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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457680/chronic-lead-exposure-enhances-the-sympathoexcitatory-response-associated-with-p2x4-receptor-in-rat-stellate-ganglia
#1
Gaochun Zhu, Zhenying Chen, Bo Dai, Chaoran Zheng, Huaide Jiang, Yurong Xu, Xuan Sheng, Jingjing Guo, Yu Dan, Shangdong Liang, Guilin Li
Chronic lead exposure causes peripheral sympathetic nerve stimulation, including increased blood pressure and heart rate. Purinergic receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia injury. However, whether P2X4 receptor participates in sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure and the possible mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the change of the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure via the P2X4 receptor in the stellate ganglion (SG)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455869/overexpression-of-slc1a5-in-lymph-node-metastases-outperforms-assessment-in-the-primary-as-a-negative-prognosticator-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Agnes Csanadi, Annika Oser, Konrad Aumann, Vera Gumpp, Justyna Rawluk, Ursula Nestle, Claudia Kayser, Sebastian Wiesemann, Martin Werner, Gian Kayser
Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant diseases worldwide. Glutamine-dependence is an established attribute in cancer tissue with emerging importance as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. We analysed the expression of SLC1a5, a major glutamine transporter, in the primary tumour and corresponding nodal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to investigate its biological impact. Expression of SLC1a5 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 259 NSCLC and in 142 nodal metastases and correlated with clinicopathological parameters including overall survival...
February 15, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455543/effect-of-leucine-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-rats-as-determined-by-miniarray-analysis
#3
E Ceyhan, M Canbek, M Uyanoglu, A Ozen, B Durmus Ozen, B Berber, A Ozmen Yaylaci, L Resulzade
BACKGROUND: Although some amino acids are recognized to have favorable effects on the liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH), molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are barely known. OBJECTIVE: Our study was aimed to investigate the effects of valine, glutamine, and leucine amino acids on PH-induced NF-κB signal pathway. The research team studied Leucine in a rat model in vivo. The study took place in the medical and surgical experimental research center at the Eskisehir Osmangazi University in Eskisehir, Turkey...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455251/establishing-and-characterizing-lacrispheres-from-human-lacrimal-gland-for-potential-clinical-application
#4
Shubha Tiwari, Rohini M Nair, Praseeda Vamadevan, Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik, Santosh G Honavar, Geeta K Vemuganti
PURPOSE: Lacrimal gland (LG) dysfunction leading to dry eye syndrome (DES) is an important cause of ocular morbidity. One of the potential and promising long-term management therapies for restoration of LG function could be transplantation of autologous ex vivo expanded stem cells. The present study was aimed at exploring the 2D and 3D cultures of human LG, identifying inherent stem cells and evaluating their secretory potential. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland (HuLG) (n = 5) from patients undergoing therapeutic exenteration was harvested after ethical approval and informed consent...
February 17, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454966/effects-of-pq-s-cytotoxicity-on-secretory-vesicles-in-astroglia-expression-alternation-of-secretogranin-ii-and-its-potential-interaction-with-intracellular-factors
#5
Xiaoni Zhan, Fengrui Li, Qiaohong Chu, Hao Pang
It has been extensively characterized that paraquat (PQ) selectively targets to the substantia nigra and exerts neurotoxic actions on dopaminergic neurons. However, a little knowledge is available about astroglia in PQ exposure, especially its complex secretory machinery. To explore this point, we built up a PQ-induced model in cultural U118 astrocyte. Since the granin family is considered as a master regulator of cargo sorting and large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) biogenesis in the regulated secretory pathway of nervous and neuroendocrine cells, the current study focused on one member, secretogranin II (SCG2) and investigated its alternation and potential relationship with other astrocyte-derived factors under PQ insult...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453360/role-of-intestinal-trefoil-factor-in-protecting-intestinal-epithelial-cells-from-burn-induced-injury
#6
Jianhong Hu, Yan Shi, Chao Wang, Hanxing Wan, Dan Wu, Hongyu Wang, Xi Peng
Although intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) can alleviate the burn-induced intestinal mucosa injury, the underlying mechanisms remains elusive. In this study, we investigated if ITF alters glutamine transport on the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) of the intestines in Sprague-Dawley rats inflicted with 30% TBSA and the underlying mechanisms. We found that ITF significantly stimulated intestinal glutamine transport in burned rats. Mechanistically, ITF enhanced autophagy, reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and alleviates the impaired PDI, ASCT2, and B0AT1 in IECs and BBMVs after burn injury likely through AMPK activation...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453063/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-interactive-effects-between-the-carrier-solvent-methanol-and-a-pharmaceutical-mixture-in-an-amphibian-developmental-bioassay-with-limnodynastes-peronii
#7
Steven D Melvin, Oliver A H Jones, Anthony R Carroll, Frederic D L Leusch
Organic carrier solvents are used in aquatic toxicity testing to improve chemical solubility and facilitate the exploration of dose-response relationships. Both water- and solvent-control groups are normally included in these scenarios to ensure that the solvent itself has no effect on the test organism, but this fails to consider possible interactive effects between carrier solvents and contaminants of interest. We explored this topic by exposing Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to a mixture of common water-soluble pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, metformin and valproic acid) in the presence and absence of the carrier solvent methanol, according to standard developmental bioassay methodology...
February 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452638/nadh-shuttling-couples-cytosolic-reductive-carboxylation-of-glutamine-with-glycolysis-in-cells-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#8
Edoardo Gaude, Christina Schmidt, Payam A Gammage, Aurelien Dugourd, Thomas Blacker, Sew Peak Chew, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, John S O'Neill, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Michal Minczuk, Christian Frezza
The bioenergetics and molecular determinants of the metabolic response to mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood, in part due to a lack of appropriate isogenic cellular models of primary mitochondrial defects. Here, we capitalize on a recently developed cell model with defined levels of m.8993T>G mutation heteroplasmy, mTUNE, to investigate the metabolic underpinnings of mitochondrial dysfunction. We found that impaired utilization of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by the mitochondrial respiratory chain leads to cytosolic reductive carboxylation of glutamine as a new mechanism for cytosol-confined NADH recycling supported by malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1)...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452407/dietary-l-glutamine-supplementation-improves-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-serum-biochemical-indices-of-broiler-chickens-during-necrotic-enteritis-challenge
#9
G D Xue, R Barekatain, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. L-glutamine (Gln) is an amino acid that may compensate for metabolic losses from infection and improve the intestinal development. This study investigated the effects of dietary Gln (10 g/kg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal lesions, jejunum morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during NE challenge. The study employed a factorial arrangement of treatments with factors: NE challenge, no or yes; dietary Gln inclusion, 0 g/kg in starter (S), d 0 to 10, grower (G) d 10 to 24, and finisher (F) d 24 to 35; 10 g/kg in S, G, F, or 10 g/kg in S, G only...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449937/thermal-decomposition-of-the-amino-acids-glycine-cysteine-aspartic-acid-asparagine-glutamic-acid-glutamine-arginine-and-histidine
#10
Ingrid M Weiss, Christina Muth, Robert Drumm, Helmut O K Kirchner
Background: The pathways of thermal instability of amino acids have been unknown. New mass spectrometric data allow unequivocal quantitative identification of the decomposition products. Results: Calorimetry, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry were used to follow the thermal decomposition of the eight amino acids G, C, D, N, E, Q, R and H between 185 °C and 280 °C. Endothermic heats of decomposition between 72 and 151 kJ/mol are needed to form 12 to 70% volatile products...
2018: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449648/the-role-of-disease-linked-residue-glutamine-913-in-support-of-the-structure-and-function-of-the-human-electrogenic-sodium-bicarbonate-cotransporter-nbce1-a
#11
Evan J Myers, Aniko Marshall, Mark D Parker
Mutations in the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (SLC4A4) cause proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA). We recently described a novel pRTA mutation p.Gln913Arg (Q913R), inherited in compound heterozygous form with p.Arg510His (R510H). Q913R causes intracellular retention of NBCe1 and a 'gain of function' Cl - leak. To learn more about the importance of glutamine at position 913, we substituted a variety of alternative amino-acid residues (Cys, Glu, Lys, Leu, Ser) at position 913. Studying cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes by voltage clamp, we find that most de novo mutants exhibit close-to-normal NBCe1 activity; only Q913K expresses a Cl - leak...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448913/-express-role-of-medullary-astroglial-glutamine-synthesis-in-tooth-pulp-hypersensitivity-associated-with-frequent-masseter-muscle-contraction
#12
Tetsuro Watase, Kohei Shimizu, Kinuyo Ohara, Hiroki Komiya, Kohei Kanno, Keisuke Hatori, Noboru Noma, Kuniya Honda, Yoshiyuki Tsuboi, Ayano Katagiri, Masamichi Shinoda, Bunnai Ogiso, Koichi Iwata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445172/rational-cell-culture-optimization-enhances-experimental-reproducibility-in-cancer-cells
#13
Marina Wright Muelas, Fernando Ortega, Rainer Breitling, Claus Bendtsen, Hans V Westerhoff
Optimization of experimental conditions is critical in ensuring robust experimental reproducibility. Through detailed metabolomic analysis we found that cell culture conditions significantly impacted on glutaminase (GLS1) sensitivity resulting in variable sensitivity and irreproducibility in data. Baseline metabolite profiling highlighted that untreated cells underwent significant changes in metabolic status. Both the extracellular levels of glutamine and lactate and the intracellular levels of multiple metabolites changed drastically during the assay...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445145/canagliflozin-mediated-dual-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-glutamate-dehydrogenase-and-complex-i-an-off-target-adverse-effect
#14
Philipp F Secker, Sascha Beneke, Nadja Schlichenmaier, Johannes Delp, Simon Gutbier, Marcel Leist, Daniel R Dietrich
Recent FDA Drug Safety Communications report an increased risk for acute kidney injury in patients treated with the gliflozin class of sodium/glucose co-transport inhibitors indicated for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To identify a potential rationale for the latter, we used an in vitro human renal proximal tubule epithelial cell model system (RPTEC/TERT1), physiologically representing human renal proximal tubule function. A targeted metabolomics approach, contrasting gliflozins to inhibitors of central carbon metabolism and mitochondrial function, revealed a double mode of action for canagliflozin, but not for its analogs dapagliflozin and empagliflozin...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444306/mpamt1-2-from-marchantia-polymorpha-is-a-high-affinity-plasma-membrane-ammonium-transporter
#15
Hanqing Guo, Nu Wang, Tami R McDonald, Anke Reinders, John M Ward
Plant ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh superfamily have only been previously characterized in flowering plants (angiosperms). Plant AMT1s are electrogenic, while plant AMT2s are electroneutral and MEP and Rh transporters in other organisms are electroneutral. We analyzed the transport function of MpAMT1;2 from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha, a liverwort. MpAMT1;2 was shown to localize to the plasma membrane in Marchantia gametophyte thallus by stable transformation using a C-terminal citrine fusion...
February 12, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441565/metabolomics-and-transcriptomics-profiles-reveal-the-dysregulation-of-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-and-related-mechanisms-in-prostate-cancer
#16
Yaping Shao, Guozhu Ye, Shancheng Ren, Hai-Long Piao, Xinjie Zhao, Xin Lu, Fubo Wang, Ma Wang, Jia Li, Peiyuan Yin, Tian Xia, Chuanliang Xu, Jane J Yu, Yinghao Sun, Guowang Xu
Genetic alterations drive metabolic reprogramming to meet increased biosynthetic precursor and energy demands for cancer cell proliferation and survival in unfavorable environments. A systematic study of gene-metabolite regulatory networks and metabolic dysregulation should reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer (PCa) pathogenesis. Herein, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics and RNA-seq analyses in prostate tumors and matched adjacent normal tissues (ANTs) to elucidate the molecular alterations and potential underlying regulatory mechanisms in PCa...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436167/sestrin2-facilitates-glutamine-dependent-transcription-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-survival-of-liver-cancer-cells-under-glucose-limitation
#17
Ashish Kumar, Sagnik Giri, Chandrima Shaha
Differential utilization of metabolites and metabolic plasticity can confer adaptation to cancer cells under metabolic stress. Glutamine is one of the vital and versatile nutrients which cancer cells consume avidly for their proliferation, therefore, mechanisms related to glutamine metabolism has been identified as targets. Recently, SESN2 (sestrin2), a stress inducible protein has been reported to regulate survival in glutamine depleted cancer cells, based on this, we explored if SESN2 could regulate glutamine metabolism during glucose starvation...
February 12, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435734/targeting-of-glutamine-transporter-asct2-and-glutamine-synthetase-suppresses-gastric-cancer-cell-growth
#18
Jianxin Ye, Qiang Huang, Jie Xu, Jinsheng Huang, Jinzhou Wang, Wenjing Zhong, Wannan Chen, Xinjian Lin, Xu Lin
PURPOSE: Glutamine (Gln) is essential for the proliferation of most cancer cells, making it an appealing target for cancer therapy. However, the role of Gln in gastric cancer (GC) metabolism is unknown and Gln-targeted therapy against GC remains scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of Gln in GC growth and targeting. METHODS: Expression of Gln transporter ASCT2 and glutamine synthetase (GS) in the parental and molecularly engineered GC cells or in human GC specimens was determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434447/enteral-nutrition-combined-with-glutamine-promotes-recovery-after-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-in-rats
#19
Yan-Yan Xu, An-Qi He, Gang Liu, Kai-Yu Li, Jian Liu, Tong Liu
AIM: To assess the effect of enteral nutrition (EN) supplemented with glutamine on recovery after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in rats, to provide an experimental basis for nutritional support in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) after IPAA. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups ( n = 8) after IPAA operation using a microsurgical technique. From the third postoperative day, rats in the control group, EN group, and immune nutrition (IN) group were fed standard rat chow, short peptide EN, and short peptide EN combined with glutamine ad libitum , respectively...
February 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434187/glutamine-metabolism-regulates-flip-expression-and-sensitivity-to-trail-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#20
Marta Mauro-Lizcano, Abelardo López-Rivas
Glutamine plays an important role in the metabolism of tumor cells through its contribution to redox homeostasis, bioenergetics, synthesis of macromolecules, and signaling. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are highly metastatic and associated with poor prognosis. TNBC cells show a marked dependence on extracellular glutamine for growth. Herein we demonstrate that TNBC cells are markedly sensitized to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis upon glutamine deprivation...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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