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Tingting Hu, Dalong Sun, Jie Zhang, Ruyi Xue, Harry L A Janssen, Wenqing Tang, Ling Dong
AIM: The polyamine catabolic enzyme, spermine oxidase (SMOX) is up-regulated in chronic inflammatory conditions and linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in various forms of cancers. The present study aims to explore the expression pattern and biological function of SMOX in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We used qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to examine SMOX expression in four HCC cell lines and 120 cases of HCC clinical samples, and the clinical significance of SMOX was analyzed...
June 20, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Paula Simó-Mirabet, Erick Perera, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Juan M Afonso, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Sirtuins (SIRTs) represent a conserved protein family of deacetylases that act as master regulators of metabolism, but little is known about their roles in fish and livestock animals in general. The present study aimed to assess the value of SIRTs for the metabolic phenotyping of fish by assessing their co-expression with a wide-representation of markers of energy and lipid metabolism and intestinal function and health in two genetically different gilthead sea bream strains with differences in growth performance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Valerie Jomphe, Larry C Lands, Genevieve Mailhot
An optimal nutritional status is associated with better post-transplant outcomes and survival. Post-lung transplant nutrition management is however particularly challenging as lung recipients represent a very heterogeneous group of patients in terms of age, underlying diseases, weight status and presence of comorbidities. Furthermore, the post-transplant period encompasses several stages characterized by physiological and pathophysiological changes that affect nutritional status of patients and necessitate tailored nutrition management...
June 19, 2018: Nutrients
L King, I Tsilioni, T C Theoharides
Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with late stages of many chronic illnesses and may be present in up to 80% of patients with advanced cancers. Cachexia is a metabolic derangement resulting in a disturbance to the homeostasis of muscle breakdown and synthesis, favoring catabolism and muscle loss. Despite making strides in treating cancer itself, there have been no major advances in the treatment of cachexia pharmacologically or nutritionally. Clinical trials using anti-TNF biologics and thalidomide have largely failed...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Paul Chuchana, Anne-Laure Mausset-Bonnefont, Marc Mathieu, Francisco Espinoza, Marisa Teigell, Karine Toupet, Chantal Ripoll, Farida Djouad, Danièle Noel, Christian Jorgensen, Jean-Marc Brondello
Progressive loss of tissue homeostasis is a hallmark of numerous age-related pathologies, including osteoarthritis (OA). Accumulation of senescent chondrocytes in joints contributes to the age-dependent cartilage loss of functions through the production of hypertrophy-associated catabolic matrix-remodeling enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we evaluated the effects of the secreted variant of the anti-aging hormone α-Klotho on cartilage homeostasis during both cartilage formation and OA development...
June 19, 2018: Aging
Clarissa R Coveney, Isabella Collins, Megan Mc Fie, Anastasios Chanalaris, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Angus K T Wann
Matrix protease activity is fundamental to developmental tissue patterning and remains influential in adult homeostasis. In cartilage, the principal matrix proteoglycan is aggrecan, the protease-mediated catabolism of which defines arthritis; however, the pathophysiologic mechanisms that drive aberrant aggrecanolytic activity remain unclear. Human ciliopathies exhibit altered matrix, which has been proposed to be the result of dysregulated hedgehog signaling that is tuned within the primary cilium. Here, we report that disruption of intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88), a core ciliary trafficking protein, increases chondrocyte aggrecanase activity in vitro...
June 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jonathan M Weiss, Luke C Davies, Megan Karwan, Lilia Ileva, Michelle K Ozaki, Robert Ys Cheng, Lisa A Ridnour, Christina M Annunziata, David A Wink, Daniel W McVicar
Control of cellular metabolism is critical for efficient cell function, although little is known about the interplay between cell subset-specific metabolites in situ, especially in the tumor setting. Here, we determine how a macrophage-specific metabolite, itaconic acid, can regulate tumor progression in the peritoneum. We show peritoneal tumors (B16 melanoma or ID8 ovarian carcinoma) elicited a fatty acid oxidation-mediated increase in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis in peritoneal tissue-resident macrophages (pResMφ)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Qianyu Yue, Lili Xu, Guangqing Xiang, Xin Yu, Yuxin Yao
Gene expression profile, phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in red-fleshed berries and their wines (RF berries and wines) from new grape genotypes. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that ten metabolic pathways involved in polyphenol synthesis and catabolism were significantly altered, and 13 genes related to the biosynthesis and transport of phenolics were largely up-regulated in RF berries compared to that of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS). Expression of MybA1 was associated with anthocyanin accumulation in red flesh...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
E V Mignini, E Scarpellini, E Rinninella, E Lattanzi, M V Valeri, N Clementi, L Abenavoli, A Gasbarrini, C Rasetti, P Santori
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is a major stress factor that activates several inflammatory and catabolic pathways in man. An appropriate nutritional status allows the body to react properly to this stressor and recover in a faster and more efficient manner. On the other hand, malnutrition is related to a worse surgery outcome and to a higher prevalence of comorbidities and mortality. The aims of this study were to evaluate the nutritional status of patients undergoing major surgery and investigate the potential correlation between malnutrition and surgical outcomes...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Catarina Leite Pereira, Graciosa Q Teixeira, Joana R Ferreira, Matteo D'Este, David Eglin, Mauro Alini, Sibylle Grad, Mario Barbosa, Raquel Goncalves
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is characterized by an unbalanced cell catabolic/anabolic activity and cell death, resulting in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and water loss. Repopulating the IVD with new cells may help recovering tissue homeostasis and revert the degenerative process. Here the regenerative potential of a hyaluronan based (HA)-chemoattractant delivery system able to recruit Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) seeded on the cartilaginous endplate (CEP) of IVD was explored...
June 19, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Joao Palma Pombo, Sumana Sanyal
Cellular lipid homeostasis is maintained through an intricately linked array of anabolic and catabolic pathways. Upon flavivirus infections, these are significantly altered: on the one hand, these viruses can co-opt lipid metabolic pathways to generate ATP to facilitate replication, or to synthesize membrane components to generate replication sites; on the other hand, more recent evidence suggests counter strategies employed by host cells, which actively modulate several of these networks in response to infection, enhancing interferon signaling by doing so, and thus creating an antiviral environment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Maryam Vahdatzadeh, Richard Splivallo
Truffles (Tuber spp.) are the fruiting bodies of symbiotic fungi, which are prized food delicacies. The marked aroma variability observed among truffles of the same species has been attributed to a series of factors that are still debated. This is because factors (i.e. genetics, maturation, geographical location and the microbial community colonizing truffles) often co-vary in truffle orchards. Here, we removed the co-variance effect by investigating truffle flavour in axenic cultures of nine strains of the white truffle Tuber borchii...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melissa Tumen-Velasquez, Christopher W Johnson, Alaa Ahmed, Graham Dominick, Emily M Fulk, Payal Khanna, Sarah A Lee, Alicia L Schmidt, Jeffrey G Linger, Mark A Eiteman, Gregg T Beckham, Ellen L Neidle
Experimental evolution is a critical tool in many disciplines, including metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. However, current methods rely on the chance occurrence of a key step that can dramatically accelerate evolution in natural systems, namely increased gene dosage. Our studies sought to induce the targeted amplification of chromosomal segments to facilitate rapid evolution. Since increased gene dosage confers novel phenotypes and genetic redundancy, we developed a method, Evolution by Amplification and Synthetic Biology (EASy), to create tandem arrays of chromosomal regions...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Matteo Tardelli, Thierry Claudel, Francesca Virginia Bruschi, Michael Trauner
Nuclear receptors, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and alpha (PPAR-γ, -α), are major metabolic regulators in adipose tissue and the liver, where they govern lipid, glucose, and bile acid homeostasis, as well as inflammatory cascades. Glycerol and free fatty acids are the end products of lipid droplet catabolism driven by PPARs. Aquaporins (AQPs), a family of 13 small transmembrane proteins, facilitate the shuttling of water, urea, and/or glycerol...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dockyu Kim, Ki Young Choi, Miyoun Yoo, Gerben J Zylstra, Eungbin Kim
The genus Rhodococcus is a phylogenetically and catabolically diverse group that has been isolated from diverse environments, including polar and alpine regions, for its versatile ability to degrade a wide variety of natural and synthetic organic compounds. Their metabolic capacity and diversity result from their diverse catabolic genes, which are believed to be obtained through frequent recombination events mediated by large catabolic plasmids. Many rhodococci have been used commercially for the biodegradation of environmental pollutants and for the biocatalytic production of high value chemicals from low value materials...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dong Wang, Hui Ren, Chunlong Li, Fanghe Liu, Guangzhi Wang, Fengjun Shi, Yuanxin Sun
Excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a key role in the pathophysiological development of osteoarthritis (OA). Orexin A is an important peptide of hypothalamic origin, which has displayed its multiple biological functions in several chronic diseases via activation of its specific G-protein coupled receptors, orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin-2 receptor (OX2R). In this study, we aimed to characterize the protective effects of orexin A against IL-1β-induced degradation of articular cartilage matrixes in human chondrocytes...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Chu Kion Yao, James Fung, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Liver cirrhosis is associated with significant nutritional risks that often result in serious hepatic complications and poor survival rates. Diet is an important but underutilized aspect in the treatment modality of cirrhosis. Therefore, the aims of this review are to ascertain nutritional risks associated with its pathophysiology and to summarize existing evidence that support dietary recommendations for managing this patient population. Alterations in substrate utilization for energy production is a main feature of liver cirrhosis, resulting in increased catabolism of protein stores and a predisposition toward protein-energy malnutrition, even in the early stages of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Nicholas C McDonald, Robert L White
Accumulation of succinate as a fermentation product of Fusobacterium varium was enhanced when the anaerobic bacterium was grown on complex peptone medium supplemented with fumarate. Residual substrates and fermentation products were determined by proton NMR spectroscopy. Cells collected from the fumarate-supplemented medium (8-10 h after inoculation) supported the conversion of fumarate to succinate when suspended with fumarate and a co-substrate (glucose, sorbitol, or glycerol). Succinate production was limited by the availability of fumarate or reducing equivalents supplied by catabolism of a co-substrate via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway...
June 18, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Chern Chiuh Woo, Kavita Kaur, Wei Xin Chan, Xing Qi Teo, Teck Hock Philip Lee
Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) gene is frequently upregulated in various types of cancer including lung, prostate and brain. It catabolizes glycine to yield 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, an important substrate in one-carbon metabolism for nucleotide synthesis. In this study, we used exon splicing modulating steric hindrance antisense oligonucleotide (shAON) to suppress GLDC expression and investigated its effect on pyruvate metabolism via hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The MRS technique allows us to study in vivo metabolic flux in tumor tissues with/without GLDC-shAON intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Aleksandra M Mirończuk, Anna Biegalska, Karolina Zugaj, Dorota A Rzechonek, Adam Dobrowolski
Erythritol is a natural sweetener produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant. It belongs to the group of polyols and it can be utilized by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica . Despite the recent identification of the transcription factor of erythritol utilization ( EUF1 ), the metabolic pathway of erythritol catabolism remains unknown. In this study we identified a new gene, YALI0F01628g , involved in erythritol assimilation. In silico analysis showed that YALI0F01628g is a putative isomerase and it is localized in the same region as EUF1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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