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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457994/uric-acid-and-allopurinol-aggravate-absence-epileptic-activity-in-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#1
Renáta Krisztina Lakatos, Árpád Dobolyi, Zsolt Kovács
Uric acid has a role in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. For example, uric acid may facilitate seizure generalization while reducing uric acid level may evoke anticonvulsant/antiepileptic effects. Allopurinol blocks the activity of xanthine oxidase, by which allopurinol inhibits catabolism of hypoxanthine to xanthine and uric acid and, as a consequence, decreases the level of uric acid. Although the modulation of serum uric acid level is a widely used strategy in the treatment of certain diseases, our knowledge regarding the effects of uric acid on epileptic activity is far from complete...
February 16, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457656/fatty-acid-binding-protein-deletion-prevents-stress-induced-preference-for-cocaine-and-dampens-stress-induced-corticosterone-levels
#2
John Hamilton, Matthew Marion, Antonio Figueiredo, Brendan H Clavin, Dale Deutsch, Martin Kaczocha, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Panayotis K Thanos
Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has previously been shown to have an important role on the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Recently, fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) have been proposed as intracellular transporters of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) as well as other bioactive lipids to their catabolic enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The role of these transporters in modulating the brains reward system has yet to be investigated...
February 19, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456966/metabolic-profile-of-oral-squamous-carcinoma-cell-lines-relies-on-a-higher-demand-of-lipid-metabolism-in-metastatic-cells
#3
Ana Carolina B Sant'Anna-Silva, Gilson C Santos, Samir P Costa Campos, André Marco Oliveira Gomes, Juan Alberto Pérez-Valencia, Franklin David Rumjanek
Tumor cells are subjected to a broad range of selective pressures. As a result of the imposed stress, subpopulations of surviving cells exhibit individual biochemical phenotypes that reflect metabolic reprograming. The present work aimed at investigating metabolic parameters of cells displaying increasing degrees of metastatic potential. The metabolites present in cell extracts fraction of tongue fibroblasts and of cell lines derived from human tongue squamous cell carcinoma lineages displaying increasing metastatic potential (SCC9 ZsG, LN1 and LN2) were analyzed by1 H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455859/heterozygous-mutations-in-oas1-cause-infantile-onset-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-with-hypogammaglobulinemia
#4
Kazutoshi Cho, Masafumi Yamada, Kazunaga Agematsu, Hirokazu Kanegane, Noriko Miyake, Masahiro Ueki, Takuma Akimoto, Norimoto Kobayashi, Satoru Ikemoto, Mishie Tanino, Atsushi Fujita, Itaru Hayasaka, Satoshi Miyamoto, Mari Tanaka-Kubota, Koh Nakata, Masaaki Shiina, Kazuhiro Ogata, Hisanori Minakami, Naomichi Matsumoto, Tadashi Ariga
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by accumulation of a surfactant-like substance in alveolar spaces and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Genetic PAP (GPAP) is caused by mutations in genes encoding surfactant proteins or genes encoding a surfactant phospholipid transporter in alveolar type II epithelial cells. GPAP is also caused by mutations in genes whose products are implicated in surfactant catabolism in alveolar macrophages (AMs). We performed whole-exome sequence analysis in a family affected by infantile-onset PAP with hypogammaglobulinemia without causative mutations in genes associated with PAP: SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, CSF2RA, CSF2RB, and GATA2...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455577/exploring-autophagy-with-gene-ontology
#5
Paul Denny, Marc Feuermann, David P Hill, Ruth C Lovering, Helene Plun-Favreau, Paola Roncaglia
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that is well conserved among eukaryotes. It is one of the strategies that cells use to catabolize substances in a controlled way. Autophagy is used for recycling cellular components, responding to cellular stresses and ridding cells of foreign material. Perturbations in autophagy have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions such as neurodegeneration, cardiac disease and cancer. The growing knowledge about autophagic mechanisms needs to be collected in a computable and shareable format to allow its use in data representation and interpretation...
February 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454850/dissemination-of-panton-valentine-leukocidin-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-clone-in-multiple-hospitals-in-tokyo-japan
#6
Shunsuke Takadama, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Asami Sato, Manami Shoshi, Takeshi Fujii, Norihisa Noguchi
OBJECTIVE: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene (lukS/F-PV)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), particularly the USA300 clone, is a health concern worldwide. Recently, CA-MRSA clones have been found to spread and persist in hospital settings. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of lukS/F-PV-positive MRSA in Japanese hospitals. METHODS: A total of 3,433 MRSA isolated from nine hospitals in 2011-2015 were used...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454291/de-novo-transcriptome-of-the-pallial-gland-of-the-date-mussel-lithophaga-lithophaga
#7
Urška Sivka, Nataša Toplak, Simon Koren, Jernej Jakše
Lithophaga lithophaga is a rock-boring bivalve with an ability to dissolve carbonate substrata with its siphonal and pallial gland secretions. However, the molecular mechanism that enables this species to bore into calcareous rocks is not yet known. In order to identify genes potentially involved in chemical boring we performed transcriptome sequencing of pallial-gland tissue samples of L. lithophaga. Transcriptome sequencing using an Ion Torrent platform generated 60.563 million clean reads with an average read length of 96 bp...
February 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453395/the-genes-of-the-sulphoquinovose-catabolism-in-escherichia-coli-are-also-associated-with-a-previously-unknown-pathway-of-lactose-degradation
#8
Anna Kaznadzey, Pavel Shelyakin, Evgeniya Belousova, Aleksandra Eremina, Uliana Shvyreva, Darya Bykova, Vera Emelianenko, Anastasiya Korosteleva, Maria Tutukina, Mikhail S Gelfand
Comparative genomics analysis of conserved gene cassettes demonstrated resemblance between a recently described cassette of genes involved in sulphoquinovose degradation in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 and a Bacilli cassette linked with lactose degradation. Six genes from both cassettes had similar functions related to carbohydrate metabolism, namely, hydrolase, aldolase, kinase, isomerase, transporter, and transcription factor. The Escherichia coli sulphoglycolysis cassette was thus predicted to be associated with lactose degradation...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452699/hypolipidemic-components-from-medicine-food-homology-species-used-in-china-pharmacological-and-health-effects
#9
REVIEW
De-Xing Song, Jian-Guo Jiang
Hyperlipidemia is a systemic disease caused by abnormal human lipid metabolism. Dietary control and treatment on hyperlipidemia is now a popular therapy pathway. This paper focuses on the medicine food homology (MFH) species used in China with hypolipidemic function, and emphasizes on the active ingredients and their pharmacological effect. The single herbal and its hypolipidemic active ingredients are summarized through reviewing the relevant literatures published in the past twenty years. The ingredients are divided into polysaccharides, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, quinones, alkaloids and others, of which the related researches are described from the aspects of sources, model and method, result and mechanisms, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452640/serine-catabolism-by-shmt2-is-required-for-proper-mitochondrial-translation-initiation-and-maintenance-of-formylmethionyl-trnas
#10
Denise R Minton, Minwoo Nam, Daniel J McLaughlin, Jong Shin, Erol C Bayraktar, Samantha W Alvarez, Vladislav O Sviderskiy, Thales Papagiannakopoulos, David M Sabatini, Kıvanç Birsoy, Richard Possemato
Upon glucose restriction, eukaryotic cells upregulate oxidative metabolism to maintain homeostasis. Using genetic screens, we find that the mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) is required for robust mitochondrial oxygen consumption and low glucose proliferation. SHMT2 catalyzes the first step in mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism, which, particularly in proliferating cells, produces tetrahydrofolate (THF)-conjugated one-carbon units used in cytoplasmic reactions despite the presence of a parallel cytoplasmic pathway...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452304/the-chondrocyte-channelome-a-narrative-review
#11
Ali Mobasheri, Csaba Matta, Ilona Uzielienè, Emma Budd, Pablo Martín-Vasallo, Eiva Bernotiene
Chondrocytes are the main cells in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and possess a highly differentiated phenotype that is the hallmark of the unique physiological functions of this specialised load-bearing connective tissue. The plasma membrane of articular chondrocytes contains a rich and diverse complement of membrane proteins, known as the membranome, which defines the cell surface phenotype of the cells. The membranome is a key target of pharmacological agents and is important for chondrocyte function...
February 13, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451304/distinct-methylation-profile-of-mucinous-ovarian-carcinoma-reveals-susceptibility-to-proteasome-inhibitors
#12
Phui-Ly Liew, Rui-Lan Huang, Yu-Chun Weng, Chia-Lang Fang, Tim Hui-Ming Huang, Hung-Cheng Lai
Mucinous type of epithelial ovarian cancer (MuOC) is a unique subtype with a poor survival outcome in recurrent and advanced stages. The role of type-specific epigenomics and its clinical significance remain uncertain. We analyzed the methylomic profiles of six benign mucinous adenomas, 24 MuOCs, 103 serous type of epithelial ovarian cancers (SeOCs), and 337 nonepithelial ovarian cancers. MuOC and SeOC exhibited distinct DNA methylation profiles comprising 101 genes, 81 of which exhibited low methylation in MuOC and were associated with the response to glucocorticoid, ATP hydrolysis-coupled proton transport, proteolysis involved in the cellular protein catabolic process, and ion transmembrane transport...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449933/a-simplified-characterization-of-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-consuming-enzymes-with-1-step-ez-mtase-a-universal-and-straightforward-coupled-assay-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-setting
#13
Emmanuel S Burgos, Ryan O Walters, Derek M Huffman, David Shechter
Methyltransferases use S -adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to deposit methyl marks. Many of these epigenetic 'writers' are associated with gene regulation. As cancer etiology is highly correlated with misregulated methylation patterns, methyltransferases are emerging therapeutic targets. Successful assignment of methyltransferases' roles within intricate biological networks relies on (1) the access to enzyme mechanistic insights and (2) the efficient screening of chemical probes against these targets. To characterize methyltransferases in vitro and in vivo , we report a highly-sensitive one-step deaminase-linked continuous assay where the S -adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) enzyme-product is rapidly and quantitatively catabolized to S -inosyl-l-homocysteine (SIH)...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449836/changes-in-microbial-energy-metabolism-measured-by-nanocalorimetry-during-growth-phase-transitions
#14
Alberto Robador, Douglas E LaRowe, Steven E Finkel, Jan P Amend, Kenneth H Nealson
Calorimetric measurements of the change in heat due to microbial metabolic activity convey information about the kinetics, as well as the thermodynamics, of all chemical reactions taking place in a cell. Calorimetric measurements of heat production made on bacterial cultures have recorded the energy yields of all co-occurring microbial metabolic reactions, but this is a complex, composite signal that is difficult to interpret. Here we show that nanocalorimetry can be used in combination with enumeration of viable cell counts, oxygen consumption rates, cellular protein content, and thermodynamic calculations to assess catabolic rates of an isolate of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and infer what fraction of the chemical energy is assimilated by the culture into biomass and what fraction is dissipated in the form of heat under different limiting conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449612/ixr1-regulates-ribosomal-gene-transcription-and-yeast-response-to-cisplatin
#15
Ángel Vizoso-Vázquez, Mónica Lamas-Maceiras, M Isabel González-Siso, M Esperanza Cerdán
Ixr1 is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMGB protein that regulates the hypoxic regulon and also controls the expression of other genes involved in the oxidative stress response or re-adaptation of catabolic and anabolic fluxes when oxygen is limiting. Ixr1 also binds with high affinity to cisplatin-DNA adducts and modulates DNA repair. The influence of Ixr1 on transcription in the absence or presence of cisplatin has been analyzed in this work. Ixr1 regulates other transcriptional factors that respond to nutrient availability or extracellular and intracellular stress stimuli, some controlled by the TOR pathway and PKA signaling...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448253/lycorine-suppresses-endplate-chondrocyte-degeneration-and-prevents-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-pathway
#16
Gangliang Wang, Kangmao Huang, Yangxin Dong, Shuai Chen, Jianfeng Zhang, Jiying Wang, Ziang Xie, Xianfeng Lin, Xiangqiang Fang, Shunwu Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cartilaginous endplate (CEP) degeneration is an important cause for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration that leads to low-back pain. The identification of compounds that may prevent CEP degeneration is of interest for the prevention of IVD degeneration. METHODS: Catabolic protease expression in the CEP of disc degeneration patients was first assessed. The toxicity, function and underlying mechanism of lycorine (LY) on CEP-derived chondrocytes degeneration were assessed in vitro by flow cytometry analysis and western blotting...
February 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447243/differences-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-between-uninfected-piglets-and-piglets-infected-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#17
Mei-Zhou Huang, Sheng-Yi Wang, Hui Wang, Dong-An Cui, Ya-Jun Yang, Xi-Wang Liu, Xiao-Jun Kong, Jian-Yong Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea, a disastrous gastrointestinal disease, causes great financial losses due to its high infectivity, morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets despite the development and application of various vaccines. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to explore differences in the intestinal microbiota between uninfected piglets and piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The results revealed that the small intestinal microbiota of suckling piglets infected with PEDV showed low diversity and was dominated by Proteobacteria (49...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447114/higher-d-lactate-levels-are-associated-with-higher-prevalence-of-small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-in-obese-adolescents
#18
Reyna Rodríguez-Mortera, Claudia Luevano-Contreras, Sergio Solorio-Meza, Russell Caccavello, Yasmin Bains, Ma Eugenia Garay-Sevilla, Alejandro Gugliucci
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR), increased levels of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) as well as with augmented hepatic de novo lipogenesis, which implies increased triose phosphate fluxes that may lead to increased methylglyoxal (MG) and its catabolic end product D-lactate. We hypothesized that obese adolescents have increased D-lactate serum levels associated with high incidence of sd-LDL. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study where the anthropometric characteristics, atherogenic dyslipidemia complex, sd-LDL (Lipoprint, Quantimetrix) and D-lactate (kinetic enzymatic analysis) were explored in 30 lean vs...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441645/short-telomeres-induce-p53-and-autophagy-and-modulate-age-associated-changes-in-cardiac-progenitor-cell-fate
#19
Collin Matsumoto, Yan Jiang, Jacqueline Emathinger, Pearl Quijada, Nathalie Nguyen, Andrea De La Torre, Maryam Moshref, Jonathan Nguyen, Aimee B Levinson, Minyoung Shin, Mark A Sussman, Nirmala Hariharan
Aging severely limits myocardial repair and regeneration. Delineating the impact of age-associated factors such as short telomeres is critical to enhance the regenerative potential of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). We hypothesized that short telomeres activate p53 and induce autophagy to elicit the age-associated change in CPC fate. We isolated CPCs and compared mouse strains with different telomere lengths for phenotypic characteristics of aging. Wild mouse strain Mus musculus castaneus (CAST) possessing short telomeres exhibits early cardiac aging with cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis and senescence, as compared to common lab strains FVB and C57 bearing longer telomeres...
February 14, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441565/metabolomics-and-transcriptomics-profiles-reveal-the-dysregulation-of-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-and-related-mechanisms-in-prostate-cancer
#20
Yaping Shao, Guozhu Ye, Shancheng Ren, Hai-Long Piao, Xinjie Zhao, Xin Lu, Fubo Wang, Ma Wang, Jia Li, Peiyuan Yin, Tian Xia, Chuanliang Xu, Jane J Yu, Yinghao Sun, Guowang Xu
Genetic alterations drive metabolic reprogramming to meet increased biosynthetic precursor and energy demands for cancer cell proliferation and survival in unfavorable environments. A systematic study of gene-metabolite regulatory networks and metabolic dysregulation should reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer (PCa) pathogenesis. Herein, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics and RNA-seq analyses in prostate tumors and matched adjacent normal tissues (ANTs) to elucidate the molecular alterations and potential underlying regulatory mechanisms in PCa...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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