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Cancer amphetamine

Morteza Gholami, Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a narcotic plant which contains significant amounts of amphetamines, like alkaloids. Herein, analysis of the essential oil composition showed that Khat has useful volatile chemicals in addition to its alkaloids. Results indicated that among 35 identified constituents including mono and sesquiterpenes, the diterpene kaurene, comprises the major part of the essential oil, around 50 percent of total. Kaurene is known as a potent biological agent for the treatment of cancer patients...
February 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
Sadeq A Al-Maweri, Saman Warnakulasuriya, Abdulaziz Samran
Khat or qat (Catha edulis) is a plant that grows in East Africa and southern Arabia. The leaves and twigs of this small tree are chewed by several millions of people worldwide for their stimulating amphetamine-like effects. The reported prevalence of khat chewing in Europe and the USA is on the rise, especially with global migration. Long-term khat chewing has several detrimental general and oral health effects. The aim of the present study was to review the current literature regarding khat use and its association with oral and dental diseases, with particular emphasis on its link with oral keratotic white lesions and oral cancer...
February 2018: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Austin Castillo, J Drew Payne, Kenneth Nugent
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome has been associated with hypertension, preeclampsia, cancer chemotherapy, and drugs of abuse, such as amphetamine and methamphetamine. We report a young man who suddenly developed severe headache, disorientation, and aphasia following ingestion of kratom and Adderall. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of his head revealed foci of vasogenic edema in the posterior occipital lobes, frontal lobes, and brainstem. In addition, he had a small area of hemorrhage in the left posterior occipital lobe...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Ed J Hendricks
The global pandemic of obesity and overweight now affects between 2.8 and 3.5 billion of the world population and shows no signs of abatement. Treatment for what is now recognized as a chronic disease includes pharmacotherapy, considered an essential component of comprehensive therapy. New drug discovery is robust, but the pace of the US Food and Drug Administration approval for obesity drugs has been glacial, and only a handful of approved drugs are available for treating obesity. In the last 20 years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved 208 drugs for cancer, 118 for cardiovascular diseases, 168 for neurological diseases, and 223 endocrinologic drugs, but only 6 for obesity, 2 of which have been taken off market...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Sarah R Mikelman, Bipasha Guptaroy, Margaret E Gnegy
As one of the primary mechanisms by which dopamine signaling is regulated, the dopamine transporter (DAT) is an attractive pharmacological target for the treatment of diseases based in dopaminergic dysfunction. In this work we demonstrate for the first time that the commonly prescribed breast cancer therapeutic tamoxifen and its major metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen, inhibit DAT function. Tamoxifen inhibits [(3) H]dopamine uptake into human DAT (hDAT)-N2A cells via an uncompetitive or mixed mechanism...
April 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Jonathan R Burgos, Britt-Marie Iresjö, Ulrika Smedh
The aim of the present study was to explore central and peripheral host responses to an anorexia-cachexia producing tumor. We focused on neuroendocrine anorexigenic signals in the hypothalamus, brainstem, pituitary and from the tumor per se. Expression of mRNA for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), nesfatin-1, thyrotropin (TSH) and the TSH receptor were explored. In addition, we examined changes in plasma TSH, CART peptides (CARTp) and serum amyloid P component (SAP)...
April 2016: Oncology Reports
Martha L Slattery, Abbie Lundgreen, Lisa Hines, Roger K Wolff, Gabriella Torres-Mejia, Kathy N Baumgartner, Esther M John
BACKGROUND: Obesity and breast cancer risk is multifaceted and genes associated with energy homeostasis may modify this relationship. METHODS: We evaluated 10 genes that have been associated with obesity and energy homeostasis to determine their association with breast cancer risk in Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (1481 cases, 1585 controls) women. RESULTS: Cholecystokinin (CCK) rs747455 and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) rs6713532 and rs7565877 (for low Indigenous American (IA) ancestry); CCK rs8192472 and neuropeptide Y (NYP) rs16141 and rs14129 (intermediate IA ancestry); and leptin receptor (LEPR) rs11585329 (high IA ancestry) were strongly associated with multiple indicators of body size...
December 2015: Cancer Epidemiology
Matthew Pokinko, Luc Moquin, Angélica Torres-Berrío, Alain Gratton, Cecilia Flores
RATIONALE: Signaling through the netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), in dopamine neurons controls the extent of their innervation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during adolescence. In mice, dcc haploinsufficiency results in increased mPFC dopamine innervation and concentrations in adulthood. In turn, dcc haploinsufficiency leads to resilience to the effects of stimulant drugs of abuse on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and behavior. OBJECTIVES: First, we set out to determine whether increased mPFC dopamine innervation causes blunted behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult dcc haploinsufficient mice...
October 2015: Psychopharmacology
Chung-Po Ko, Chiao-Wen Lin, Mu-Kuan Chen, Shun-Fa Yang, Hui-Ling Chiou, Ming-Ju Hsieh
OBJECTIVES: Extensive research supports the administration of herbal medicines or natural foods during cancer therapy. Pterostilbene, a naturally occurring phytoalexin, has various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant activity, cancer prevention activity, and cytotoxicity to many cancers. However, the effect of pterostilbene on the autophagy of tumor cells has not been clarified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the unique effects of pterostilbene on the autophagy of human oral cancer cells were investigated...
June 2015: Oral Oncology
Priya Wadhera, Jennifer L Evans, Ellen Stein, Monica Gandhi, Marie-Claude Couture, Neth Sansothy, Keo Sichan, Lisa Maher, John Kaldor, Kimberly Page, Kien
Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed human papillomavirus awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and human papillomavirus vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N = 220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of human papillomavirus. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the human papillomavirus knowledge questions correctly...
October 2015: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Lauren M Reynolds, Carolina S Makowski, Sandra V Yogendran, Silke Kiessling, Nicolas Cermakian, Cecilia Flores
Initiation of drug use during adolescence is a strong predictor of both the incidence and severity of addiction throughout the lifetime. Intriguingly, adolescence is a period of dynamic refinement in the organization of neuronal connectivity, in particular medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine circuitry. The guidance cue receptor, DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer), is highly expressed by dopamine neurons and orchestrates their innervation to the mPFC during adolescence. Furthermore, we have shown that amphetamine in adolescence regulates DCC expression in dopamine neurons...
April 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Eugenia Sinita, David Coghill
Psychostimulants play a central role in the management of ADHD. Here we review the evidence pertaining to the use of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and related amphetamine salts, the prodrug lisdexamfetamine and modafinil for the management of comorbid ADHD and non-ADHD indications. There is a growing consensus that stimulant medications are helpful at improving the emotional dysregulation and lability, and oppositional and conduct symptoms that are often associated with ADHD. There is some evidence that psychostimulants may improve outcomes in those with treatment resistant depression, reduce negative symptoms and improve cognitive performance in schizophrenia, and that methylphenidate may reduce binge eating in those with bulimia nervosa...
December 2014: Neuropharmacology
Alanna Grant, Colleen Manitt, Cecilia Flores
A core feature in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is abnormal development and function of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry. We have previously shown that variations in the function of the netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), result in changes to the development, organization and ongoing plasticity of DA circuitry. In rodents, repeated exposure to the indirect DA-agonist, amphetamine upregulates DCC expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not in DA terminal regions...
July 11, 2014: Neuroscience Letters
Heidi O Nousiainen, Ileana B Quintero, Timo T Myöhänen, Vootele Voikar, Jelena Mijatovic, Mikael Segerstråle, Annakaisa M Herrala, Natalia Kulesskaya, Anitta E Pulkka, Tanja Kivinummi, Usama Abo-Ramadan, Tomi Taira, T Petteri Piepponen, Heikki Rauvala, Pirkko Vihko
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), the first diagnostic marker and present therapeutic target for prostate cancer, modulates nociception at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), but its function in the central nervous system has remained unknown. We studied expression and function of TMPAP (the transmembrane isoform of PAP) in the brain by utilizing mice deficient in TMPAP (PAP-/- mice). Here we report that TMPAP is expressed in a subpopulation of cerebral GABAergic neurons, and mice deficient in TMPAP show multiple behavioral and neurochemical features linked to hyperdopaminergic dysregulation and altered GABAergic transmission...
2014: PloS One
Rohini R Vanga, Bikram Bal, Kevin W Olden
Adderall (dextroamphetamine/amphetamine) is a widely prescribed medicine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is considered safe with due precautions. Use of prescribed Adderall without intention to overdose as a cause of acute liver injury is extremely rare, and to our knowledge no cases have been reported in the English literature. Amphetamine is an ingredient of recreational drugs such as Ecstacy and is known to cause hepatotoxicity. We describe here the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed acute liver failure during the treatment of ADHD with Adderall...
2013: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Leora Yetnikoff, Matthew Pokinko, Andreas Arvanitogiannis, Cecilia Flores
RATIONALE: Stark differences exist between adult (>PND 70) and juvenile (∼PND 21-34) rodents in how DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) receptors and sensitization to amphetamine interact. In adults, repeated amphetamine upregulates DCC receptor expression selectively in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), an effect that is critical for sensitization. In contrast, amphetamine administered to juveniles downregulates VTA DCC expression. Moreover, whereas adult dcc heterozygous mice fail to sensitize when repeatedly treated with amphetamine, drug treatment during the juvenile period actually abolishes this adult "protective" phenotype...
April 2014: Psychopharmacology
Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Dorte Helenius
OBJECTIVE: A study on chromosomal abnormalities has raised concerns that medication with methylphenidate (MPH) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) might increase the risk of cancer. We performed a rigorous test of the association between cancer and MPH and other drugs used for ADHD, based on data from nationwide Danish registers. METHODS: Data were linked from five registers containing information on a total of 21,186 patients with ADHD, their drug prescription rates, and associated cancer diagnoses between 1994 and 2010...
April 2013: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Roser Ufartes, Tomasz Schneider, Lena Sünke Mortensen, Camino de Juan Romero, Klaus Hentrich, Hendrik Knoetgen, Vadim Beilinson, Wiebke Moebius, Victor Tarabykin, Frauke Alves, Luis A Pardo, J Nicholas P Rawlins, Walter Stuehmer
Kv10.1 (Eag1), member of the Kv10 family of voltage-gated potassium channels, is preferentially expressed in adult brain. The aim of the present study was to unravel the functional role of Kv10.1 in the brain by generating knockout mice, where the voltage sensor and pore region of Kv10.1 were removed to render non-functional proteins through deletion of exon 7 of the KCNH1 gene using the '3 Lox P strategy'. Kv10.1-deficient mice show no obvious alterations during embryogenesis and develop normally to adulthood; cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum appear anatomically normal...
June 1, 2013: Human Molecular Genetics
Alexandre Larocque, Robert S Hoffman
Levamisole is a pharmaceutical with anthelminthic and immunomodulatory properties that was previously used in both animals and humans to treat inflammatory conditions and cancer. Levamisole has been identified as a cocaine adulterant in the United States since 2003. By 2009, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) estimated that 69% of the cocaine seized contained levamisole. The first case reports of complications related to levamisole in cocaine users were published in 2009. The objectives of this article are to review the literature regarding the full spectrum of possible complications related to levamisole use for medical purposes, to review the current scope of levamisole-induced complications in cocaine users and to discuss the pharmacological properties that might explain the motivation behind the large-scale adulteration of cocaine with levamisole...
April 2012: Clinical Toxicology
Dongsoo Kim
OBJECTIVES: Modafinil is a waking drug prescribed to narcolepsy patients, but its usage among healthy individuals is increasing to enhance their alertness or to mitigate fatigue. This study was conducted to investigate practical use and toxic effects on neuro-immune interaction of modafinil. METHODS: This study reviewed the significance of psychoactive drugs, and discussed the benefits and risks of the application of modafinil, which seems to be ideal as an anti-psychotic or anti-fatigue agent...
2012: Environmental Health and Toxicology
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