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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914477/in-vitro-rescue-of-genital-strains-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-from-interferon-%C3%AE-and-tryptophan-depletion-with-indole-positive-but-not-indole-negative-prevotella-spp
#1
Noa Ziklo, Wilhelmina M Huston, Kuong Taing, Mohammad Katouli, Peter Timms
BACKGROUND: The natural course of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis varies between individuals. In addition to parasite and host effects, the vaginal microbiota might play a key role in the outcome of C. trachomatis infections. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), known for its anti-chlamydial properties, activates the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in epithelial cells, an enzyme that catabolizes the amino acid L- tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine, depleting the host cell's pool of tryptophan...
December 3, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913648/cd36-mediated-uptake-of-surfactant-lipids-by-human-macrophages-promotes-intracellular-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Claire E Dodd, Charlie J Pyle, Rebecca Glowinski, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Larry S Schlesinger
Mycobacterium tuberculosis imposes a large global health burden as the airborne agent of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been flourishing in human populations for millennia and is therefore highly adapted to the lung environment. Alveolar macrophages, a major host cell niche for M. tuberculosis, are not only phagocytose inhaled microbes and particulate matter but are also crucial in catabolizing lung surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that lines the alveolar spaces. Because macrophage host defense properties can be regulated by surfactant and M...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913291/a-saposin-deficiency-model-in-drosophila-lysosomal-storage-progressive-neurodegeneration-and-sensory-physiological-decline
#3
Samantha J Hindle, Sarita Hebbar, Dominik Schwudke, Christopher J Elliott, Sean T Sweeney
Saposin deficiency is a childhood neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that can cause premature death within three months of life. Saposins are activator proteins that promote the function of lysosomal hydrolases that mediate the degradation of sphingolipids. There are four saposin proteins in humans, which are encoded by the prosaposin gene. Mutations causing an absence or impaired function of individual saposins or the whole prosaposin gene lead to distinct LSDs due to the storage of different classes of sphingolipids...
November 29, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912058/impaired-amino-acid-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-is-a-cause-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Dora C Tărlungeanu, Elena Deliu, Christoph P Dotter, Majdi Kara, Philipp Christoph Janiesch, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Michele Galluccio, Mateja Tesulov, Emanuela Morelli, Fatma Mujgan Sonmez, Kaya Bilguvar, Ryuichi Ohgaki, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Anide Johansen, Seham Esharif, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Meral Topcu, Avner Schlessinger, Cesare Indiveri, Kent E Duncan, Ahmet Okay Caglayan, Murat Gunel, Joseph G Gleeson, Gaia Novarino
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of genetic disorders often overlapping with other neurological conditions. We previously described abnormalities in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway as a cause of ASD. Here, we show that the solute carrier transporter 7a5 (SLC7A5), a large neutral amino acid transporter localized at the blood brain barrier (BBB), has an essential role in maintaining normal levels of brain BCAAs. In mice, deletion of Slc7a5 from the endothelial cells of the BBB leads to atypical brain amino acid profile, abnormal mRNA translation, and severe neurological abnormalities...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911943/enhanced-in-planta-fitness-through-adaptive-mutations-in-efpr-a-dual-regulator-of-virulence-and-metabolic-functions-in-the-plant-pathogen-ralstonia-solanacearum
#5
Anthony Perrier, Rémi Peyraud, David Rengel, Xavier Barlet, Emmanuel Lucasson, Jérôme Gouzy, Nemo Peeters, Stéphane Genin, Alice Guidot
Experimental evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, where bacteria were maintained on plant lineages for more than 300 generations, revealed that several independent single mutations in the efpR gene from populations propagated on beans were associated with fitness gain on bean. In the present work, novel allelic efpR variants were isolated from populations propagated on other plant species, thus suggesting that mutations in efpR were not solely associated to a fitness gain on bean, but also on additional hosts...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909432/volatile-mediated-effects-predominate-in-paraburkholderia-phytofirmans-growth-promotion-and-salt-stress-tolerance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Thomas Ledger, Sandy Rojas, Tania Timmermann, Ignacio Pinedo, María J Poupin, Tatiana Garrido, Pablo Richter, Javier Tamayo, Raúl Donoso
Abiotic stress has a growing impact on plant growth and agricultural activity worldwide. Specific plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have been reported to stimulate growth and tolerance to abiotic stress in plants, and molecular mechanisms like phytohormone synthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination are usual candidates proposed to mediate these bacterial effects. Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is able to promote growth of several plant hosts, and improve their tolerance to chilling, drought and salinity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908965/inf-%C3%AE-encoding-plasmid-administration-triggers-bone-loss-and-disrupts-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#7
Dimitrios Agas, Guilherme Gusmâo Silva, Fulvio Laus, Andrea Marchigiani, Melania Capitani, Cecilia Vullo, Giuseppe Catone, Giovanna Lavava, Antonio Concetti, Luigi Marchetti, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti
IFN-γ is a pleotropic cytokine produced in the bone microenvironment. Although IFN-γ is known to play a critical role on bone remodeling, its function is not fully elucidated. Consistently, outcomes on the effects of IFN-γ recombinant protein on bone loss are contradictory among reports. In our work we explored, for the first time, the role of IFN-γ encoding plasmid (pIFN-γ) in a mouse model of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy and in the sham-operated counterpart to estimate its effects in skeletal homeostasis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908775/regulation-of-general-amino-acid-permeases-gap1p-gata-transcription-factors-gln3p-and-gat1p-on-2-phenylethanol-biosynthesis-via-ehrlich-pathway
#8
Xianrui Chen, Zhaoyue Wang, Xuena Guo, Sha Liu, Xiuping He
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) is used as the sole nitrogen source, 2-phenylethanol (PE) is mainly synthesized via the Ehrlich pathway. General amino acid permease Gap1p is response of aromatic amino acids transportation, and GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p regulate the transcription of permease gene and catabolic enzyme genes for nitrogen sources and aromatic amino acids utilization. In this study, it was demonstrated that over-expressing GLN3 gene from industrial yeast strain MT2 or S...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908464/effects-of-different-duration-exercise-programs-in-children-with-severe-burns
#9
Robert P Clayton, Paul Wurzer, Clark R Andersen, Ronald P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Oscar E Suman
INTRODUCTION: Burns lead to persistent and detrimental muscle breakdown and weakness. Standard treatment at our institution includes a voluntary 12-week rehabilitative exercise program to limit and reverse the effects of increased muscle catabolism. In the present work, we investigated if different durations of exercise, 6 or 12 weeks, produce comparable improvements in muscle strength, body composition, and cardiopulmonary fitness. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled and randomized patients with ≥30% total body surface area (TBSA) burned to receive 6 or 12 weeks of exercise rehabilitation...
November 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906619/effects-of-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1%C3%AE-d-ribonucleoside-on-adenine-nucleotide-catabolism-in-the-aortic-wall-implications-for-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-ldlr-mice
#10
Magdalena Zabielska, Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Paulina Żukowska, Ewa Slominska, Ryszard Smoleński
: 4-Pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (4PYR) is an endogenously produced nucleoside that had been identified as a substrate for intracellular phosphorylation to form intracellular nucleotides. Previous studies demonstrated that 4PYR adversely affects metabolism of endothelial cells that is known risk factor for atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of 4PYR on the progression of atherosclerosis and changes in extracellular nucleotides degradation on the surface of the vessel wall in the murine model...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905883/carbohydrate-metabolism-in-oenococcus-oeni-a-genomic-insight
#11
Alice Cibrario, Claire Peanne, Marine Lailheugue, Hugo Campbell-Sills, Marguerite Dols-Lafargue
BACKGROUND: Oenococcus oeni is the bacterial species that drives malolactic fermentation in most wines. Several studies have described a high intraspecific diversity regarding carbohydrate degradation abilities but the link between the phenotypes and the genes and metabolic pathways has been poorly described. RESULTS: A collection of 41 strains whose genomic sequences were available and representative of the species genomic diversity was analyzed for growth on 18 carbohydrates relevant in wine...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905507/discovery-of-piperonal-converting-oxidase-involved-in-the-metabolism-of-a-botanical-aromatic-aldehyde
#12
Shiori Doi, Yoshiteru Hashimoto, Chiaki Tomita, Takuto Kumano, Michihiko Kobayashi
Piperonal-catabolizing microorganisms were isolated from soil, the one (strain CT39-3) exhibiting the highest activity being identified as Burkholderia sp. The piperonal-converting enzyme involved in the initial step of piperonal metabolism was purified from strain CT39-3. Gene cloning of the enzyme and a homology search revealed that the enzyme belongs to the xanthine oxidase family, which comprises molybdoenzymes containing a molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor. We found that the piperonal-converting enzyme acts on piperonal in the presence of O2, leading to formation of piperonylic acid and H2O2...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905294/glucocorticoids-increase-skeletal-muscle-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inducing-kinase-nik-links-to-muscle-atrophy
#13
Christopher S Fry, Syed Z Nayeem, Edgar L Dillon, Partha S Sarkar, Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Randall J Urban, Traver J Wright, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Ronald G Tilton, Sanjeev Choudhary
Glucocorticoids (GC) are a frontline therapy for numerous acute and chronic diseases because of their demonstrated efficacy at reducing systemic inflammation. An unintended side effect of GC therapy is the stimulation of skeletal muscle atrophy. Pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for GC-induced skeletal muscle atrophy have been extensively investigated, and the ability to treat patients with GC without unintended muscle atrophy has yet to be realized. We have reported that a single, standard-of-care dose of Methylprednisolone increases in vivo expression of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), an important upstream regulatory kinase controlling NF-κB activation, along with other key muscle catabolic regulators such as Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 that induce skeletal muscle proteolysis...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905109/a-lethal-neonatal-phenotype-of-mitochondrial-short-chain-enoyl-coa-hydratase-1-deficiency
#14
F Al Mutairi, H E Shamseldin, M Alfadhel, R J Rodenburg, F S Alkuraya
Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and the catabolic pathway of valine and, to a lesser extent, isoleucine. Deficiency of this enzyme was recently shown to cause an early childhood Leigh syndrome phenotype. The few reported patients were compound heterozygotes for two missense or missense with truncating variants in ECHS1 that encodes SCEH. We describe two siblings with severe refractory lactic acidosis and death within the first 2 days of life...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905067/mathematical-model-of-bone-remodeling-captures-the-antiresorptive-and-anabolic-actions-of-various-therapies
#15
David S Ross, Khamir Mehta, Antonio Cabal
A better understanding of the molecular pathways regulating the bone remodeling process should help in the development of new antiresorptive regulators and anabolic regulators, that is, regulators of bone resorption and of bone formation. Understanding the mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) influences bone formation and how it switches from anabolic to catabolic action is important for treating osteoporosis (Poole and Reeve in Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:612-617, 2005). In this paper we describe a mathematical model of bone remodeling that incorporates, extends, and integrates several models of particular aspects of this biochemical system (Cabal et al...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904969/metabolic-responses-and-omics-technologies-for-elucidating-the-effects-of-heat-stress-in-dairy-cows
#16
REVIEW
Li Min, Shengguo Zhao, He Tian, Xu Zhou, Yangdong Zhang, Songli Li, Hongjian Yang, Nan Zheng, Jiaqi Wang
Heat stress (HS) negatively affects various industries that rely on animal husbandry, particularly the dairy industry. A better understanding of metabolic responses in HS dairy cows is necessary to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of HS and offer a new perspective for future research. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of responses of body metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate, and protein), endocrine profiles, and bovine mammary epithelial cells during HS. Furthermore, we summarize the metabolomics and proteomics data that have revealed the metabolite profiles and differentially expressed proteins that are a feature of HS in dairy cows...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903654/carbon-and-acyl-chain-flux-during-stress-induced-triglyceride-accumulation-by-stable-isotopic-labeling-of-the-polar-microalga-coccomyxa-subellipsoidea-c169
#17
James W Allen, Concetta C DiRusso, Paul N Black
Deriving biofuels and other lipoid products from algae is a promising future technology directly addressing global issues of atmospheric CO2 balance. To better understand the metabolism of triglyceride synthesis in algae, we examined their metabolic origins in the model species, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C169, using stable isotopic labeling. Labeling patterns arising from (13)C-U-glucose, (13)CO2, or D2O supplementation were analyzed by GC-MS and/or LC-MS over time courses during nitrogen (N) starvation to address the roles of catabolic carbon (C) recycling, acyl chain redistribution, and de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis during the expansion of the lipid bodies...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902471/autophagy-autophagy-associated-adaptive-immune-responses-and-its-role-in-hematologic-malignancies
#18
REVIEW
Liangshun You, Shenhe Jin, Li Zhu, Wenbin Qian
Autophagy is a tightly regulated catabolic process that leads to the degradation of cytoplasmatic components such as aggregated/misfolded proteins and organelles through the lysosomal machinery. Recent studies suggest that autophagy plays such a role in the context of the anti-tumor immune response, make it an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. Defective autophagy in hematopoietic stem cells may contribute to the development of hematologic malignancies, including leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and lymphoproliferative disorder...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901475/spermidine-spermine-n1-acetyltransferase-regulates-cell-growth-and-metastasis-via-akt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways-in-hepatocellular-and-colorectal-carcinoma-cells
#19
Cong Wang, Ping Ruan, Ying Zhao, Xiaomin Li, Jun Wang, Xiaoxiao Wu, Tong Liu, Shasha Wang, Jiuzhou Hou, Wei Li, Qian Li, Jinghua Li, Fujun Dai, Dong Fang, Chaojie Wang, Songqiang Xie
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are among the most common cancers across the world. Therefore, identifying the potential molecular mechanisms that promote HCC and CRC progression and metastasis are urgently needed. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a catabolic enzyme that acetylates the high-order polyamines spermine and spermidine, thus decreasing the cellular content of polyamines. Several publications have suggested that depletion of intracellular polyamines inhibited tumor progression and metastasis in various cancer cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900688/degradation-network-reconstruction-guided-by-metagenomic-data
#20
Rafael Bargiela, Manuel Ferrer
Network reconstruction procedures based on meta-"omics" data are an invaluable tool for inferring total and active set of reactions mediated by different members in a microbial community. Within them, network-based methods for automatic analysis of catabolic capacities in metagenomes are currently limited. Here, we describe the complete workflow, scripts, and commands allowing the automatic reconstruction of biodegradation networks using as an input meta-sequences generated by direct DNA sequencing.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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