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Toxic stress syndrome

Carla Maiara Lopes Cardozo, Aline Carla Inada, Gabriela Marcelino, Priscila Silva Figueiredo, Daniela Granja Arakaki, Priscila Aiko Hiane, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Karine de Cássia Freitas
Obesity, in conjunction with other metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, is a feature of metabolic syndrome which is characterized by a pro-inflammatory state and increased oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidant foods are proposed to prevent and treat these disorders. Medicinal plants are one of the main strategies in this regard. Guavira, a Brazilian Cerrado plant, contains different bioactive compounds with a high antioxidant capacity and without clinical or reproductive toxicity effects...
September 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Vivek Venkataramani, Thorsten R Doeppner, Desiree Willkommen, Catherine M Cahill, Yongjuan Xin, Guilin Ye, Yanyan Liu, Adam Southon, Allegra Aron, Ho Yu Au-Yeung, Xudong Huang, Debomoy K Lahiri, Fudi Wang, Ashley I Bush, Gerald G Wulf, Philipp Ströbel, Bernhard Michalke, Jack T Rogers
For more than 150 years it is known that occupational overexposure of manganese (Mn) causes movement disorders resembling Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD-like syndromes. However, the mechanisms of Mn toxicity are still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Mn dose- and time-dependently blocks the protein translation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and heavy-chain Ferritin (H-Ferritin), both iron homeostatic proteins with neuroprotective features. APP and H-Ferritin are post-transcriptionally regulated by iron responsive proteins (IRPs), which bind to homologous iron responsive elements (IREs) located in the 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) within their mRNA transcripts...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sean X Naughton, Alvin V Terry
The term organophosphate (OP) refers to a diverse group of chemicals that are found in hundreds of products worldwide. As pesticides, their most common use, OPs are clearly beneficial for agricultural productivity and the control of deadly vector-borne illnesses. However, as a consequence of their widespread use, OPs are now among the most common synthetic chemicals detected in the environment as well as in animal and human tissues. This is an increasing environmental concern because many OPs are highly toxic and both accidental and intentional exposures to OPs resulting in deleterious health effects have been documented for decades...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology
S A Dolgareva, A V Sorokin, N A Konoplya, O N Bushmina, N A Bystrova, A I Ovod
The effectiveness of three various combinations of an immunomodulator with an antioxidant and a membrane protector in the correction of metabolic and immune disorders has been studied in the experiment under 60-days ethanol intoxication. The development of such biochemical syndromes of the liver damage as cytolysis, intrahepatic, intracellular cholestasis, toxic liver damage by necrotic type, insufficiency of synthetic processes and inflammatory has been revealed. Oxidative stress development and the activation of lipid peroxidation on the systemic (blood plasma) and local level (erythrocytes) have been established...
August 2018: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Rakesh Kumar Singh, Abul Kalam Najmi
OBJECTIVE: The primary focus of this review is to highlight the current and emerging pro-inflammatory role of MK2 kinase signaling in p38MAPK pathway and to provide a detailed evaluation on the prospects of MK2 inhibition with special emphasis on the etiology of chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. BACKGROUND: Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) is a serine-threonine kinase downstream to p38MAPK and is activated directly by stress and inflammatory signal through p38 phosphorylation...
August 16, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Emanuele Schiavon, Joshua L Smalley, Sherylanne Newton, Nigel H Greig, Ian D Forsythe
Hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) is caused by raised levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. When severe, susceptible brain regions including the cerebellum and auditory brainstem are damaged causing neurological sequelae such as ataxia, hearing loss and kernicterus. The mechanism(s) by which bilirubin exerts its toxic effect have not been completely understood to date. In this study we investigated the acute mechanisms by which bilirubin causes the neurotoxicity that contributes to hearing loss. We developed a novel mouse model that exhibits the neurological features seen in human Bilirubin-Induced Neurological Dysfunction (BIND) syndrome that we assessed with a behavioural score and auditory brainstem responses (ABR)...
2018: PloS One
Leon H F Mullenders
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation generates bulky photodimers at di-pyrimidine sites that pose stress to cells and organisms by hindering DNA replication and transcription. In addition, solar UV also induces various types of oxidative DNA lesions and single strand DNA breaks. Relieving toxicity and maintenance of genomic integrity are of clinical importance in relation to erythema/edema and diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and premature ageing, respectively. Following solar UV radiation, a network of DNA damage response mechanisms triggers a signal transduction cascade to regulate various genome-protection pathways including DNA damage repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, transcription and chromatin remodeling...
August 1, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Giuseppina Barrera, Stefania Pizzimenti, Martina Daga, Chiara Dianzani, Alessia Arcaro, Giovanni Paolo Cetrangolo, Giulio Giordano, Marie Angele Cucci, Maria Graf, Fabrizio Gentile
Among the various mechanisms involved in aging, it was proposed long ago that a prominent role is played by oxidative stress. A major way by which the latter can provoke structural damage to biological macromolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins, is by fueling the peroxidation of membrane lipids, leading to the production of several reactive aldehydes. Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes can not only modify biological macromolecules, by forming covalent electrophilic addition products with them, but also act as second messengers of oxidative stress, having relatively extended lifespans...
July 30, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jahahreeh Finley
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype that typically leads to death via stroke or myocardial infarction at approximately 14.6 years of age. Most cases of HGPS have been linked to the extensive use of a cryptic splice donor site located in the LMNA gene due to a de novo mutation, generating a truncated and toxic protein known as progerin. Progerin accumulation in the nuclear membrane and within the nucleus distorts the nuclear architecture and negatively effects nuclear processes including DNA replication and repair, leading to accelerated cellular aging and premature senescence...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Chien-Hung Lin, Christopher J B Nicol, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Shiang-Jiuun Chen, Chia-Hui Yen, Rong-Nan Huang, Ming-Chang Chiang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) belongs to a family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors known to regulate many crucial physiological and pathological conditions. Indeed, altered PPARγ transcriptional activity contributes to metabolic syndromes (obesity and hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus), stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Various studies suggest that PPARγ agonists influence neuronal deficits in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients and rodent models of AD...
September 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Yiheng Chen, Marek Michalak, Luis B Agellon
Nutrition transition, which includes a change from consumption of traditional to modern diets that feature high-energy density and low nutrient diversity, is associated with acquired metabolic syndromes. The human diet is comprised of diverse components which include both nutrients, supplying the raw materials that drive multiple metabolic processes in every cell of the body, and non-nutrients. These components and their metabolites can also regulate gene expression and cellular function via a variety of mechanisms...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Rosa Purgatorio, Modesto de Candia, Annalisa De Palma, Francesco De Santis, Leonardo Pisani, Francesco Campagna, Saverio Cellamare, Cosimo Damiano Altomare, Marco Catto
Despite the controversial outcomes of clinical trials executed so far, the prevention of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neurotoxicity by small molecule inhibitors of Aβ aggregation remains a target intensively pursued in the search of effective drugs for treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related neurodegeneration syndromes. As a continuation of previous studies, a series of new 3-(2-arylhydrazono)indolin-2-one derivatives was synthesized and assayed, investigating the effects of substitutions on both the indole core and arylhydrazone moiety...
June 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sana Chams, Skye El Sayegh, Mulham Hamdon, Sarwan Kumar, Zain Kulairi
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or stress cardiomyopathy is characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning in the absence of coronary occlusion. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear but possible causes have been proposed mainly catecholamine cardiotoxicity, followed by metabolic disturbance, coronary microvascular impairment, and multivessel epicardial coronary artery vasospasm. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy accounts for 1-2% of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome with the majority of patients diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy being women > 55 years of age...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Tanara V Peres, Leticia P Arantes, Mahfuzur R Miah, Julia Bornhorst, Tanja Schwerdtle, Aaron B Bowman, Rodrigo B Leal, Michael Aschner
Excessive levels of the essential metal manganese (Mn) may cause a syndrome similar to Parkinson's disease. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans mimics some of Mn effects in mammals, including dopaminergic neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and increased levels of AKT. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway (IIS) modulates worm longevity, metabolism, and antioxidant responses by antagonizing the transcription factors DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf-2. AKT-1, AKT-2, and SGK-1 act upstream of these transcription factors...
June 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Klaudia Borysiuk, Monika Ostaszewska-Bugajska, Marie-Noëlle Vaultier, Marie-Paule Hasenfratz-Sauder, Bożena Szal
Nitrate (NO3 - ) and ammonium (NH4 + ) are prevalent nitrogen (N) sources for plants. Although NH4 + should be the preferred form of N from the energetic point of view, ammonium nutrition often exhibits adverse effects on plant physiological functions and induces an important growth-limiting stress referred as ammonium syndrome. The effective incorporation of NH4 + into amino acid structures requires high activity of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glycolytic pathway. An unavoidable consequence of glycolytic metabolism is the production of methylglyoxal (MG), which is very toxic and inhibits cell growth in all types of organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
S Zullino, T Simoncini
SSRIs are the first choice for the treatment of mood disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Despite the known side effects, the benefits/risks balance suggests their use. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are the main vascular effects of these drugs, with mechanisms that involves endothelial dysfunction in feto-placental system. These data are supported by animal models, even if preliminary findings are not yet adequately supported by molecular and clinical data...
September 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Li Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Wen-Hsing Cheng
Accumulation of genome and macromolecule damage is a hallmark of aging, age-associated degeneration, and genome instability syndromes. Although processes of aging are irreversible, they can be modulated by genome maintenance pathways and environmental factors such as diet. Selenium (Se) confers its physiological functions mainly through selenoproteins, but Se compounds and other proteins that incorporate Se nonspecifically also impact optimal health. Bruce Ames proposed that the aging process could be mitigated by a subset of low-hierarchy selenoproteins whose levels are preferentially reduced in response to Se deficiency...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Anna Podgórska, Monika Ostaszewska-Bugajska, Klaudia Borysiuk, Agata Tarnowska, Monika Jakubiak, Maria Burian, Allan G Rasmusson, Bożena Szal
Environmental stresses, including ammonium (NH₄⁺) nourishment, can damage key mitochondrial components through the production of surplus reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, alternative electron pathways are significant for efficient reductant dissipation in mitochondria during ammonium nutrition. The aim of this study was to define the role of external NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDB1) during oxidative metabolism of NH₄⁺-fed plants. Most plant species grown with NH₄⁺ as the sole nitrogen source experience a condition known as “ammonium toxicity syndrome”...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Arianna Fallacara, Laura Busato, Michele Pozzoli, Maliheh Ghadiri, Hui Xin Ong, Paul M Young, Stefano Manfredini, Daniela Traini
This in vitro study evaluated, for the first time, the safety and the biological activity of a novel urea-crosslinked hyaluronic acid component and sodium ascorbyl phosphate (HA-CL - SAP), singularly and/or in combination, intended for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. The aim was to understand if the combination HA-CL - SAP had an enhanced activity with respect to the combination native hyaluronic acid (HA) - SAP and the single SAP, HA and HA-CL components. Sample solutions displayed pH, osmolality and viscosity values suitable for lung delivery and showed to be not toxic on epithelial Calu-3 cells at the concentrations used in this study...
July 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ting Zhou, Wei-Feng Song, You Shang, Shang-Long Yao, Sadis Matalon
Objective: Exposure to halogens, such as chlorine or bromine, results in environmental and occupational hazard to the lung and other organs. Chlorine is highly toxic by inhalation, leading to dyspnea, hypoxemia, airway obstruction, pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although bromine is less reactive and oxidative than chlorine, inhalation also results in bronchospasm, airway hyperresponsiveness, ARDS, and even death. Both halogens have been shown to damage the systemic circulation and result in cardiac injury as well...
May 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
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