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Toxic stress syndrome

Yanhua Shi, Xiang Kong, Hongmei Yin, Wentong Zhang, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential beneficial effects of hawthorn leaf flavonoids (HLF) against polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a rat model of disease and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: The PCOS model was established by subcutaneous injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 60 mg/kg/day) for 21 consecutive days. HLF (200 mg/kg/day) were orally administered simultaneously or after the injection. The body weight was regularly monitored and recorded...
November 7, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
Catherine M Bulka, Victoria W Persky, Martha L Daviglus, Ramon A Durazo-Arvizu, Maria Argos
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest toxic metals are linked with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, while experimental studies indicate nutritionally essential metals are involved in the metabolism of macronutrients and defense against oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate how essential and toxic metals are cross-sectionally related to metabolic syndrome, a clustering of cardiometabolic conditions. METHODS: Using data from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 1088), we characterized metal concentrations as measured in spot urine (arsenic, cadmium, and inorganic/elemental mercury), whole blood (manganese, lead, methylmercury, and selenium), and serum (copper and zinc) samples...
October 24, 2018: Environmental Research
Sanaz Nasoohi, Kehkashan Parveen, Tauheed Ishrat
Empirical evidence indicates a strong association between insulin resistance and pathological alterations related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in different cerebral regions. While cerebral insulin resistance is not essentially parallel with systemic metabolic derangements, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been established as a risk factor for AD. The circulating "toxic metabolites" emerging in metabolic syndrome may engage several biochemical pathways to promote oxidative stress and neuroinflammation leading to impair insulin function in the brain or "type 3 diabetes"...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Fernando Bessone, María Valeria Razori, Marcelo G Roma
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents a wide spectrum of histopathological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While hepatic simple steatosis seems to be a rather benign manifestation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, the buildup of highly toxic free fatty acids associated with insulin resistance-induced massive free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the increased de novo hepatic fatty acid synthesis from glucose acts as the "first hit" for NAFLD development...
October 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
L Hefez, K Zaghbib, E Sbidian, L Valeyrie-Allanore, M Allain, T A Duong, A Colin, F Bellivier, H Romano, N de Prost, K Chazelas, O Chosidow, P Wolkenstein, S Ingen-Housz-Oro
BACKGROUND: Epidermal necrolysis is a rare and severe adverse cutaneous reaction to drugs with long-term somatic consequences and potentially underrecognized psychological complications. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in a population of adults undergoing psychiatric evaluation. METHODS: In this prospective study, we included adult patients admitted at the acute phase of SJS/TEN to our dermatology department from June 2009 to February 2013...
October 3, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Sana Ullah, Zhongqiu Li, Muhammad Zain Ul Arifeen, Shahid Ullah Khan, Shah Fahad
Deltamethrin (DLM) is α-cyano (type II) synthetic pyrethroid. DLM exposure leads to strong neurotoxic effects and a number of complex toxicological syndromes. The current study assessed DLM mediated oxidative stress, behavioral, hematological, histopathological, and biochemical toxic effects on silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Exposure to an acute concentration (2 μg/L) of DLM resulted in different behavioral inconsistencies and a time-dependent significant (P < 0.05) change in the hematology and serum biochemistry of silver carp...
September 25, 2018: Chemosphere
Andrea Romano, Marta Moraschi, Riccardo Cornia, Alessandro Bozzao, Maria Camilla Rossi-Espagnet, Federico Giove, Giorgio Albertini, Alberto Pierallini
PURPOSE: Cognitive decline in Down syndrome generally shows neurodegenerative aspects similar to what is observed in Alzheimer's disease. Few studies reported information on white matter integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate white matter alterations in a cohort of young Down subjects, without dementia, by means of DTI technique, compared to a normal control group. METHODS: The study group consisted of 17 right-handed subjects with DS and many control subjects...
September 27, 2018: Neuroradiology
Paul H Kim, Jennings Luu, Patrick Heizer, Yiping Tu, Thomas A Weston, Natalie Chen, Christopher Lim, Robert L Li, Po-Yu Lin, James C Y Dunn, Didier Hodzic, Stephen G Young, Loren G Fong
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a disorder of premature aging in children caused by de novo mutations in LMNA that lead to the synthesis of an internally truncated form of prelamin A (commonly called progerin). The production of progerin causes multiple disease phenotypes, including an unusual vascular phenotype characterized by the loss of smooth muscle cells in the arterial media and fibrosis of the adventitia. We show that progerin expression, combined with mechanical stress, promotes smooth muscle cell death...
September 26, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Min-Xuan Xu, Yu-Ting Qin, Chen-Xu Ge, Ting-Ting Gu, De-Shuai Lou, Qiang Li, Lin-Feng Hu, Yuan-Yuan Li, Wei-Wei Yang, Jun Tan
Research suggests that particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is a predisposing factor for metabolic syndrome-related systemic inflammation and oxidative stress injury. TNF-α as a major pro-inflammatory cytokine was confirmed to participate in various diseases. Inactive rhomboid protein 2 (iRhom2) was recently determined as a necessary regulator for shedding of TNF-α in immune cells. Importantly, kidney-resident macrophages are critical to inflammation-associated chronic renal injury. Podocyte injury can be induced by stimulants and give rise to nephritis, but how iRhom2 contributes to PM2...
September 26, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Carla Maiara Lopes Cardozo, Aline Carla Inada, Gabriela Marcelino, Priscila Silva Figueiredo, Daniela Granja Arakaki, Priscila Aiko Hiane, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Karine de Cássia Freitas
Obesity, in conjunction with other metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, is a feature of metabolic syndrome which is characterized by a pro-inflammatory state and increased oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidant foods are proposed to prevent and treat these disorders. Medicinal plants are one of the main strategies in this regard. Guavira, a Brazilian Cerrado plant, contains different bioactive compounds with a high antioxidant capacity and without clinical or reproductive toxicity effects...
September 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Vivek Venkataramani, Thorsten R Doeppner, Desiree Willkommen, Catherine M Cahill, Yongjuan Xin, Guilin Ye, Yanyan Liu, Adam Southon, Allegra Aron, Ho Yu Au-Yeung, Xudong Huang, Debomoy K Lahiri, Fudi Wang, Ashley I Bush, Gerald G Wulf, Philipp Ströbel, Bernhard Michalke, Jack T Rogers
For more than 150 years it is known that occupational overexposure of manganese (Mn) causes movement disorders resembling Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD-like syndromes. However, the mechanisms of Mn toxicity are still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Mn dose- and time-dependently blocks the protein translation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and heavy-chain Ferritin (H-Ferritin), both iron homeostatic proteins with neuroprotective features. APP and H-Ferritin are post-transcriptionally regulated by iron responsive proteins (IRPs), which bind to homologous iron responsive elements (IREs) located in the 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) within their mRNA transcripts...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sean X Naughton, Alvin V Terry
The term organophosphate (OP) refers to a diverse group of chemicals that are found in hundreds of products worldwide. As pesticides, their most common use, OPs are clearly beneficial for agricultural productivity and the control of deadly vector-borne illnesses. However, as a consequence of their widespread use, OPs are now among the most common synthetic chemicals detected in the environment as well as in animal and human tissues. This is an increasing environmental concern because many OPs are highly toxic and both accidental and intentional exposures to OPs resulting in deleterious health effects have been documented for decades...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology
S A Dolgareva, A V Sorokin, N A Konoplya, O N Bushmina, N A Bystrova, A I Ovod
The effectiveness of three various combinations of an immunomodulator with an antioxidant and a membrane protector in the correction of metabolic and immune disorders has been studied in the experiment under 60-days ethanol intoxication. The development of such biochemical syndromes of the liver damage as cytolysis, intrahepatic, intracellular cholestasis, toxic liver damage by necrotic type, insufficiency of synthetic processes and inflammatory has been revealed. Oxidative stress development and the activation of lipid peroxidation on the systemic (blood plasma) and local level (erythrocytes) have been established...
August 2018: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Rakesh Kumar Singh, Abul Kalam Najmi
OBJECTIVE: The primary focus of this review is to highlight the current and emerging pro-inflammatory role of MK2 kinase signaling in p38MAPK pathway and to provide a detailed evaluation on the prospects of MK2 inhibition with special emphasis on the etiology of chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. BACKGROUND: Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) is a serine-threonine kinase downstream to p38MAPK and is activated directly by stress and inflammatory signal through p38 phosphorylation...
August 16, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Emanuele Schiavon, Joshua L Smalley, Sherylanne Newton, Nigel H Greig, Ian D Forsythe
Hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) is caused by raised levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. When severe, susceptible brain regions including the cerebellum and auditory brainstem are damaged causing neurological sequelae such as ataxia, hearing loss and kernicterus. The mechanism(s) by which bilirubin exerts its toxic effect have not been completely understood to date. In this study we investigated the acute mechanisms by which bilirubin causes the neurotoxicity that contributes to hearing loss. We developed a novel mouse model that exhibits the neurological features seen in human Bilirubin-Induced Neurological Dysfunction (BIND) syndrome that we assessed with a behavioural score and auditory brainstem responses (ABR)...
2018: PloS One
Leon H F Mullenders
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation generates bulky photodimers at di-pyrimidine sites that pose stress to cells and organisms by hindering DNA replication and transcription. In addition, solar UV also induces various types of oxidative DNA lesions and single strand DNA breaks. Relieving toxicity and maintenance of genomic integrity are of clinical importance in relation to erythema/edema and diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and premature ageing, respectively. Following solar UV radiation, a network of DNA damage response mechanisms triggers a signal transduction cascade to regulate various genome-protection pathways including DNA damage repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, transcription and chromatin remodeling...
August 1, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Giuseppina Barrera, Stefania Pizzimenti, Martina Daga, Chiara Dianzani, Alessia Arcaro, Giovanni Paolo Cetrangolo, Giulio Giordano, Marie Angele Cucci, Maria Graf, Fabrizio Gentile
Among the various mechanisms involved in aging, it was proposed long ago that a prominent role is played by oxidative stress. A major way by which the latter can provoke structural damage to biological macromolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins, is by fueling the peroxidation of membrane lipids, leading to the production of several reactive aldehydes. Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes can not only modify biological macromolecules, by forming covalent electrophilic addition products with them, but also act as second messengers of oxidative stress, having relatively extended lifespans...
July 30, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jahahreeh Finley
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype that typically leads to death via stroke or myocardial infarction at approximately 14.6 years of age. Most cases of HGPS have been linked to the extensive use of a cryptic splice donor site located in the LMNA gene due to a de novo mutation, generating a truncated and toxic protein known as progerin. Progerin accumulation in the nuclear membrane and within the nucleus distorts the nuclear architecture and negatively effects nuclear processes including DNA replication and repair, leading to accelerated cellular aging and premature senescence...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Chien-Hung Lin, Christopher J B Nicol, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Shiang-Jiuun Chen, Chia-Hui Yen, Rong-Nan Huang, Ming-Chang Chiang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) belongs to a family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors known to regulate many crucial physiological and pathological conditions. Indeed, altered PPARγ transcriptional activity contributes to metabolic syndromes (obesity and hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus), stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Various studies suggest that PPARγ agonists influence neuronal deficits in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients and rodent models of AD...
September 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Yiheng Chen, Marek Michalak, Luis B Agellon
Nutrition transition, which includes a change from consumption of traditional to modern diets that feature high-energy density and low nutrient diversity, is associated with acquired metabolic syndromes. The human diet is comprised of diverse components which include both nutrients, supplying the raw materials that drive multiple metabolic processes in every cell of the body, and non-nutrients. These components and their metabolites can also regulate gene expression and cellular function via a variety of mechanisms...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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