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Audrey A Merriam, Yongmei Huang, Cande V Ananth, Jason D Wright, Mary E D'Alton, Alexander M Friedman
OBJECTIVE:  This article evaluates trends in venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis during delivery hospitalizations in the United States. METHODS:  We utilized an administrative database to determine if women hospitalized for vaginal or cesarean delivery received pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis, mechanical VTE prophylaxis, or both from January 2011 through March 2015. Mechanical prophylaxis included sequential compression devices, graduated compression stockings, and other pneumatic devices...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Sonali Vadi, Vishal Peshattiwar
Fondaparinux, a pentasaccharide administered for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), can lead to the occurrence of thrombocytopenia. This patient underwent aortic stent graft placement for Salmonella paratyphi A-infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. Fondaparinux was administered for anticoagulation that led to a dramatic decline in his platelet counts. Investigations revealed HIT profile, PF4/heparin by particle gel immunoassay to be positive. Fondaparinux, a prescribed anticoagulant for HIT can paradoxically predispose to thrombocytopenia...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Majed S Al Yami, Sawsan Kurdi, Ivo Abraham
Background: Standard-duration (7-10 days) thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, low dose unfractionated heparin, or fondaparinux in hospitalized medically ill patients is associated with ~50% reduction in venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk. However, these patients remain at high risk for VTE post-discharge. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) apixaban, rivaroxaban and betrixaban have been evaluated for extended-duration (30-42 days) thromboprophylaxis in this population...
2018: Journal of Blood Medicine
Kazuhiro Shimizu, Takuo Iiduka, Shuji Sato, Hajime Kiyokawa, Takahiro Nakagami, Hiroshi Mikamo, Masayo Kawazoe, Mao Takahashi, Mahito Noro
Background: For the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE), providing anticoagulant therapy within the therapeutic range has been a major challenge, as conventional therapy with unfractionated heparin (UFH) and vitamin K antagonist (VKA) requires frequent laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment. Recently, fondaparinux and edoxaban are being used as beneficial alternatives to UFH and VKA. Methods: We evaluated the clinical course of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients who received the 3-month anticoagulation therapy with fondaparinux/edoxaban (Group A; n=40) in comparison with the findings from our previous experience of patients who received the fondaparinux/VKA combination (Group B; n=33)...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Marcello Di Nisio, Iris M Wichers, Saskia Middeldorp
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis (ST) of the legs remains poorly defined. While improving or relieving the local painful symptoms, treatment should aim at preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE), which might complicate the natural history of ST. This is the third update of a review first published in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of topical, medical, and surgical treatments for ST of the leg in improving local symptoms and decreasing thromboembolic complications...
February 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Abdullah Al Nahain, Vera Ignjatovic, Paul Monagle, John Tsanaktsidis, Vito Ferro
Heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide belonging to the glycosaminoglycan family, has been widely used as an anticoagulant drug for decades and remains the most commonly used parenteral anticoagulant in adults and children. However, heparin has important clinical limitations and is derived from animal sources which pose significant safety and supply problems. The ever growing shortage of the raw material for heparin manufacturing may become a very significant issue in the future. These global limitations have prompted much research, especially following the recent well-publicized contamination scandal, into the development of alternative anticoagulants derived from non-animal and/or totally synthetic sources that mimic the structural features and properties of heparin...
February 15, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Deepika Sagaram, Zainab Siddiq, Andrew B Eisenberger, Cande V Ananth, Jason D Wright, Mary E D'Alton, Alexander M Friedman
INTRODUCTION:  The rate of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) on a population basis is unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the risk for HIT during antepartum, delivery, and postpartum hospitalizations in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A large administrative database was used to determine the risk of HIT in hospitalized obstetric patients who received unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Patients were presumed to have HIT if they were exposed to UFH or LMWH, received a diagnosis of HIT, and were administered a medication for the treatment of HIT including bivalirudin, argatroban, fondaparinux, or lepirudin...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
L De Massari, Y Jamilloux, J-C Lega, A Sigal, X Jacob, K Tazarourte, K Mensah, P Sève
INTRODUCTION: The French Agency for Health Safety of Products published recommendations of good practices (RGP) for the treatment of venous thromboembolic disease in 2009. Four of these recommendations apply to the initial management of the disease, with the objective of this study is to determine whether the development and diffusion of the four RGP has had an impact on the practice. METHODS: A retrospective before/after study comparing 132 patients treated in emergency department of the Civil Hospices of Lyon for pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in 2008-2009 ("before") and 153 patients in 2010-2011 ("after")...
February 4, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Jan Beyer-Westendorf
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a substantial clinical and health-economic burden worldwide and effective anticoagulant treatment is necessary immediately after VTE is suspected to reduce short- and long-term VTE related morbidity and mortality. For decades, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux and Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been the standard of anticoagulant therapy for VTE patients but these treatment options had clinically relevant drawbacks and limitations. The introduction of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) that specifically inhibit either thrombin or factor Xa have resolved many of these drawbacks because these new compounds exhibit a rapid onset and offset of action, fewer food and drug interactions and a predictable anticoagulant effect...
January 26, 2018: Thrombosis Research
P Timothy Pollak, Gavin R Sun, Richard B Kim
A 45-year-old woman who required lifelong anticoagulation for recurrent thrombosis had her therapeutic choices limited by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and abnormal pharmacokinetics (greatly reduced absorption) resulting from short gut syndrome from extensive gut resection after mesenteric thrombosis. As an alternative to inconvenient and expensive injections of fondaparinux, personalized dosing of a direct oral anticoagulant was sought using clinical pharmacology techniques. Enteral absorption was ascertained with small test doses of apixaban, and the ability of supraconventional doses to deliver effective concentrations was verified...
December 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Maram B Hakoum, Lara A Kahale, Ibrahim G Tsolakian, Charbel F Matar, Victor Ed Yosuico, Irene Terrenato, Francesca Sperati, Maddalena Barba, Holger Schünemann, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Compared with people without cancer, people with cancer who receive anticoagulant treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) are more likely to develop recurrent VTE. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of three types of parenteral anticoagulants (i.e. fixed-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), adjusted-dose unfractionated heparin (UFH), and fondaparinux) for the initial treatment of VTE in people with cancer. SEARCH METHODS: A comprehensive search included a major electronic search of the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE (via Ovid) and Embase (via Ovid); handsearching of conference proceedings; checking of references of included studies; use of the 'related citation' feature in PubMed; and a search for ongoing studies...
January 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michel Zeitouni, Mathieu Kerneis, Tarek Nafee, Jean-Philippe Collet, Johanne Silvain, Gilles Montalescot
Early intravenous anticoagulation is the corner stone treatment of patients admitted with an acute coronary syndrome: it antagonizes the ongoing coronary thrombosis and facilitates the percutaneous coronary intervention, hence a reduction of mortality and acute stent thrombosis. Unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin, bivalirudin and fondaparinux have been extensively studied in large randomized control trials and meta-analyses with the same objective: reducing the ischemic burden without hiking hemorrhagic events...
January 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Richard H Cosgrove, Robyn L Basken, Richard G Smith, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Toshinobu Kazui, Brandon K Martinez, Richard W Burt, Eric S Crawford, Scott D Lick, Zain Khalpey
Maintaining mechanical circulatory support (MCS) device patients in a specified therapeutic range for anticoagulation remains challenging. Subtherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs) occur frequently while on warfarin therapy. An effective anticoagulant bridge strategy may improve the care of these patients. This retrospective review of MCS patients with subtherapeutic INRs compared an intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) strategy with a subcutaneous enoxaparin or fondaparinux strategy. Native thromboelastography (n-TEG) was used to evaluate anticoagulant effect with coagulation index (CI) as the primary outcome measure...
January 10, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Elina Tan, Grace Thompson, Charlotta Ekstrom, Michaela Lucas
Non-immediate allergic cutaneous reactions to heparins have been increasingly reported, typically manifesting as large, eczematous plaques at sites of subcutaneous injection. Patients may demonstrate cross-reactivity between unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin and semi-synthetic heparinoids, making finding an alternative difficult. Fondaparinux has been identified as a useful alternative in such patients; here we present the first two documented cases in Australia and a literature review.
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, Detect-Dvt Investigators
Purpose: To assess thromboprophylaxis rate and incidence of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in Indian patients with acute sepsis. Materials and Methods: Adult patients with sepsis, within 48 h of sepsis onset/hospital admission were included. DVT was assessed using Doppler ultrasonography if clinical signs were present. Data were collected at inclusion, discharge, and 30 ± 7 days (if discharged before 30 days). Results: The study included 278 patients (men: 69...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Heather Soni, Jennifer Kurkowski, Danielle Guffey, Jennifer E Dietrich, Lakshmi V Srivaths
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence, clinical features and management of gynecologic bleeding complications and health care provider awareness of these in post-menarchal adolescents on anti-thrombotic medications has rarely been addressed in the literature. We sought to review our experience in a pediatric tertiary care center addressing these issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted with Institutional Review Board approval from 2004-2014, on eligible post-menarchal adolescents on antithrombotic medications...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
P W Radke, M Möckel
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary artery embolisms share pathophysiological features and are therefore collectively referred to as venous thromboembolisms (VTE). While the incidence of VTE has been increasing for years as a result of demographic changes and improved diagnostics, the morbidity and mortality are decreasing. This is particularly due to more sensitive diagnostics, improvements in risk stratification and more effective anticoagulation strategies. The aim of effective anticoagulation therapy is the avoidance of early events up to death and prevention of recurrent events...
February 2018: Herz
Jan Beyer-Westendorf
The management of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is poorly defined and remains controversial overall. SVT has long been considered a benign, self-limited disease, but recent studies show that SVT carries a nonnegligible risk for recurrence, deep vein thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism. Current guidelines recommend the use of low-molecular-weight heparin or fondaparinux, but results of several surveys indicate that the majority of patients with SVT receive nonanticoagulant therapy only, which includes compression stockings or bandages, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical application of heparin gel, or surgical interventions...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Gustavo Ms Brandao, Daniela R Junqueira, Hamilton A Rollo, Marcone L Sobreira
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is based on antithrombotic therapy, initially with parenteral administration of unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) for five to seven days, then subsequent long-term therapy with oral vitamin K antagonists (e.g. warfarin). Pentasaccharides are novel anticoagulants that may be favourable over standard therapy due to their predictable effect, no need for frequent monitoring or re-dosing, and few known drug interactions...
December 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ryuji Kawaguchi, Shoji Haruta, Hiroshi Kobayashi
Objectives: Cesarean section is associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The safety and efficacy of primary prophylaxis of fondaparinux, a synthetic sulfated pentasaccharide heparin analog, in women at risk after cesarean section is uncertain. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 295 cases of pregnant women presenting to a tertiary referral center of Nara, Japan, to evaluate the usefulness of thromboprophylaxis with fondaparinux after cesarean delivery between 2011 and 2012...
November 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
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