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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635330/multiple-functions-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-a-metabolic-crosslight
#1
Grazia R Tundo, Diego Sbardella, Chiara Ciaccio, Giuseppe Grasso, Magda Gioia, Andrea Coletta, Fabio Polticelli, Donato Di Pierro, Danilo Milardi, Peter Van Endert, Stefano Marini, Massimo Coletta
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitous zinc peptidase of the inverzincin family, which has been initially discovered as the enzyme responsible for insulin catabolism; therefore, its involvement in the onset of diabetes has been largely investigated. However, further studies on IDE unraveled its ability to degrade several other polypeptides, such as β-amyloid, amylin, and glucagon, envisaging the possible implication of IDE dys-regulation in the "aggregopathies" and, in particular, in neurodegenerative diseases...
June 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634643/acute-high-caffeine-exposure-increases-autophagic-flux-and-reduces-protein-synthesis-in-c2c12-skeletal-myotubes
#2
M A Hughes, R M Downs, G W Webb, C L Crocker, S T Kinsey, Bradley L Baumgarner
Caffeine is a highly catabolic dietary stimulant. High caffeine concentrations (1-10 mM) have previously been shown to inhibit protein synthesis and increase protein degradation in various mammalian cell lines. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term caffeine exposure on cell signaling pathways that regulate protein metabolism in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Fully differentiated C2C12 skeletal myotubes either received vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mM caffeine for 6 h. Our analysis revealed that caffeine promoted a 40% increase in autolysosome formation and a 25% increase in autophagic flux...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633000/nutrition-support-for-critically-ill-patients-with-cancer
#3
Kristen Lach, Sarah J Peterson
Oncology patients often experience the classic signs of malnutrition-weight loss as well as fat and muscle wasting, which have been associated with poor tolerance to treatment and increased morbidity and mortality. Nutrition status may be an important factor in determining tolerance to treatment and outcomes associated with it. Thus, identification of those with preexisting malnutrition or who are at risk for developing malnutrition is crucial not only at time of cancer diagnosis but also throughout the treatment course so that nutrition interventions may be implemented to prevent development or worsening of malnutrition in this high-risk population...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631340/insights-into-the-genomic-plasticity-of-pseudomonas-putida-kf715-a-strain-with-unique-biphenyl-utilizing-activity-and-genome-instability-properties
#4
Hikaru Suenaga, Hidehiko Fujihara, Nobutada Kimura, Jun Hirose, Takahito Watanabe, Taiki Futagami, Masatoshi Goto, Jun Shimodaira, Kensuke Furukawa
Pseudomonas putida KF715 exhibits unique properties in both catabolic activity and genome plasticity. Our previous studies revealed that the DNA region containing biphenyl and salycilate metabolism gene clusters (termed the bph-sal element) was frequently deleted and transferred by conjugation to closely related P. putida strains. In this study, we first determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the KF715 genome. Next, to determine the underlying cause of genome plasticity in KF715, we compared the KF715 genome with the genomes of one KF715 defective mutant, two transconjugants, and several P...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630648/comparative-metabolic-profiling-of-the-lipid-producing-green-microalga-chlorella-reveals-that-nitrogen-and-carbon-metabolic-pathways-contribute-to-lipid-metabolism
#5
Hui Chen, Yanli Zheng, Jiao Zhan, Chenliu He, Qiang Wang
Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel production. Microalgal metabolic pathways are heavily influenced by environmental factors. For instance, lipid metabolism can be induced by nitrogen-limiting conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms of lipid biosynthesis are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the global metabolic profiles of three genetically closely related Chlorella strains (C1, C2, and C3) with significant differences in lipid productivity to identify the contributions of key metabolic pathways to lipid metabolism...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#6
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630053/glucose-catabolism-in-liver-tumors-induced-by-c-myc-can-be-sustained-by-various-pkm1-pkm2-ratios-and-pyruvate-kinase-activities
#7
Andrés Méndez-Lucas, Xiaolei Li, Junjie Hu, Li Che, Xinhua Song, Jiaoyuan Jia, Jingxiao Wang, Chencheng Xie, Paul C Driscoll, Darjus F Tschaharganeh, Diego F Calvisi, Mariia Yuneva, Xin Chen
Different pyruvate kinase isoforms are expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) suggested to be the predominant isoform in proliferating cells and cancer cells. Due to differential regulation of enzymatic activities, PKM2 but not PKM1 has been thought to favor cell proliferation. However, the role of PKM2 in tumorigenesis has been recently challenged. Here we report that increased glucose catabolism through glycolysis and increased pyruvate kinase activity in c-MYC-driven liver tumors are associated with increased expression of both PKM1 and PKM2 isoforms and decreased expression of the liver-specific isoform of pyruvate kinase, PKL...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630000/betaine-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-expression-during-physiological-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-pregnancy
#8
Jesús Alfredo Rosas-Rodríguez, José Guadalupe Soñanez-Organis, José Arquimides Godoy-Lugo, Juan Alberto Espinoza-Salazar, Cesar Jeravy López-Jacobo, Norma Aurora Stephens-Camacho, Guadalupe González-Ochoa
Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (betaine aldehyde: NAD(P)(+) oxidoreductase, (E.C. 1.2.1.8; BADH) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde (BA) to glycine betaine (GB) and is essential for polyamine catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid synthesis, and carnitine biosynthesis. GB is an important osmolyte that regulates the homocysteine levels, contributing to a vascular risk factor reduction. In this sense, distinct investigations describe the physiological roles of GB, but there is a lack of information about the GB novo synthesis process and regulation during cardiac hypertrophy induced by pregnancy...
June 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629794/uncoupling-effect-of-palmitate-is-exacerbated-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-sea-acclimatized-king-penguins-aptenodytes-patagonicus
#9
Benjamin Rey, Claude Duchamp, Damien Roussel
In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627776/the-comt-val-108-158-met-genetic-polymorphism-can-not-be-recommended-as-a-biomarker-of-prediction-of-venlafaxine-efficacy-in-patients-treated-in-psychiatric-settings
#10
Adela Taranu, Khalil El Asmar, Romain Colle, Florian Ferreri, Mircea Polosan, Denis David, Laurent Becquemont, Emmanuelle Corruble, Céline Verstuyft
The antidepressant venlafaxine is known to increase the turn-over of cerebral monoamines, which are catabolized by the cathecol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). The COMT (Val108/158Met, rs4680) genetic polymorphism affects the cerebral COMT activity. But whether this genetic polymorphism is associated with response to venlafaxine remains unclear. We assessed the impact of the COMT Val(108/158)Met, rs4680 genetic polymorphism on the efficacy of venlafaxine in depressed patients. This study was nested in the METADAP cohort, a real-world naturalistic treatment study in psychiatric settings...
June 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626388/increasing-n-acetylaspartate-in-the-brain-during-postnatal-myelination-does-not-cause-the-cns-pathologies-of-canavan-disease
#11
Abhilash P Appu, John R Moffett, Peethambaran Arun, Sean Moran, Vikram Nambiar, Jishnu K S Krishnan, Narayanan Puthillathu, Aryan M A Namboodiri
Canavan disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA), a deacetylase that catabolizes N-acetylaspartate (NAA). The precise involvement of elevated NAA in the pathogenesis of Canavan disease is an ongoing debate. In the present study, we tested the effects of elevated NAA in the brain during postnatal development. Mice were administered high doses of the hydrophobic methyl ester of NAA (M-NAA) twice daily starting on day 7 after birth. This treatment increased NAA levels in the brain to those observed in the brains of Nur7 mice, an established model of Canavan disease...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626141/dietary-starfish-oil-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-hyperlipidemia-in-c57bl-6n-mice-fed-high-fat-diet
#12
Fumiaki Beppu, Haoqi Li, Kazuaki Yoshinaga, Toshiharu Nagai, Akihiko Yoshinda, Atsushi Kubo, Jota Kanda, Naohiro Gotoh
Starfish oil (SO) is characterized by functional lipids, including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (both in the form of triacylglycerol and in the form of phospholipid), and carotenoids, which may exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders in obesity-associated diseases. In the present study, the effect of SO on dysregulation of lipid metabolism was examined using C57BL/6N mice treated with high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were fed HF, HF with 2% SO, or HF with 5% SO diet for 8 weeks. Weight gain, blood glucose, serum and hepatic lipid contents, and hepatic fatty acid composition were measured...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625985/periplasmic-nicotine-dehydrogenase-ndhab-utilizes-pseudoazurin-as-its-physiological-electron-acceptor-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-s33
#13
Wenjun Yu, Rongshui Wang, Haiyan Huang, Huijun Xie, Shuning Wang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 can grow with nicotine as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy via a novel hybrid of the pyridine pathway and the pyrollidine pathway. Characterization of the enzymes involved in the hybrid pathway is important for understanding its biochemical mechanism. Here we report that the molybdenum-containing nicotine dehydrogenase (NdhAB), which catalyzes the initial step of nicotine degradation, is located in the periplasm of strain S33, while the 6-hydroxynicotine oxidase and 6-hydroxypseudooxynicoine oxidase are in the cytoplasm...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625979/intestine-specific-homeobox-gene-isx-integrates-interleukin-6-signaling-tryptophan-catabolism-and-immune-suppression
#14
Li-Ting Wang, Shyh-Shin Chiou, Chee-Yin Chai, Edward Hsi, Kazunari K Yokoyama, Shen-Nien Wang, Shau-Ku Huang, Shih-Hsien Hsu
The intestine-specific homeobox transcription factor ISX is an IL-6-inducible proto-oncogene implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its mechanistic contributions to this process are undefined. In this study, we provide evidence that ISX mediates a positive feedback loop integrating inflammation, tryptophan cataboism and immune suppression. We found that ISX mediated IL-6-induced expression of the tryptophan catabolic enzymes IDO1 and TDO2 in HCC cells, resulting in an ISX-dependent increase in the tryptophan catabolite kynurenine and its receptor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625352/rna-seq-and-metabolic-flux-analysis-of-tetraselmis-sp-m8-during-nitrogen-starvation-reveals-a-two-stage-lipid-accumulation-mechanism
#15
David K Y Lim, Holger Schuhmann, Skye R Thomas-Hall, Kenneth C K Chan, Taylor J Wass, Felipe Aguilera, T Catalina Adarme-Vega, Cristiana G O Dal'Molin, Glen J Thorpe, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards, Peer M Schenk
To map out key lipid-related pathways that lead to rapid triacylglyceride accumulation in oleaginous microalgae, RNA-Seq was performed with Tetraselmis sp. M8 at 24h after exhaustion of exogenous nitrogen to reveal molecular changes during early stationary phase. Further gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR at 16-72h revealed a distinct shift in expression of the fatty acid/triacylglyceride biosynthesis and β-oxidation pathways, when cells transitioned from log-phase into early-stationary and stationary phase...
June 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625343/short-term-cooling-increases-serum-triglycerides-and-small-high-density-lipoprotein-levels-in-humans
#16
Geerte Hoeke, Kimberly J Nahon, Leontine E H Bakker, Sabine S C Norkauer, Donna L M Dinnes, Maaike Kockx, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Diana Drettwan, Anne Reifel-Miller, Tamer Coskun, Philipp Pagel, Fred P H T M Romijn, Christa M Cobbaert, Ingrid M Jazet, Laurent O Martinez, Leonard Kritharides, Jimmy F P Berbée, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen
BACKGROUND: Cold exposure and β3-adrenergic receptor agonism, which both activate brown adipose tissue, markedly influence lipoprotein metabolism by enhancing lipoprotein lipase-mediated catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality in mice. However, the effect of short-term cooling on human lipid and lipoprotein metabolism remained largely elusive. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effect of short-term cooling on the serum lipoprotein profile and HDL functionality in men...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624444/distribution-lipid-bilayer-affinity-and-kinetics-of-the-metabolic-effects-of-dinoseb-in-the-liver
#17
Gabriela Bueno Franco Salla, Lívia Bracht, Anacharis Babeto de Sá-Nakanishi, Angela Valderrama Parizotto, Fabrício Bracht, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
Dinoseb is a highly toxic pesticide of the dinitrophenol group. Its use has been restricted, but it can still be found in soils and waters in addition to being a component of related pesticides that, after ingestion by humans or animals, can originate the compound by enzymatic hydrolysis. As most dinitrophenols, dinoseb uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, distribution, lipid bilayer affinity and kinetics of the metabolic effects of dinoseb were investigated, using mainly the isolated perfused rat liver, but also isolated mitochondria and molecular dynamics simulations...
June 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623978/gestational-diabetes-affects-fetal-autophagy
#18
Laura Avagliano, Valentina Massa, Laura Terraneo, Michele Samaja, Patrizia Doi, Gaetano Pietro Bulfamante, Anna Maria Marconi
Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in the preservation of energy homeostasis and its dysregulation has been implicated in the development of metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes mellitus represents a risk for fetal morbidity and mortality. The present study focuses on the autophagy process in human diabetic placenta and fetal pancreas, compared with controls. Analysis of the autophagy markers LC3, Beclin-1 and p62 suggests an impairment of the autophagy process in diabetic placentas...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623560/zebra-chip-disease-enhances-respiration-and-oxidative-stress-of-potato-tubers-solanum-tuberosum-l
#19
G N Mohan Kumar, Lisa O Knowles, N Richard Knowles
The physiological phenotype of potato tubers afflicted by zebra chip disease is characterized by increased oxidative stress metabolism and upregulation of systems for its mitigation. Starch catabolism and extensive buildup of reducing sugars render potatoes infected with zebra chip (ZC) pathogen (Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum) unsuitable for fresh market and processing into chips/fries. Here we show that the disease inflicts considerable oxidative stress, which likely constitutes a substantial sink for metabolic energy, resulting in increased respiration rate of afflicted tubers...
June 16, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622295/high-autophagic-flux-guards-esc-identity-through-coordinating-autophagy-machinery-gene-program-by-foxo1
#20
Pinglei Liu, Kun Liu, Haifeng Gu, Weixu Wang, Jiaqi Gong, Yingjie Zhu, Qian Zhao, Jiani Cao, Chunseng Han, Fei Gao, Quan Chen, Wei Li, Jianwei Jiao, Baoyang Hu, Qi Zhou, Tongbiao Zhao
Although much is known about transcriptional networks that control embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and differentiation, the metabolic regulation of ESC is less clear. Autophagy is a catabolic process that is activated under both stress and normal conditions to degrade damaged organelles and aggregated proteins, and thus plays pivotal roles in somatic and adult stem cell function. However, if and how ESCs harness autophagy to regulate stemness remains largely unknown. Recently, we have defined that autophagy is essential for mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in pluripotency acquirement and maintenance...
June 16, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
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