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Bao-Lam Huynh, Jeffrey D Ehlers, Bevan Emma Huang, Maria Munoz-Amatriain, Stefano Lonardi, Jansen R P Santos, Arsenio Ndeve, Benoit J Batieno, Ousmane Boukar, Ndiaga Cisse, Issa Drabo, Christian Fatokun, Francis Kusi, Richard Y Agyare, Yi-Ning Guo, Ira Herniter, Sassoum Lo, Steve I Wanamaker, Shizhong Xu, Timothy J Close, Philip A Roberts
Multi-parent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) populations are an emerging type of resource to dissect the genetic structure of traits and improve breeding populations. We developed a MAGIC population for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) from eight founder parents which are genetically diverse and carry many abiotic and biotic stress resistance, seed quality and agronomic traits relevant to cowpea improvement in the USA and sub-Saharan Africa, where cowpea is vitally important in the human diet and local economies...
January 21, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
J L Rapson, H C Schott, B D Nielsen, L J McCutcheon, P A Harris, R J Geor
BACKGROUND: Age and diet may affect insulin sensitivity (SI) but these factors have received limited investigation in horses. OBJECTIVES: To measure minimal model parameters during an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) after adaptation to a forage only diet (HAY) or forage supplemented with either starch/sugar rich (SS) or oil/fibre rich (FF) concentrate feeds; and to assess glucose and insulin responses to a standardised meal challenge (SMC, 4 g/kg BW of SS) after diet adaptation in adult and aged mares...
January 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Brianna K Crawley, Salem Dehom, Emily Kutzner, Thomas Murry, Priya Krishna, Justin Hata
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: In-office laryngology procedures are important in the treatment of voice and swallowing disorders. Patient tolerance determines which procedures can be performed without sedation or formal anesthesia. This study examines pain perception during and after in-office vocal fold injection augmentation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients scheduled for office-based vocal fold injection augmentation were prospectively enrolled at an academic voice center...
January 22, 2018: Laryngoscope
Jef L Leroy, Marie Ruel, Celeste Sununtnasuk, Akhter Ahmed
Evidence on the nutritional status and diets of adolescents in low- and middle-income countries is scant. We characterized the nutritional status (body mass index Z-scores (BMIZs)) and nutrient intakes of adolescent boys and girls in rural areas in Bangladesh using the 2011-2012 BIHS data, used regression models to identify the socioeconomic determinants of these outcomes, and household fixed effects models to assess whether the gap between boys and girls changed with women's education and empowerment and household wealth...
January 22, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Toshio Nishi, Yuta Yamamoto, Naoko Yamagishi, Mikitaka Iguchi, Hideyuki Tamai, Takao Ito, Yoshihiro Tsuruo, Masao Ichinose, Masayuki Kitano, Takashi Ueyama
OBJECTIVES: We previously demonstrated that lansoprazole provided hepatoprotection in a drug-induced hepatitis animal model partially through the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Here, we examined whether lansoprazole could also provide hepatoprotection in a rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Six-week-old rats were fed a normal chow or a choline-deficient amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet to establish a rat model of NASH. The groups fed a CDAA diet for 5 weeks were subcutaneously administered either a vehicle or a lansoprazole suspension for 4 weeks beginning the second week of the experiment...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Jiali Zheng, Anwar T Merchant, Michael D Wirth, Jiajia Zhang, Samuel O Antwi, Azza Shoaibi, Nitin Shivappa, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, James R Hebert, Susan E Steck
Inflammation plays a central role in pancreatic cancer etiology and can be modulated by diet. We aimed to examine the association between the inflammatory potential of diet, assessed with the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and pancreatic cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial prospective cohort. Our study included 101,449 participants aged 52 to 78 years at baseline who completed both baseline questionnaire and a diet history questionnaire. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were computed based on food and supplement intake...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Charlotte L King, Siân E Halcrow, Andrew R Millard, Darren R Gröcke, Vivien G Standen, Marco Portilla, Bernardo T Arriaza
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The transition to an agricultural economy is often presumed to involve an increase in female fertility related to changes in weaning practice. In particular, the availability of staple crops as complementary foods is hypothesized to allow earlier weaning in agricultural populations. In this study, our primary aim is to explore whether this model fits the agricultural transition in the Atacama Desert using incremental isotopic analysis. A secondary aim of this study is to identify isotopic patterns relating to weaning, and assess how these may be differentiated from those relating to early life stress...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Wei Yu, Heizhao Lin, Yukai Yang, Xiaolin Huang, Chuanpeng Zhou, Zaiwang Zhang, Yafei Duan, Zhong Huang, Tao Li
The present study investigated the effects of dietary Spirulina platensis supplementation on growth performance, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant status, immune responses and resistance to the pathogen infection in Coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The fish were fed for 8-week with diets containing different levels of S. platensis: 0% (C), 2% (SP2), 4% (SP4), 6% (SP6), 8% (SP8) and 10% (SP10) as treatment groups, followed by a Vibrio harveyi infection test for 14 d. The study indicated that dietary supplementation with Spirulina platensis could significantly improve growth performance, and the highest weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in group SP10 (P < ...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Deng-Tai Wen, Lan Zheng, Fan Yang, Han-Zhe Li, Jing Chen
High-Fat-Diet (HFD)-induced obesity is a major contributor to premature senescence in both Drosophila and humans, which includes locomotor impairment, cardiac dysfunction, and decrease in lifespan. While, few studies have shown that HFD could affect the expression dSir2 genes since the dSir2 genes are closely related to aging. As we know, endurance exercise can efficiently prevent obesity and delay age-related functional decline in Drosophila and humans. However, few directed reports showing that exercise can resist HFD-induced locomotor impairment, cardiac dysfunction and decrease in lifespan...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Atsushi Toyoda, Hikari Shimonishi, Mizuho Sato, Kento Usuda, Natsuki Ohsawa, Kentaro Nagaoka
Diverse commercially available feeds are used in animal studies according to the purpose of the studies. We sought to understand the relationship between feed ingredients and their effects on animal physiology and behaviors. Here, we investigated how male laboratory mice (C57BL/6J ("B6") mice) were affected by chronic feeding with two commercially available diets, a non-purified diet (MF) and a semi-purified diet (AIN-93G). In B6 mice, both diets similarly induced spontaneous activities in the home cage and the open field box, anxiety in the elevated plus maze test, and depressive-like behaviors in tail-suspension and forced-swimming tests, and with both diets, similar data were obtained on calorie intake, water intake, body weight gain, and plasma corticosterone levels...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Pin Chen, Xiaozhi Shi, Xiangjin Xu, Yiyang Lin, Zhulin Shao, Rongdan Wu, Lihong Huang
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liraglutide on renal injury and the renal expression of FoxO1 in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic rats model was induced by a high-sugar and high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose Streptozotocin (STZ)(30 mg/kg). Five weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats were randomly treated with or without subcutaneous injection of liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg/12 h) for eight weeks. Diabetes-related physical and biochemical indicators, renal histopathological and ultrastructural changes, the expression of renal transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), fibronectin (FN), type IV collagen (Col IV), protein kinase B (Akt), forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) were measured...
January 17, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Xiao-Xiao Liu, Xiao-Wen Zhang, Kai Wang, Xue-Ying Wang, Wen-Long Ma, Wei Cao, Dan Mo, Yang Sun, Xiao-Qiang Li
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic inflammation in vascular wall. Previous studies suggest that Kuwanon G (KWG) exerts anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of KWG on atherosclerosis remains unexplored. AIMS: To explore whether KWG affects macrophage foam cell formation in vitro and atherogenesis in vivo. METHODS: RAW 264.7 macrophages were stimulated with ox-LDL for 24h to induce foam cell formation and treated with KWG...
January 17, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
R B Srygley, S T Jaronski
Little is known about the effects of dietary macronutrients on the capacity of insects to ward off a fungal pathogen. Here we tested the hypothesis that Mormon crickets fed restricted protein diets have lower enzymatic assays of generalized immunity, slower rates of encapsulation of foreign bodies, and greater mortality from infection by Beauveria bassiana, a fungal pathogen. Beginning in the last nymphal instar, crickets were fed a high, intermediate, or low protein diet with correspondingly low, intermediate, or high carbohydrate proportions...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
M S Wolff, A B Schenkel
Dental caries remains a world-wide disease despite the global distribution of fluoride. It has become apparent that the introduction of significant levels of sugar (fermentable carbohydrate) into the diet has resulted in a change in the biofilm, encouraging acid formation. Further, there has been a shift in the microbiota in the biofilm to a flora that produces acid, and thrives and reproduces in an acidic environment. The management of caries activity under these conditions has focused on brushing to remove the biofilm with fluoride pastes, and high-dose fluoride treatments...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
Mei Cheng, Xin Zhang, Jieyu Zhu, Lu Cheng, Jinxuan Cao, Zufang Wu, Peifang Weng, Xiaojie Zheng
To investigate the modulatory effect of oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) on intestinal microbiota, OTP was prepared by column chromatography and its influence on the gut flora structure was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing with a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity mouse model. We observed a robust increase in bacterial biodiversity and the abundance of genera known to be butyrate- and acetate-producing bacteria. A large increase in Bacteroidetes with a decrease in Firmicutes was observed after the administration of OTP for 4 weeks, and the corresponding decrease in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio reflected the positive modulatory effect of OTP on the intestinal microbiota...
January 22, 2018: Food & Function
Feifei Lin, Haohao Wu, Mingyong Zeng, Guangli Yu, Shiyuan Dong, Huicheng Yang
Iron fortification has been associated with a modest increase in diarrhea risk among children. Herein, we investigate the correction for this unwanted side effect with probiotic/prebiotic supplementation in weaning mice. Iron fortification with 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate for 30 days significantly increased the species richness of the mouse gut microbiota compared to controls. The 500 ppm-FeSO4 diet caused a significantly decreased abundance of potentially beneficial Lactobacillus. During infection with the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
January 22, 2018: Food & Function
Bess L Caswell, Sameera A Talegawkar, Ward Siamusantu, Keith P West, Amanda C Palmer
Inadequate nutrient intakes put children at risk for impaired growth and development. We described diet, usual intakes of energy and macro- and micronutrients and prevalence of nutrient intake adequacies among 4-8-year-old Zambian children. Children not yet in school and living in Mkushi District, Central Province, Zambia were enrolled into an efficacy trial of pro-vitamin A biofortified maize. Children in the non-intervened arm were included in this analysis (n 202). Dietary intake data were collected by tablet-based 24-h recall on a monthly basis over the 6-month trial...
January 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Kamila Sabino Batista, Adriano Francisco Alves, Marcos Dos Santos Lima, Laiane Alves da Silva, Priscilla Paulo Lins, Jéssyca Alencar de Sousa Gomes, Alexandre Sérgio Silva, Lydiane Tavares Toscano, Bruno Raniere Lins de Albuquerque Meireles, Angela Maria Tribuzy de Magalhães Cordeiro, Maria Lúcia da Conceição, Evandro Leite de Souza, Jailane de Souza Aquino
This study assessed the effects of diet supplementation with industrial processing by-products of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.), cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit on the intestinal health and lipid metabolism of female Wistar rats with diet-induced dyslipidaemia. Female rats were randomly divided into five groups: healthy control, dyslipidaemic control and dyslipidaemic experimental receiving acerola, cashew or guava processing by-products. Fruit processing by-products were administered (400 mg/kg body weight) via orogastric administration for 28 consecutive days...
January 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Leila Khorrami-Nezhad, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Zhila Maghbooli, Seyed Ali Keshavarz
Osteoporosis and adipose tissue are closely related with many contradictions. Visfatin is an adipokine that is related to osteoporosis and adiposity. This nutrigenomics study examined the interaction between visfatin genotypes and dietary fat intake, with regard to bone mineral density (BMD) among an obese population. In this cross-sectional study, 336 subjects were enrolled; the mean age was 38·25 (sd 11·69) years and the mean BMI was 31·79 (sd 4·77) kg/m2. Laboratory measurements were lipid profile, insulin and fasting blood sugar...
January 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Yunchang Mo, Anqi Zhang, Bo Zheng, Chengyu Chen, Yelong Ren, Xixi Wang, Haifeng Fu, Lingmin Lin, Junlu Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on gastric emptying in patients undergoing selective surgery based on velocity of gastric emptying by ultrasonography. METHODS: A total of 75 patients with selective operation of subarachnoid block at lower limb in the afternoon were randomly assigned to a TEAS group, a sham group and a control group, 25 patients in each one. All the patients were provided with semi-fluid diet at 8 a...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
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