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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110500/-maximising-shareholder-value-a-detailed-insight-into-the-corporate-political-activity-of-the-australian-food-industry
#1
Melissa Mialon, Boyd Swinburn, Steven Allender, Gary Sacks
OBJECTIVE: To gain deeper insight into the corporate political activity (CPA) of the Australian food industry from a public health perspective. METHODS: Fifteen interviews with a purposive sample of current and former policy makers, public health advocates and academics who have closely interacted with food industry representatives or observed food industry behaviours. RESULTS: All participants reported having directly experienced the CPA of the food industry during their careers, with the 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent...
January 22, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110395/relative-contribution-of-health-related-behaviours-and-chronic-diseases-to-the-socioeconomic-patterning-of-low-grade-inflammation
#2
Marialaura Bonaccio, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, George Pounis, Amalia De Curtis, Simona Costanzo, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello
OBJECTIVES: To test the association of low-grade inflammation with socioeconomic status (SES) and determine the relative contribution of prevalent chronic diseases and health-related behaviours in explaining such association. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis on 19,867 subjects (age ≥35, 48.1% men) recruited within the Moli-sani study from 2005 to 2010 (Italy). A score of low-grade inflammation, including platelet and leukocyte counts, the granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein was applied...
January 21, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110332/role-of-insulin-in-placental-transport-of-nutrients-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#3
María Ruiz-Palacios, Antonio José Ruiz-Alcaraz, María Sanchez-Campillo, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased fetal adiposity, which may increase the risk of obesity in adulthood. The placenta has insulin receptors and maternal insulin can activate its signaling pathways, affecting the transport of nutrients to the fetus. However, the effects of diet or insulin treatment on the placental pathophysiology of GDM are unknown. SUMMARY: There are very few studies on possible defects in the insulin signaling pathway in the GDM placenta...
January 21, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110314/long-term-exposure-to-a-butter-rich-diet-induces-mild-to-moderate-steatosis-in-chang-liver-cells-and-swiss-albino-mice-models
#4
Thomas John Philip Nalloor, Nitesh Kumar, Kasinathan Narayanan, Vasanth Raj Palanimuthu
BACKGROUND: Butter is one of the widely used fats present in the diet. However, there is no satisfactory study available that evaluates the effect of a high-fat diet containing butter as the principal fat on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: In the present study, butter was used for the development of steatosis in Chang liver cells in an in vitro study and Swiss albino mice in an in vivo study. In vitro steatosis was established, and butter was compared with oleic acid in Chang liver cells using an oil red O (ORO)-based colorimetric assay...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110300/irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-diet
#5
REVIEW
Piero Portincasa, Leonilde Bonfrate, Ornella de Bari, Anthony Lembo, Sarah Ballou
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. The impact of IBS on the general population is large due to its high prevalence, suboptimal medical treatments and significant economic burden. The pathophysiology of IBS is complex and treatments are often symptom-specific. The most common therapeutic approaches for IBS include education and reassurance, lifestyles (especially nutrition-based interventions), peripherally acting medications (which typically target motility), centrally acting medications (which target visceral hypersensitivity and pain) and psychological interventions (which aim to reduce the effects of stress or symptom-specific anxiety)...
January 20, 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110175/ketogenic-diet-therapy-for-epilepsy-during-pregnancy-a-case-series
#6
Elles J T M van der Louw, Tanya J Williams, Bobbie J Henry-Barron, Joanne F Olieman, Johannes J Duvekot, Marijn J Vermeulen, Natalja Bannink, Monique Williams, Rinze F Neuteboom, Eric H Kossoff, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Mackenzie C Cervenka
PURPOSE: Evaluation of ketogenic diet (KD) therapies for seizure control during pregnancy when safety and appropriate management become considerations. Until now, no information has been available on seizure reduction and human pregnancy related outcomes in women treated with KD therapies. METHOD: We describe two cases of pregnant women with epilepsy treated with KD therapy either as monotherapy (Case 1) or as adjunctive therapy (Case 2). RESULTS: Case 1: A 27 year old woman, gravida1, started the classic KD with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsion and 75g carbohydrate-restriction, later reduced to 47g...
December 26, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110159/manganese-intake-is-inversely-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy-in-japan-baseline-data-from-the-kyushu-okinawa-maternal-and-child-health-study
#7
Yoshihiro Miyake, Keiko Tanaka, Hitomi Okubo, Satoshi Sasaki, Shinya Furukawa, Masashi Arakawa
BACKGROUND: One epidemiological study in Canada has addressed the association between zinc intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy while another epidemiological study in Korea has examined the association between iron intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The present cross-sectional study in Japan examined the association between intake of zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, and manganese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. METHODS: Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110126/effect-of-supplementation-with-linseed-or-a-blend-of-aromatic-spices-and-time-on-feed-on-fatty-acid-composition-meat-quality-and-consumer-liking-of-meat-from-lambs-fed-dehydrated-alfalfa-or-corn
#8
C E Realini, G Bianchi, O Bentancur, G Garibotto
Cross-bred lambs (n=72) were fed finishing diets using a factorial arrangement of treatments: BASAL DIET (alfalfa pellets or corn), SUPPLEMENT (none, linseed or aromatic spices), TIME ON FEED (41 or 83days). Carcass and meat quality traits, fatty acid composition, color stability and consumer liking were determined. Feeding alfalfa improved sensory ratings and fatty acid composition of lamb. However, corn or longer alfalfa feeding would be recommended if heavier and fatter carcasses are sought. Consumer liking and fatty acid composition of lamb were improved with addition of spices and linseed, respectively...
December 29, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110099/high-dietary-intake-of-specific-fatty-acids-increases-risk-of-flares-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-in-remission-during-treatment-with-aminosalicylates
#9
Edward L Barnes, Molly Nestor, Louisa Onyewadume, Punyanganie De Silva, Joshua R Korzenik
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary factors may have a significant role in relapse of disease among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the relationship between diet and UC is inadequately understood. We analyzed data from the diet's role in exacerbations of mesalamine maintenance study to determine whether dietary factors affect risk of disease flares in patients with UC. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 412 patients, from 25 sites, with UC in remission during monotherapy with an aminosalicylate...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110063/curcumin-ameliorates-liver-damage-and-progression-of-nash-in-nash-hcc-mouse-model-possibly-by-modulating-hmgb1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-translocation
#10
Rejina Afrin, Somasundaram Arumugam, Azizur Rahman, Mir Imam Ibne Wahed, Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Meilei Harima, Hiroshi Suzuki, Shizuka Miyashita, Kenji Suzuki, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Kazuyuki Ueno, Kenichi Watanabe
Curcumin, a phenolic compound, has a wide spectrum of therapeutic effects such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and so on. The study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of curcumin to protect liver damage and progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a novel NASH-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse model. To induce this model neonatal C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to low-dose streptozotocin and were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) from the age of 4weeks to 14weeks. Curcumin was given at 100mg/kg dose daily by oral gavage started at the age of 10weeks and continued until 14weeks along with HFD feeding...
January 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109989/low-glycemic-index-treatment-for-seizure-control-in-angelman-syndrome-a-case-series-from-the-center-for-dietary-therapy-of-epilepsy-at-the-massachusetts-general-hospital
#11
Olivia R Grocott, Katherine S Herrington, Heidi H Pfeifer, Elizabeth A Thiele, Ronald L Thibert
The low glycemic index treatment, a dietary therapy that focuses on glycemic index and reduced carbohydrate intake, has been successful in reducing seizure frequency in the general epilepsy population. Epilepsy is a common feature of Angelman syndrome and seizures are often refractory to multiple medications, especially in those with maternal deletions. Dietary therapy has become a more frequently used option for treating epilepsy, often in combination with other antiepileptic drugs, due to its efficacy and favorable side effect profile...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109977/c-fos-expression-in-the-parabrachial-nucleus-following-intraoral-bitter-stimulation-in-the-rat-with-dietary-induced-zinc-deficiency
#12
Akiyo Kawano, Shiho Honma, Chizuko Inui-Yamamoto, Akira Ito, Hitoshi Niwa, Satoshi Wakisaka
Zinc deficiency causes various symptoms including taste disorders. In the present study, changes in expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity in neurons of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), one of the relay nuclei for transmission of gustatory information, after bitter stimulation to the dorsal surface of the tongue were examined in zinc-deficient rats. Experimental zinc-deficient animals were created by feeding a low-zinc diet for 4 weeks, and showed the following symptoms of zinc deficiency: low body weight, low serum zinc content and behavioral changes to avoid bitter stimulation...
January 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109920/myocardial-blood-flow-and-inflammatory%C3%A2-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#13
Matthew J Kruse, Lara Kovell, Edward K Kasper, Martin G Pomper, David R Moller, Lilja Solnes, Edward S Chen, Thomas H Schindler
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the effects of inflammatory sarcoid disease on coronary circulatory function and the response to immune-suppressive treatment. BACKGROUND: Although positron emission tomography assessment of myocardial inflammation is increasingly applied to identify active cardiac sarcoidosis, its effect on coronary flow and immune-suppressive treatment remains to be characterized. METHODS: Thirty-two individuals who were referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography were evaluated for known or suspected cardiac sarcoidosis applying (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose to determine inflammation and (13)N-ammonia to assess for perfusion deficits following a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet and fasting state >12 h to suppress myocardial glucose uptake...
January 11, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109710/univariate-predictors-of-maternal-concentrations-of-environmental-chemicals-the-mirec-study
#14
Antoine Lewin, Tye E Arbuckle, Mandy Fisher, Chun Lei Liang, Leonora Marro, Karelyn Davis, Nadia Abdelouahab, William D Fraser
BACKGROUND: The developing fetus and pregnant woman can be exposed to a variety of environmental chemicals that may adversely affect their health. Moreover, environmental exposure and risk disparities are associated with different social determinants, including socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic indicators. Our aim was to investigate whether and how maternal concentrations of a large panel of persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals vary according to sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics in a large pregnancy and birth cohort...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109619/obesity-and-heart-failure-focus-on-the-obesity-paradox
#15
REVIEW
Salvatore Carbone, Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena
The escalating prevalence of obesity has been linked to substantial increases in both metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the direct effects of obesity on cardiovascular health and function require further exploration. In particular, the relationship between obesity and cardiac function has received intense scrutiny. Although obesity increases the risk for development of heart failure (HF), it appears to exert a protective effect in patients in whom HF has already been diagnosed (the "obesity paradox")...
January 5, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109593/apparent-ruminal-synthesis-of-b-vitamins-in-lactating-dairy-cows-fed-diets-with-different-forage-to-concentrate-ratios
#16
M Seck, J A Voelker Linton, M S Allen, D S Castagnino, P Y Chouinard, C L Girard
Effects of the forage-to-concentrate ratio on apparent ruminal synthesis of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were evaluated in an experiment using 14 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows. The experiment was a crossover design with two 15-d treatment periods and a 14-d preliminary period in which cows were fed a diet intermediate in composition between the treatment diets. Treatments were diets containing low-forage (44.8% forage, 32.8% starch, 24.4% neutral detergent fiber) or high-forage (61...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109588/tea-saponin-reduced-methanogenesis-in-vitro-but-increased-methane-yield-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#17
J Guyader, M Eugène, M Doreau, D P Morgavi, C Gérard, C Martin
The effect of tea saponin supplementation in the ruminant diet on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and digestive processes is still under debate. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of this plant extract on methanogenesis, total-tract digestibility, and lactating performances of dairy cows. The work included 2 independent and successive experiments. First, the effect of 7 tea saponin doses (from 0 to 0.50 g/L) on methane emissions and protozoa concentrations was tested in 2 repeated in vitro batch culture incubations using bovine rumen contents as inoculum and a cereal mixture as substrate...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109582/short-communication-effects-of-supplementing-diets-of-holsteins-with-copper-zinc-and-manganese-on-blood-neutrophil-function
#18
A M Dietz, W P Weiss, M J Faulkner, J S Hogan
The effects of supplementing diets with sulfate or glycinate Cu, Zn, and Mn on blood neutrophil function were examined in 27 late-lactation Holstein cows having a mean (± standard deviation) days in milk at time of neutrophil assays of 216 ± 31 d. Cows were assigned to 9 blocks of 3 and were grouped by parity, milk production, and days in milk. Cows within each block were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) control diet devoid of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn; (2) diet supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn via sulfates; and (3) diet supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn via glycinate form...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109546/influence-of-feeding-habits-in-the-endocrine-pancreas-of-insectivore-bat-pteronotus-personatus-and-nectarivore-bat-anoura-geoffroyi-a-comparative-stereological-and-immunohistochemical-study
#19
Clarice Machado-Santos, Júlio Cesar Fraulob Aquino, Patrício Adriano da Rocha, Marcelo Abidu-Figueiredo, Lycia de Brito-Gitirana, Armando Sales
Pteronotus personatus as an insectivore bat and has a diet that consists of a high protein diet, whereas the diet of Anoura geoffroyi, a predominantly nectarivore bat, is rich in simple sugars like sucrose, glucose and fructose. Considering that diet influences the activation of different pathways, which may influence morphological adaptations in the gastrointestinal system, the aim of this study was to compare the morphology of the endocrine pancreas in P. personatus and A. geoffroyi. For this, histological, stereological and immunohistochemical methods were used...
January 16, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109458/increasing-use-of-a-healthy-food-incentive-a-waiting-room-intervention-among-low-income-patients
#20
Alicia J Cohen, Caroline R Richardson, Michele Heisler, Ananda Sen, Ellen C Murphy, Oran B Hesterman, Matthew M Davis, Suzanna M Zick
INTRODUCTION: Diet-related disease is disproportionately concentrated in low-income communities where fruit and vegetable consumption is far below guidelines. To address financial barriers, Double Up Food Bucks (DUFB)-a statewide healthy food incentive-matches Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) funds spent at farmers markets. However, incentive use is limited. This study examined the impact of a brief waiting room-based intervention about DUFB on program utilization and produce consumption...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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