphonate synthesis...
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216827/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-brevibacterium-strains-insights-into-key-genetic-determinants-involved-in-adaptation-to-the-cheese-habitat
#5
Nguyen-Phuong Pham, Séverine Layec, Eric Dugat-Bony, Marie Vidal, Françoise Irlinger, Christophe Monnet
BACKGROUND: Brevibacterium strains are widely used for the manufacturing of surface-ripened cheeses, contributing to the breakdown of lipids and proteins and producing volatile sulfur compounds and red-orange pigments. The objective of the present study was to perform comparative genomic analyses in order to better understand the mechanisms involved in their ability to grow on the cheese surface and the differences between the strains. RESULTS: The genomes of 23 Brevibacterium strains, including twelve strains isolated from cheeses, were compared for their gene repertoire involved in salt tolerance, iron acquisition, bacteriocin production and the ability to use the energy compounds present in cheeses...
December 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216582/cellular-and-mitochondrial-determination-of-low-molecular-mass-organic-acids-by-lc-ms-ms
#6
Jessica Fiori, Elisa Amadesi, Flaminia Fanelli, Concetta Valentina Tropeano, Michela Rugolo, Roberto Gotti
A selective and sensitive method for the determination of low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) in cell and mitochondrial extracts is presented. The analytical method consists in the separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography and detection with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of the LMMOAs like malic, succinic, formic and citric acids. These acids are among the cellular intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), thus their quantitation can provide essential information about the catabolic and anabolic processes occurring in cells under physiological and pathological conditions...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216488/microbial-community-composition-and-pahs-removal-potential-of-indigenous-bacteria-in-oil-contaminated-sediment-of-taean-coast-korea
#7
Dong Wan Lee, Hanbyul Lee, Aslan Hwanhwi Lee, Bong-Oh Kwon, Jong Seong Khim, Un Hyuk Yim, Beom Seok Kim, Jae-Jin Kim
The tidal flats near Sinduri beach in Taean, Korea, have been severely contaminated by heavy crude oils due to the Korea's worst oil spill accident, say the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill, in 2007. Crude oil compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pose significant environmental damages due to their wide distribution, persistence, high toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity. Microbial community of Sinduri beach sediments samples was analyzed by metagenomic data with 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216408/a-cold-responsive-erf-from-medicago-falcata-confers-cold-tolerance-by-up-regulation-of-polyamine-turnover-antioxidant-protection-and-proline-accumulation
#8
Chunliu Zhuo, Lu Liang, Yaqing Zhao, Zhenfei Guo, Shaoyun Lu
ERF subfamily transcription factors play an important role in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. A cold responsive ethylene responsive factor (ERF), MfERF1, was isolated from Medicago falcata, an important forage legume that has great cold tolerance. Overexpression of MfERF1 resulted in an increased tolerance to freezing and chilling in transgenic tobacco plants, while down-regulation of the ortholog of MfERF1 in M. truncatula resulted in reduced freezing tolerance in RNAi plants. Higher transcript levels of some stress responsive genes (CHN50, OSM, ERD10C, and SAMS) and those involved in spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) synthesis (SAMDC1, SAMDC2, SPDS1, SPDS2, and SPMS) and catabolism (PAO) were observed in transgenic plants than in WT...
December 7, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215758/plin5-deficiency-promotes-atherosclerosis-progression-through-accelerating-inflammation-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress
#9
Peng-Li Zhou, Min Li, Xin-Wei Han, Yong-Hua Bi, Wen-Guang Zhang, Zheng-Yang Wu, Gang Wu
Excessive plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels promote the progression of several prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, including atherosclerosis, which is a leading death cause. Perilipin 5 (Plin5), an important perilipin protein, is abundant in tissues with very active lipid catabolism, and is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress. Although, in?ammation and oxidative stress play a critical role in atherosclerosis development, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not completely understood...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214360/insights-into-the-genome-and-proteome-of-sphingomonas-paucimobilis-strain-20006fa-involved-in-the-regulation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degradation
#10
M Macchi, M Martinez, R M Neme Tauil, M P Valacco, I S Morelli, B M Coppotelli
In order to study the mechanisms regulating the phenanthrene degradation pathway and the intermediate-metabolite accumulation in strain S. paucimobilis 20006FA, we sequenced the genome and compared the genome-based predictions to experimental proteomic analyses. Physiological studies indicated that the degradation involved the salicylate and protocatechuate pathways, reaching 56.3% after 15 days. Furthermore, the strain degraded other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as anthracene (13.1%), dibenzothiophene (76...
December 6, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213327/green-route-to-synthesis-of-valuable-chemical-6-hydroxynicotine-from-nicotine-in-tobacco-wastes-using-genetically-engineered-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-s33
#11
Wenjun Yu, Rongshui Wang, Huili Li, Jiyu Liang, Yuanyuan Wang, Haiyan Huang, Huijun Xie, Shuning Wang
Background: Tobacco is widely planted as an important nonfood economic crop throughout the world, and large amounts of tobacco wastes are generated during the tobacco manufacturing process. Tobacco and its wastes contain high nicotine content. This issue has become a major concern for health and environments due to its toxicity and complex physiological effects. The microbial transformation of nicotine into valuable functionalized pyridine compounds is a promising way to utilize tobacco and its wastes as a potential biomass resource...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212886/lactate-not-lactic-acid-is-produced-by-cellular-cytosolic-energy-catabolism
#12
EDITORIAL
Robert A Robergs, Craig R McNulty, Geoffrey M Minett, Justin Holland, Gabriel Trajano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212709/a-eukaryotic-nicotinate-inducible-gene-cluster-convergent-evolution-in-fungi-and-bacteria
#13
Judit Ámon, Rafael Fernández-Martín, Eszter Bokor, Antonietta Cultrone, Joan M Kelly, Michel Flipphi, Claudio Scazzocchio, Zsuzsanna Hamari
Nicotinate degradation has hitherto been elucidated only in bacteria. In the ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, six loci, hxnS/AN9178 encoding the molybdenum cofactor-containing nicotinate hydroxylase, AN11197 encoding a Cys2/His2 zinc finger regulator HxnR, together with AN11196/hxnZ, AN11188/hxnY, AN11189/hxnP and AN9177/hxnT, are clustered and stringently co-induced by a nicotinate derivative and subject to nitrogen metabolite repression mediated by the GATA factor AreA. These genes are strictly co-regulated by HxnR...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211452/promoted-chondrogenesis-of-co-cultured-chondrocytes-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-hypoxia-using-in-situ-forming-degradable-hydrogel-scaffolds
#14
Xiaobin Huang, Yong Hou, Leilei Zhong, Dechun Huang, Hongliang Qian, Marcel Karperien, Wei Chen
We investigated the effects of different oxygen tension (21% and 2.5% O2) on the chondrogenesis of different cell systems cultured in pH-degradable PVA hydrogels including human articular chondrocytes (hACs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and their co-cultures with a hAC/hMSC ratio of 20/80. These hydrogels were prepared with vinyl ether acrylate-functionalized PVA (PVA-VEA) and thiolated PVA-VEA (PVA-VEA-SH) via Michael-type addition reaction. The rheology tests determined the gelation of the hydrogels was controlled within 2-7 min dependent on the polymer concentrations...
December 6, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208972/effects-of-1-25-and-24-25-vitamin-d-on-corneal-epithelial-proliferation-migration-and-vitamin-d-metabolizing-and-catabolizing-enzymes
#15
Xiaowen Lu, Zhong Chen, Namratha Mylarapu, Mitchell A Watsky
This study investigated the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 on corneal epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and on the vitamin D activating enzyme CYP27B1 (produces 1,25(OH)2D3) and inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 (produces 24R,25(OH)2D3). The role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was also examined. In VDR wildtype mouse corneal epithelial cells (WT), 1,25(OH)2D3 increased CYP24A1 protein expression and decreased CYP27B1 expression. In VDR knockout mouse epithelial cells (KO), 1,25(OH)2D3 increased CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 protein expression...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208501/autophagic-processes-in-mytilus-galloprovincialis-hemocytes-effects-of-vibrio-tapetis
#16
Teresa Balbi, Katia Cortese, Caterina Ciacci, Grazia Bellese, Luigi Vezzulli, Carla Pruzzo, Laura Canesi
Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic process involved in maintaining cell homeostasis in response to different stressors. The autophagic machinery is also used as an innate immune mechanism against microbial infection. In invertebrates, that lack acquired immunity, autophagy may thus play a key role in the protection against potential pathogens. In aquatic molluscs, evidence has been provided for induction of autophagy by starvation and different environmental stressors; however, no information is available on autophagic pathways in the immune cells, the hemocytes...
December 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207603/effects-of-baicalein-on-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-rat-articular-chondrocytes
#17
Yue Li, Jinglu Wang, Xiaopeng Song, Hui Bai, Tianwen Ma, Zhiheng Zhang, Xinran Li, Renli Jiang, Guanying Wang, Xiaojing Fan, Xu Liu, Li Gao
In osteoarthritis (OA), activated synoviocytes and articular chondrocytes produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, that promote chondrocyte apoptosis and activate the NF-κB signaling pathway to induce catabolic factors. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of baicalein on IL-1β signaling and NF-κB-regulated gene products in rat chondrocytes. Rat chondrocytes were pretreated with 10 ng/ml IL-1β for 24 h and then co-treated with 10 ng/ml IL-1β and 50 μM baicalein for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48h...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205517/within-day-energy-deficiency-and-reproductive-function-in-female-endurance-athletes
#18
I L Fahrenholtz, A Sjödin, D Benardot, Å B Tornberg, S Skouby, J Faber, J Sundgot-Borgen, A Melin
We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR), body-composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T3 , and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n=10) and MD (n=15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n=11), MD not related to low EA (n=5), and low dietary record validity (n=4) had been excluded...
December 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205354/podocytes-are-new-cellular-targets-of-hemoglobin-mediated-renal-damage
#19
Alfonso Rubio-Navarro, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Melania Guerrero-Hue, Cristina García-Caballero, Eduardo Gutiérrez, Claudia Yuste, Ángel Sevillano, Manuel Praga, Javier Egea, Elena Román, Pablo Cannata, Rosa Ortega, Isabel Cortegano, Belén de Andrés, María Luisa Gaspar, Susana Cadenas, Alberto Ortiz, Jesús Egido, Juan Antonio Moreno
Recurrent and massive intravascular hemolysis induces proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis and progressive impairment of renal function, suggesting podocyte injury. However, the effects of hemoglobin (Hb) on podocytes remain unexplored. Our results show that cultured human podocytes or podocytes isolated from murine glomeruli bound and endocytosed Hb through the megalin-cubilin receptor system, thus resulting in increased intracellular Hb catabolism, oxidative stress, activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and altered podocyte morphology, with decreased expressionof the slit diaphragm proteins nephrin and synaptopodin...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205258/sustained-intra-cartilage-delivery-of-low-dose-dexamethasone-using-a-cationic-carrier-for-treatment-of-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis
#20
A G Bajpayee, R E De la Vega, M Scheu, N H Varady, I A Yannatos, L A Brown, Y Krishnan, T J Fitzsimons, P Bhattacharya, E H Frank, A J Grodzinsky, R M Porter
Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs) should reach their intra-tissue target sites at optimal doses for clinical efficacy. The dense, negatively charged matrix of cartilage poses a major hindrance to the transport of potential therapeutics. In this work, electrostatic interactions were utilised to overcome this challenge and enable higher uptake, full-thickness penetration and enhanced retention of dexamethasone (Dex) inside rabbit cartilage. This was accomplished by using the positively charged glycoprotein avidin as nanocarrier, conjugated to Dex by releasable linkers...
December 5, 2017: European Cells & Materials
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