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Justyna Fidler, Edyta Zdunek-Zastocka, Beata Prabucka, Wiesław Bielawski
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a predominant role in the onset and maintenance of primary dormancy. Peak ABA accumulation in embryos of triticale grains was observed before any significant loss of water and was higher in Fredro, a cultivar less susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), than in Leontino, a cultivar more sensitive to PHS. At full maturity, embryonic ABA content in Fredro was twice as high as in Leontino. Two full-length cDNAs of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (TsNCED1, TsNCED2), an enzyme involved in ABA biosynthesis, and two full-length cDNAs of ABA 8'-hydroxylase (TsABA8'OH1 and TsABA8'OH2), an enzyme involved in ABA catabolism, were identified in triticale grains and characterized...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Zhaoyue Wang, Xuejing Bai, Xuena Guo, Xiuping He
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is widely used in food, perfume and pharmaceutical industry, but lower production in microbes and less known regulatory mechanisms of 2-PE make further study necessary. In this study, crucial genes like ARO8 and ARO10 of Ehrlich pathway for 2-PE synthesis and key transcription factor ARO80 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were re-regulated using constitutive promoter; in the meantime, the effect of nitrogen source in synthetic complete (SC) medium with L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) on Aro8/Aro9 and Aro10 was investigated...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Chencheng Feng, Yang Zhang, Minghui Yang, Minghong Lan, Huan Liu, Jian Wang, Yue Zhou, Bo Huang
Intervertebral disc (IVD) cell senescence is a recognized mechanism of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying disc cell senescence will contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of IDD. We previously reported that N-acetylated proline-glycine-proline (N-Ac-PGP), a matrikine, is involved in the process of IDD. However, its roles in IDD are not well understood. Here, using rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, we showed that N-Ac-PGP induced premature senescence of NP cells by binding to CXCR1...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tristan Barbeyron, François Thomas, Valérie Barbe, Hanno Teeling, Chantal Schenowitz, Carole Dossat, Alexander Goesmann, Catherine Leblanc, Frank Oliver Glöckner, Mirjam Czjzek, Rudolf Amann, Gurvan Michel
The marine flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans Dsij(T) was isolated from a red alga and by now constitutes a model for studying algal polysaccharide bioconversions. We present an in-depth analysis of its complete genome and link it to physiological traits. Z. galactanivorans exhibited the highest gene numbers for glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases and the second highest sulfatase gene number in a comparison to 125 other marine heterotrophic bacteria (MHB) genomes. Its genome contains 50 Polysaccharide Utilization Loci, 22 of which contain sulfatase genes...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Timothy J Williams, Michelle Allen, Bernhard Tschitschko, Ricardo Cavicchioli
Haloarchaea are heterotrophic members of the Archaea that thrive in hypersaline environments, often feeding off the glycerol that is produced as an osmolyte by eucaryotic Dunaliella during primary production. In this study we analyzed glycerol metabolism genes in closed genomes of haloarchaea, and examined published data describing the growth properties of haloarchaea and experimental data for the enzymes involved. By integrating the genomic data with knowledge from the literature, we derived an understanding of the ecophysiology and evolutionary properties of glycerol catabolic pathways in haloarchaea...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Fan Xiaojun, Yang Chun, Liu Jianhong, Zhang Chang, Li Yao
The Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a serious pest of forest and shade trees in many Asian and some European countries. However, there have been few studies of L. dispar genetic information and comprehensive genetic analyses of this species are needed in order to understand its genetic and metabolic sensitivities, such as the molting mechanism during larval development. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of the Asian subspecies of the gyspy moth, after which a comprehensive analysis of chitin metabolism was undertaken...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Lorenza Brocca, Luana Toniolo, Carlo Reggiani, Roberto Bottinelli, Marco Sandri, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Muscle atrophy is a complex process that is in common with many different catabolic diseases including disuse/inactivity and ageing. The signalling pathways that control the atrophy program in the different disuse/inactivity conditions have not yet been completely dissected. It has been recently reported that inhibition of FoxO only partially spared muscle mass after denervation. The purposes of this study were: (i) to determine the involvement of FoxOs in hindlimb suspension disuse model, (ii) to define whether the molecular events of protein breakdown are shared among different unloaded muscles and finally (iii) to compare the data obtained in this model with another model of inactivity such as denervation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Kelvin I Afrashtehfar, Cyrus Dm Afrashtehfar
Data sourcesPubMed, Ovid, EMBASE and LILACS were searched up to December 2011. In addition, the reference lists of the selected review papers were further hand searched. Language was limited to studies published only in English.Study selectionHuman and animal randomised clinical trials (RCT), systematic reviews of RCTs, non-randomised trials, case series that reported on the clinical, radiographic, and/or histological outcomes of dental/oral implants exposed to excessive load were considered eligible for inclusion...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Whitney D Hollinshead, Sarah Rodriguez, Hector Garcia Martin, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Kenneth L Sale, Jay D Keasling, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Yinjie J Tang
BACKGROUND: Glycolysis breakdowns glucose into essential building blocks and ATP/NAD(P)H for the cell, occupying a central role in its growth and bio-production. Among glycolytic pathways, the Entner Doudoroff pathway (EDP) is a more thermodynamically favorable pathway with fewer enzymatic steps than either the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP) or the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). However, Escherichia coli do not use their native EDP for glucose metabolism. RESULTS: Overexpression of edd and eda in E...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yuan Wu, Yun Wang, Xue-Fei Mi, Jun-Xiang Shan, Xin-Min Li, Jian-Long Xu, Hong-Xuan Lin
Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Ana C Henriques, Rui M S Azevedo, Paolo De Marco
Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is a relevant intermediate of the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur and environmental microorganisms assume an important role in the mineralization of this compound. Several methylotrophic bacterial strains able to grow on MSA have been isolated from soil or marine water and two conserved operons, msmABCD coding for MSA monooxygenase and msmEFGH coding for a transport system, have been repeatedly encountered in most of these strains. Homologous sequences have also been amplified directly from the environment or observed in marine metagenomic data, but these showed a base composition (G + C content) very different from their counterparts from cultivated bacteria...
2016: PeerJ
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Maria Esther Perez-Perez, Stéphane D Lemaire, Jose L Crespo
Autophagy is a major catabolic pathway by which eukaryotic cells deliver unnecessary or damaged cytoplasmic material to the vacuole for its degradation and recycling in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Control of autophagy has been associated with the production of reactive oxygen species in several organisms including plants and algae but the precise regulatory molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that the ATG4 protease, an essential protein for autophagosome biogenesis, plays a central role for the redox regulation of autophagy in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
October 17, 2016: Plant Physiology
Kaleigh Giles, Benjamin Pluvinage, Alisdair B Boraston
The polysaccharide utilization locus in Bacteroides plebeius that confers the ability to catabolize porphyran contains a putative GH50 β-agarase (BACPLE_01683, BpGH50). BpGH50 did not show any clear activity on agarose or on the related algal galactans porphyran and carrageenan. However, the 1.4 Å resolution x-ray crystal structure of BpGH50 confirmed its possession of the core (α/β)8 barrel fold found in GH50 enzymes as well as the structural conservation of the catalytic residues and some substrate binding residues...
October 18, 2016: Proteins
Adam E Brummett, Mishtu Dey
The marine microbial catabolism of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) by the lyase pathway liberates ~300 million tons of dimethylsulfide (DMS) per year, which plays a major role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur. Recent biochemical and structural studies of some DMSP lyases, including DddQ reveal the importance of divalent transition metal ions in assisting DMSP cleavage. While DddQ is believed to be zinc-dependent primarily based on structural studies, excess zinc inhibits the enzyme. We examine the importance of iron in regulating the DMSP β-elimination reaction catalyzed by DddQ as our as-isolated purple-colored enzyme possesses ~0...
October 18, 2016: Biochemistry
Simone Vincenzi, Alain J Crivelli, Stephan Munch, Hans J Skaug, Marc Mangel
Better understanding of variation in growth will always be an important problem in ecology. Individual variation in growth can arise from a variety of processes; for example, individuals within a population vary in their intrinsic metabolic rates and behavioral traits, which may influence their foraging dynamics and access to resources. However, when adopting a growth model, we face trade-offs between model complexity, biological interpretability of parameters, and goodness of fit. We explore how different formulations of the von Bertalanffy growth function (vBGF) with individual random effects and environmental predictors affect these trade-offs...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yang Ding, Jinhong Zhao, Ying Nie, Bei Fan, Shujuan Wu, Yu Zhang, Jiping Sheng, Lin Shen, Ruirui Zhao, Xuanming Tang
Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on gibberellin (GA) homeostasis, cold-responsive transcription factor (CBF) pathway, and antioxidant enzyme systems linked to chilling- and oxidative-stress tolerance in tomato fruit was investigated. Mature green tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Moneymaker) were treated with 0, 0.5, and 1 mM SA solution for 15 min before storage at 4°C for 28 days. Compared with 0 or 0.5 mM SA, 1 mM SA significantly decreased the chilling injury (CI) index in tomato fruit. In the SA-treated fruit, the upregulation of GA biosynthetic gene (GA3ox1) expression was followed by gibberellic acid (GA3) surge and DELLA protein degradation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xiong Liao, Xiao Guo, Qi Wang, Yantao Wang, Di Zhao, Liping Yao, Shuang Wang, Guojie Liu, Tianhong Li
Dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling pathways in model plants. However, little is known about the function of DREBs in apple (Malus × domestica), a widely cultivated crop that is frequently threatened by drought. We isolated a DREB gene from Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem., MsDREB6.2, and investigated its functions using overexpression analysis and chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T). We identified possible target genes of the protein encoded by MsDREB6...
October 18, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jingyu Yao, Lin Jia, Kecia Feathers, Chengmao Lin, Naheed W Khan, Daniel J Klionsky, Thomas A Ferguson, David N Zacks
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway critical to preventing the accumulation of cytotoxic proteins. Deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 from the rod photoreceptors of the retina (atg5(Δrod) mouse) results in the accumulation of the phototransduction protein transducin and the degeneration of these neurons. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that autophagic degradation of visual transduction proteins prevents retinal degeneration. Targeted deletion of both Gnat1 (a gene encoding the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein transducin) and Atg5 in the rod photoreceptors resulted in a significantly decreased rate of rod cell degeneration as compared to the atg5(Δrod) mouse retina, and considerable preservation of photoreceptors...
October 18, 2016: Autophagy
Cheng-Hao Weng, Ching-Chih Hu, Tzung-Hai Yen, Ching-Wei Hsu, Wen-Hung Huang
Serum albumin had been noted to be a predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) less than 0.8 or greater than 1.4 g/kg/d was also associated with greater mortality. There was no previous study to show the effectiveness of combination of serum albumin and nPCR to predict the mortality in chronic HD patients. Eight hundred and sixty-six patients were divided into 4 groups according to their nPCR and serum albumin levels. Biochemical, and hematological parameters were recorded...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
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