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Cancer psychostimulant

Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Alcohol consumption with psychostimulants is very common among drug addicts. There is little known about the possible pharmacological interactions between alcohol and psychostimulants. Among most commonly co-abused psychostimulants with alcohol are methamphetamine, cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetaminen, and nicotine. Co-abuse of alcohol with psychostimulants can lead to several neurophysiological dysfunctions such as decrease in brain antioxidant enzymes, disruption of learning and memory processes, cerebral hypo-perfusion, neurotransmitters depletion as well as potentiation of drug seeking behaviour...
June 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Abbes Belkhiri, Shoumin Zhu, Wael El-Rifai
Dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32), also known as phosphoprotein phosphatase-1 regulatory subunit 1B (PPP1R1B), was initially discovered as a substrate of dopamine-activated protein kinase A (PKA) in the neostriatum in the brain. While phosphorylation at Thr-34 by PKA converts DARPP-32 into a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), phosphorylation at Thr-75 transforms DARPP-32 into an inhibitor of PKA. Through regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation and modulation of protein phosphatase and kinase activities, DARPP-32 plays a critical role in mediating the biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral effects controlled by dopamine and other neurotransmitters in response to drugs of abuse and psychostimulants...
April 5, 2016: Oncotarget
Karolina Persona, Anna Polus, Joanna Góralska, Anna Gruca, Aldona Dembińska-Kieć, Wojciech Piekoszewski
Recently, the number of new psychoactive substances has significantly increased. Despite the systematic introduction of prohibition in trade of medicinal products which mimic the effects of illegal drugs, the problem concerning this group of drugs is still important although knowledge about the mechanism of action of those types of substances is scarce. This study aimed to follow the neurotoxic effect of N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), the central nervous system psychostimulant, using the human cancer LN-18 cell model...
May 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Geoffrey K Mitchell, Janet R Hardy, Catherine J Nikles, Sue-Ann S Carmont, Hugh E Senior, Philip J Schluter, Phillip Good, David C Currow
CONTEXT: Fatigue is common in life-limiting cancer. Methylphenidate (MPH), a psychostimulant, may be a useful therapy. Gathering evidence in patients with advanced cancer can be challenging. OBJECTIVES: To determine if MPH improves cancer-related fatigue in people with advanced cancer. METHODS: N-of-1 trials are multicycle, double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover trials using standardized measures of effect in individuals. They are normally used to assess treatment effects in individuals...
September 2015: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Helen M Genova, John DeLuca, Glenn R Wylie
Fatigue is one of the most pervasive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), and has engendered hundreds of investigations on the topic. While there is a growing literature using various methods to study fatigue, a unified theory of fatigue in MS is yet to emerge. In the current review, we synthesize findings from neuroimaging, pharmacological, neuropsychological, and immunological studies of fatigue in MS, which point to a specific hypothesis of fatigue in MS: the dopamine imbalance hypothesis. The communication between the striatum and prefrontal cortex is reliant on dopamine, a modulatory neurotransmitter...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Raymond J Chan, Alexandra L McCarthy, Jackie Devenish, Karen A Sullivan, Alexandre Chan
PURPOSE: Cognitive alterations are reported in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. This has adverse effects on patients' quality of life and function. This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions to manage cognitive alterations associated with breast cancer treatment. METHODS: Medline via EBSCO host, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched for the period January 1999-May 2014 for prospective randomised controlled trials related to the management of chemotherapy-associated cognitive alterations...
March 2015: European Journal of Cancer
Sonia Fatigoni, Guglielmo Fumi, Fausto Roila
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a very common and distressing symptom experienced by most cancer patients, during and after treatments and also at the end of life. There is no accepted definition of CRF, because it is a multifaceted symptom that involves multiple biopsychosocial aspects. Several scales for assessing CRF have been used, unidimensional or multidimensional, but there is no agreement regarding the best instrument to measure CRF. Concerning the CRF treatment, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions have been used...
January 2015: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Seema M Thekdi, Antolin Trinidad, Andrew Roth
Depression, anxiety, delirium, and other psychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent in the cancer setting, and pharmacological intervention is an important component in the overall psychosocial care of the patient. Psychopharmacology is also used as a primary or adjuvant treatment for the management of cancer-related symptoms stemming from the disease itself and/or its treatment, including sleep disturbance, loss of appetite, neuropathic pain, nausea, fatigue, and hot flashes. Psychiatrists, oncologists, and palliative care physicians working as members of a multidisciplinary team have the opportunity to target multiple symptoms that negatively affect a patient's quality of life with the strategic use of psychotropic medications when deemed appropriate...
January 2015: Current Psychiatry Reports
Sriram Yennurajalingam, Eduardo Bruera
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and debilitating symptom in patients with cancer. Currently, there are very limited pharmacological interventions to effectively treat CRF. In this article, the authors review various pharmacological interventions for CRF and propose future direction for further research. Methylphenidate is the most studied pharmacological agent for the treatment of CRF. Various pharmacological studies have suggested benefit of corticosteroids, especially in terminally ill patients for a short period...
September 2014: Cancer Journal
Ping-Ho Chen, Ka-Wo Lee, Cheng-Chieh Hsu, Jeff Yi-Fu Chen, Yan-Hsiung Wang, Ker-Kong Chen, Hui-Min David Wang, Hurng-Wern Huang, Bin Huang
Betel quid (BQ) is a psychostimulant, an addictive substance, and a group 1 carcinogen that exhibits the potential to induce adverse health effects. Approximately, 600 million users chew a variety of BQ. Areca nut (AN) is a necessary ingredient in BQ products. Arecoline is the primary alkaloid in the AN and can be metabolized through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Full-length CYP26B1 is related to the development of oral pharyngeal cancers. We investigated whether a splice variant of CYP26B1 is associated with the occurrence of ROS related oral and pharyngeal cancer...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Eugenia Sinita, David Coghill
Psychostimulants play a central role in the management of ADHD. Here we review the evidence pertaining to the use of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and related amphetamine salts, the prodrug lisdexamfetamine and modafinil for the management of comorbid ADHD and non-ADHD indications. There is a growing consensus that stimulant medications are helpful at improving the emotional dysregulation and lability, and oppositional and conduct symptoms that are often associated with ADHD. There is some evidence that psychostimulants may improve outcomes in those with treatment resistant depression, reduce negative symptoms and improve cognitive performance in schizophrenia, and that methylphenidate may reduce binge eating in those with bulimia nervosa...
December 2014: Neuropharmacology
Kathryn J Ruddy, Debra Barton, Charles L Loprinzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2014: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Julienne E Bower, Kate Bak, Ann Berger, William Breitbart, Carmelita P Escalante, Patricia A Ganz, Hester Hill Schnipper, Christina Lacchetti, Jennifer A Ligibel, Gary H Lyman, Mohammed S Ogaily, William F Pirl, Paul B Jacobsen
PURPOSE: This guideline presents screening, assessment, and treatment approaches for the management of adult cancer survivors who are experiencing symptoms of fatigue after completion of primary treatment. METHODS: A systematic search of clinical practice guideline databases, guideline developer Web sites, and published health literature identified the pan-Canadian guideline on screening, assessment, and care of cancer-related fatigue in adults with cancer, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines In Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Cancer-Related Fatigue and the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship...
June 10, 2014: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Carlos Centeno, Alvaro Sanz, Miguel Angel Cuervo, Daniel Ramos, Silvia Hernansanz, Jesús Gonzalez, Maria Jose Almaraz, Marcos Lama, Francisco Vara, María Nabal, Antonio Pascual
INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant that has been used to relieve depressive symptoms in advanced cancer patients. No studies compare its efficacy against placebo in this group of patients. OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy of methylphenidate compared with placebo in the relief of depressive symptoms in advanced cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken comparing the efficacy of methylphenidate and placebo in depressive symptoms...
December 2012: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Lauren Rayner, Matthew Hotopf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2012: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Rosangela Caruso, Luigi Grassi, Maria Giulia Nanni, Michelle Riba
Psychopharmacological intervention is a major clinical and research area in oncology and palliative care. Over the last 35 years, psychotropic drugs have been shown to have a number of important indications for the treatment of the most common psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, stress-related syndromes, severe adjustment disorders, sleep disorders and delirium, which combined affect at least 30-40% of patients with cancer and even a higher percentage of patients in an advanced phase of illness...
September 2013: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jee Hyun Kim, Doron Lavan, Nicola Chen, Cecilia Flores, Helen Cooper, Andrew J Lawrence
RATIONALE: The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system undergoes significant reorganization of neuronal connectivity and functional refinement during adolescence. Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), a receptor for the guidance cue netrin-1, is involved in this reorganization. Previous studies have shown that adult mice with a heterozygous (het) loss-of-function mutation in DCC exhibit impairments in sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) to psychostimulants. However, the commonly abused psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) has not been assessed, and the role of DCC in drug self-administration remains to be established...
December 2013: Psychopharmacology
Hugh Ej Senior, Geoffrey K Mitchell, Jane Nikles, Sue-Ann Carmont, Philip J Schluter, David C Currow, Rohan Vora, Michael J Yelland, Meera Agar, Phillip D Good, Janet R Hardy
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 29% of deaths in Australia are caused by malignant disease each year and can be expected to increase with population ageing. In advanced cancer, the prevalence of fatigue is high at 70-90%, and can be related to the disease and/or the treatment. The negative impact of fatigue on function (physical, mental, social and spiritual) and quality of life is substantial for many palliative patients as well as their families/carers. METHOD/DESIGN: This paper describes the design of single patient trials (n-of-1 s or SPTs) of a psychostimulant, methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) (5 mg bd), compared to placebo as a treatment for fatigue, with a population estimate of the benefit by the aggregation of multiple SPTs...
2013: BMC Palliative Care
Mona Boules, Zhimin Li, Kristin Smith, Paul Fredrickson, Elliott Richelson
Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson's disease (PD), pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation...
2013: Frontiers in Endocrinology
M Ujeyl, B Müller-Oerlinghausen
BACKGROUND: Treatment of depression in palliative care must take into account expected benefits and risks of antidepressants in patients with potentially limited life expectancy, poor medical condition, advanced age and higher risk to suffer from side effects and drug interactions. This systematic review assesses evidence of the efficacy and safety of different classes of antidepressants depending on the type and severity of the physical illness. METHODS: A systematic database search (Medline, EMBASE) for clinical studies was carried out and references of identified literature were checked...
September 2012: Der Schmerz
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