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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431322/xanthohumol-and-8-prenylnaringenin-ameliorate-diabetic-related-metabolic-dysfunctions-in-mice
#1
Raquel Costa, Ilda Rodrigues, Luísa Guardão, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Carolina Silva, José Magalhães, Manuel Ferreira-de-Almeida, Rita Negrão, Raquel Soares
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disturbances in specific tissues. The present work aimed to analyze the effects of xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN), two beer-derived polyphenols, in liver and skeletal muscle lipid and glycolytic metabolism in T2DM mice model. Thirty C57Bl/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: standard diet (control), high-fat diet (DM), high-fat diet plus ethanol (DM-Ethanol), high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L XN (DM-XN) and high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L 8PN (DM-8PN) during 20 weeks...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431319/response-of-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-2-to-feeding-pattern-and-intraruminal-administration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-sheep
#2
M Elsabagh, Y Inabu, T Obitsu, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431295/clove-and-rosemary-essential-oils-and-encapsuled-active-principles-eugenol-thymol-and-vanillin-blend-on-meat-quality-of-feedlot-finished-heifers
#3
Jéssica de Oliveira Monteschio, Kennyson Alves de Souza, Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital, Ana Guerrero, Maribel Velandia Valero, Emília Maria Barbosa Carvalho Kempinski, Vinícius Cunha Barcelos, Karina Favoreto Nascimento, Ivanor Nunes do Prado
Forty Nellore heifers were fed (73days) with different diets: with or without essential oils (clove and/or rosemary essential oil) and/or active principle blend (eugenol, thymol and vanillin). The pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area and water losses (thawing and drip) were evaluated 24h post mortem on the Longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (14days) was evaluated on the meat cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Treatments had no effect (P>0...
April 5, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431252/engineered-regulatory-systems-modulate-gene-expression-of-human-commensals-in-the-gut
#4
Bentley Lim, Michael Zimmermann, Natasha A Barry, Andrew L Goodman
The gut microbiota is implicated in numerous aspects of health and disease, but dissecting these connections is challenging because genetic tools for gut anaerobes are limited. Inducible promoters are particularly valuable tools because these platforms allow real-time analysis of the contribution of microbiome gene products to community assembly, host physiology, and disease. We developed a panel of tunable expression platforms for the prominent genus Bacteroides in which gene expression is controlled by a synthetic inducer...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431244/bacterial-metabolism-affects-the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-response-to-cancer-chemotherapeutics
#5
Aurian P García-González, Ashlyn D Ritter, Shaleen Shrestha, Erik C Andersen, L Safak Yilmaz, Albertha J M Walhout
The human microbiota greatly affects physiology and disease; however, the contribution of bacteria to the response to chemotherapeutic drugs remains poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans and its bacterial diet provide a powerful system to study host-bacteria interactions. Here, we use this system to study how bacteria affect the C. elegans response to chemotherapeutics. We find that different bacterial species can increase the response to one drug yet decrease the effect of another. We perform genetic screens in two bacterial species using three chemotherapeutic drugs: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUDR), and camptothecin (CPT)...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#6
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431178/influence-of-dietary-calcium-concentrations-and-the-calcium-to-non-phytate-phosphorus-ratio-on-growth-performance-bone-characteristics-and-digestibility-in-broilers
#7
A E Gautier, C L Walk, R N Dilger
Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of dietary Ca concentrations (Experiment 1) and a combination of dietary Ca and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) to create distinct Ca-to-NPP ratios (Experiment 2) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to broiler chickens from 2 to 23 d of age. In Experiment 1, dietary treatments consisted of 7 concentrations of Ca (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, or 1.6% of the diet; 7 treatments total), and NPP concentrations were maintained at 0.3%. Increasing the dietary Ca concentration while maintaining 0...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431151/dietary-choline-and-phospholipid-supplementation-enhanced-docosahexaenoic-acid-enrichment-in-egg-yolk-of-laying-hens-fed-a-2-schizochytrium-powder-added-diet
#8
H Wang, H J Zhang, X C Wang, S G Wu, J Wang, L Xu, G H Qi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431149/next-generation-non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading-multi-carbohydrase-complex-rich-in-xylanase-and-arabinofuranosidase-to-enhance-broiler-feed-digestibility
#9
Pierre Cozannet, Michael T Kidd, Roberto Montanhini Neto, Pierre-André Geraert
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a multi-carbohydrase complex ( ) rich in xylanase ( ) and arabinofuranosidase ( ) on overall broiler feed digestibility in broilers. Energy utilization and digestibility of dry matter ( ), organic matter ( ), protein, starch, fat, and insoluble and soluble fibers were measured using the mass-balance method. The experiment was carried out on 120 broilers (3-week-old chickens). Broilers were distributed over 8 treatments to evaluate the effect of the dietary arabinoxylan content and nutrient density with and without MCC (Rovabio® Advance)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431146/response-of-broiler-chickens-fed-wheat-based-diets-to-xylanase-supplementation
#10
G Gonzalez-Ortiz, D Sola-Oriol, M Martinez-Mora, J F Perez, M R Bedford
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylanase supplementation on performance, footpad score (FPS), nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphometry in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-eighty-eight Ross 308 broiler chicks (one d old) were placed in one of 3 experimental treatments: positive control (PC), negative control (NC) (-150 kcal/kg), and XYL (NC supplemented with xylanase). Each treatment had 8 replicates with 12 animals each. Starter (zero to 21 d) and grower (21 to 42 d) diets, based on wheat and soy-bean meal, were available ad libitum...
April 18, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431132/revealing-the-biochemical-and-genetic-basis-of-colour-variation-in-a-polymorphic-lizard
#11
Claire A McLean, Adrian Lutz, Katrina J Rankin, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adnan Moussalli
Determining the mechanistic and genetic basis of animal coloration is essential to understand the costs and constraints on colour production, and the evolution and maintenance of phenotypic variation. However, genes underlying structural colour and widespread pigment classes apart from melanin remain largely uncharacterised, in part due to restricted taxonomic focus. We combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq gene expression analyses to characterise the pigments and genes associated with skin colour in the polymorphic lizard, Ctenophorus decresii...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431098/egg-production-and-egg-quality-in-free-range-laying-hens-housed-at-different-outdoor-stocking-densities1
#12
D L M Campbell, C Lee, G N Hinch, J R Roberts
Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431078/effect-of-threonine-on-secretory-immune-system-using-a-chicken-intestinal-ex%C3%A2-vivo-model-with-lipopolysaccharide-challenge
#13
Q Zhang, X Chen, S D Eicher, K M Ajuwon, T J Applegate
Secretory IgA (sIgA) and its transcytosis receptor, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), along with mucus, form the first lines of intestinal defense. Threonine (Thr) is a major component of intestinal mucins and IgA, which are highly secreted under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation. In the current study, the effect of Thr on the secretory immune system was determined in an ex vivo chicken ileal explant model. Results showed that a 2-hour Thr-deprivation of culture medium induced a compensatory increase in the mRNA expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), mucin 2 ( ), and IgA during LPS challenge, and this increase was suppressed with Thr addition to the media ( P  ≤ 0...
April 18, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430983/absence-of-endothelial-er%C3%AE-results-in-arterial-remodeling-and-decreased-stiffness-in-western-diet-fed-male-mice
#14
Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Jaume Padilla, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Annayya R Aroor, Brady J Barron, Dongqing Chen, Dominic Haertling, Cory Declue, James R Sowers, Luis A Martinez-Lemus
The role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in the vasculature of females has been described under different experimental conditions and our group recently reported that lack of endothelial ERα in female mice fed a Western diet (WD) results in amelioration of vascular stiffness. Conversely, the role of ERα in the male vasculature in this setting has not been explored. In conditions of over-nutrition and insulin resistance, augmented arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430962/ulk1-prevents-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obesity-through-autophagy-meditated-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism
#15
Minae An, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Jang Won Park, Ji Ha Choi, Eun-Mi Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Minna Woo, Minsuk Kim
Aims: Autophagy is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis, particularly in long-lived cells such as cardiomyocytes. Whereas many studies support the importance of autophagy in the mechanisms underlying obesity-related cardiac dysfunction, the role of autophagy in cardiac lipid metabolism remains unclear. In the heart, lipotoxicity is exacerbated by cardiac lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which mediates accumulation of fatty acids to the heart through intravascular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430907/food-intake-affects-sperm-egg-fusion-through-the-gip-psg17-axis-in-mice
#16
Tatsunori Shimizu, Takehiro Sato, Katsushi Tsukiyama, Hiroki Fujita, Shunsuke Kato, Manabu Hoizumi, Hiromitsu Shirasawa, Takuma Narita, Yukihiro Terada, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada
In addition to overeating, starvation also reduces fecundity in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking food intake to fertility, especially in males. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the action of incretin and has several extra-pancreatic effects. Here, we identified GIP receptor (Gipr) expression in mouse spermatids. Microarray analysis revealed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 (Psg17), a potential CD9-binding partner, was significantly decreased in GIP receptor-knockout (Gipr-/-) testes...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430866/maternal-high-sucrose-diets-altered-vascular-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channels-via-reactive-oxygen-species-in-offspring-rats%C3%A2
#17
Xueqin Feng, Xiuwen Zhou, Wenna Zhang, Xiang Li, Axin He, Bailin Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Lei Wu, Jue Wu, Di Zhu, Na Li, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
Overnutrition during pregnancy could increase risks of cardiovascular diseases in late life. This study investigated whether and how reactive oxygen species (ROS) may influence functions of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) in the offspring exposed to prenatal high-sucrose (HS). We found that prenatal high-sucrose diets significantly increased phenylephrine (PE)-induced vessel contractions in mesenteric arteries of the adult offspring. Pretreatment with iberiotoxin (BKCa blocker, IBTX) significantly increased PE-mediated vascular contractions in the control, not in the HS group...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430843/carotid-body-denervation-markedly-improves-survival-in-rats-with-hypertensive-heart-failure
#18
Kana Fujii, Keita Saku, Takuya Kishi, Yasuhiro Oga, Takeshi Tohyama, Takuya Nishikawa, Takafumi Sakamoto, Masataka Ikeda, Tomomi Ide, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kenji Sunagawa
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major cause of heart failure. Excessive sympathoexcitation in patients with heart failure leads to poor prognosis. Since carotid body denervation (CBD) has been shown to reduce sympathetic nerve activity in animal models of hypertension and heart failure, we examined if bilateral CBD attenuates the progression of hypertensive heart failure and improves survival. METHODS: We randomly allocated Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet from 6 weeks of age into CBD (n = 31) and sham-operation (SHAM; n = 50) groups, and conducted CBD or SHAM at 7 weeks of age...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430835/relationship-between-urinary-nitrate-excretion-and-blood-pressure-in-the-inchianti-cohort
#19
Miranda J Smallwood, Alessandro Ble, David Melzer, Paul G Winyard, Nigel Benjamin, Angela C Shore, Mark Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrate from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO) or consumed in the diet can be reduced to NO via a complex enterosalivary circulation pathway. The relationship between total nitrate exposure by measured urinary nitrate excretion and blood pressure in a large population sample has not been assessed previously. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 24-hour urinary nitrate excretion was measured by spectrophotometry in the 919 participants from the InChianti cohort at baseline and blood pressure measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430821/dietary-dha-epa-ratio-affected-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-antioxidant-capacity-hematological-characteristics-and-expression-of-lipid-related-genes-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii
#20
Min Jin, Óscar Monroig, You Lu, Ye Yuan, Yi Li, Liyun Ding, Douglas R Tocher, Qicun Zhou
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (DHA/EPA) on growth performance, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of some lipid metabolism related genes of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) of initial weight 9.47 ± 0.03 g. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (45% crude protein and 14% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded DHA/EPA ratios of 0.65, 1...
2017: PloS One
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