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Corticotropin AND (Testes OR Teste OR Testis)

M Tavares-Silva, D Ferreira, S Cardoso, A R Raimundo, J Barbosa-Breda, A Leite-Moreira, A Rocha-Sousa
Urocortin 2 (UCN2) is a peptide related to corticotropin-releasing factor, capable of activating CRF-R2. Among its multisystemic effects, it has actions in all 3 muscle subtypes. This study's aim was to determine its potential role in two of the intrinsic eye muscle kinetics. Strips of iris sphincter (rabbit) and ciliary (bovine) muscles were dissected and mounted in isometric force-transducer systems filled with aerated-solutions. Contraction was elicited using carbachol (10(-6) M for iris sphincter, 10(-5) M for ciliary muscle), prior to all testing substances...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Gabrielle E Hodgins, Jared G Blommel, Boadie W Dunlop, Dan Iosifescu, Sanjay J Mathew, Thomas C Neylan, Helen S Mayberg, Philip D Harvey
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: For a drug to acquire Food and Drug Administration approval, it must significantly outperform placebo treatment. In recent years, the placebo effect seems to be increasing in neuropsychiatric conditions. Here, we examine placebo effects across self-reported, clinically rated, and performance-based data from a trial using a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) antagonist for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS/PROCEDURES: Women with chronic PTSD were randomized to treatment with either GSK561679, a CRHR1 antagonist, or placebo...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Marian L Logrip, John R Walker, Lydia O Ayanwuyi, Valentina Sabino, Roberto Ciccocioppo, George F Koob, Eric P Zorrilla
Alcoholism is a pervasive societal problem, yet available pharmacotherapies fail to treat most sufferers. The type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF1 ) receptor has received much attention for its putative role in the progression to alcohol dependence, although at present its success in clinical trials has been limited. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the rat Crhr1 promoter have been identified in the Marchigian substrain of Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. Unlike other Wistar-derived alcohol-preferring lines, nondependent msP rats reduce their alcohol self-administration in response to CRF1 antagonists and show increased brain CRF1 expression...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Farwa Sajadi, Carmela Curcuruto, Afra Al Dhaheri, Jean-Paul V Paluzzi
The mosquito, Aedes aegypti , is a vector responsible for transmitting various pathogens to humans, and their prominence as chief vectors of human disease is largely due to their anthropophilic blood feeding behaviour. Larval stage mosquitoes must deal with the potential dilution of their haemolymph in fresh water, whereas the haematophagus A. aegypti female faces the challenge of excess ion and water intake after a blood meal. The excretory system, comprised of the Malpighian tubules (MTs) and hindgut, is strictly controlled by neuroendocrine factors, responsible for the control of diuresis across all developmental stages...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Curt A Sandman, Megan M Curran, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn, Kevin Head, Tallie Z Baram
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to assess associations among early-life exposure to adversity, the development and maturation of neurons and brain circuits, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Specifically, they examined whether fetal exposure to placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a molecule conveying maternal signals to the fetus, predicts brain growth and neuropsychiatric outcomes in school-age children. METHOD: In a large, well-characterized prospective cohort, concentrations of placental CRH (pCRH) in maternal plasma were determined during five intervals during gestation...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Stefanie M Klampfl, Milena M Schramm, Barbara M Gaßner, Katharina Hübner, Audrey F Seasholtz, Paula J Brunton, Doris S Bayerl, Oliver J Bosch
Maternal behavior and anxiety are potently modulated by the brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system postpartum. Downregulation of CRF in limbic brain regions is essential for appropriate maternal behavior and an adaptive anxiety response. Here, we focus our attention on arguably the most important brain region for maternal behavior, the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA). Within the MPOA, mRNA for CRF receptor subtype 1 (protein: CRFR1, gene: Crhr1) was more abundantly expressed than for subtype 2 (protein: CRFR2, gene: Crhr2), however expression of Crhr1, Crhr2 and CRF binding-protein (protein: CRFBP, gene: Crhbp) mRNA was similar between virgin and lactating rats...
February 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Masafumi Kurajoh, Keiko Ohsugi, Miki Kakutani-Hatayama, Takuhito Shoji, Hidenori Koyama
Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia are frequently observed in patients with chronic alcoholism. However, the involvement of deranged cortisol regulation in patients with those conditions has not been reported. A 63-year-old Japanese male with chronic alcoholism was referred to the Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism for examination and treatment of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Laboratory findings showed hypokalemia (2.3 mmol/l), as well as a high level of urinary excretion of potassium and hypomagnesemia (1...
February 15, 2018: CEN Case Reports
Carolin Leistner, Andreas Menke
Stress is a state of derailed homeostasis and a main environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Chronic or uncontrollable stress may lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a common feature of stress-related psychiatric disorders. One of the key mechanisms underlying a disturbed HPA axis is an impaired function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with an enhanced or reduced feedback sensitivity for glucocorticoids and subsequently altered concentrations of peripheral cortisol...
February 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sangzin Ahn, Mooseok Choi, Hyunju Kim, Eunjeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Seong-Il Kang, Hyun-Woo Shin, Dae Woo Kim, Hye-Sun Kim
Olfactory loss is known to affect both mood and quality of life. Transient anosmia was induced in mice to study the resulting changes in mood, behavior, and on a molecular level. Transient anosmia was induced by a single intranasal instillation of ZnSO4 in BALB/c mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and potato chip finding test were performed to confirm olfactory loss. Tail suspension, forced swim, and splash tests were performed to evaluate depression-related behavior; while the open field, and elevated plus maze tests were used to evaluate anxiety-related behavior...
February 9, 2018: Chemical Senses
Diego Andolina, Matteo Di Segni, Alessandra Accoto, Luisa Lo Iacono, Antonella Borreca, Donald Ielpo, Nicola Berretta, Emerald Perlas, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Rossella Ventura
Recent studies show that microRNA-34 (miR-34) family is critical in the regulation of stress response also suggesting that it may contribute to the individual responsiveness to stress. We have recently demonstrated that mice carrying a genetic deletion of all miR-34 isoforms (triple knockout, TKO) lack the stress-induced serotonin (5-HT) and GABA release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mpFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), respectively. Here, we evaluated if the absence of miR-34 was also able to modify the stress-coping strategy in the forced swimming test...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Nadège Morisot, Romain Monier, Catherine Le Moine, Mark J Millan, Angelo Contarino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poor social behaviour and vulnerability to stress are major clinical features of stimulant use disorders. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system mediates stress responses and might underlie substance use disorders; however, its implication in social impairment induced by stimulant substances remains unknown. CRF signalling is mediated by two receptor types, CRF1 and CRF2 . The present study investigated the role for the CRF2 receptor in social behaviour deficits, vulnerability to stress and related brain alterations induced by cocaine administration and withdrawal...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Natalia I Yarushkina, Ludmila P Filaretova
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in somatic pain regulation and may produce an analgesic effect in humans and animals, although the mechanisms of the CRF-induced analgesia remain unclear. CRF action is mediated by the CRF receptors of subtypes 1 and 2 (CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, respectively). Activation of the hypothalamic -pituitary -adrenocortical axis (HPA) is provided by CRF-R1; but CRF-R2 are also involved in the regulation of the HPA axis, and, respectively, glucocorticoids, the end hormones of the HPA axis, also participate in somatic pain regulation...
February 5, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Satoshi Yoshiji, Kimitaka Shibue, Toshihito Fujii, Takeshi Usui, Keisho Hirota, Daisuke Taura, Mayumi Inoue, Masakatsu Sone, Akihiro Yasoda, Nobuya Inagaki
RATIONALE: Unilateral adrenalectomy as part of surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not thought to increase the risk of chronic adrenal insufficiency, as the contralateral adrenal gland is assumed to be capable of compensating for the lost function of the resected gland. However, recent studies have indicated that adrenalectomy might cause irreversible impairment of the adrenocortical reserve. We describe a case of chronic primary adrenal insufficiency in a 68-year-old man who previously underwent unilateral adrenonephrectomy, which was complicated by severe postoperative adrenal stress that involved cardiopulmonary disturbance and systemic infection...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aline Bertin, Ludovic Calandreau, Maryse Meurisse, Marion Georgelin, Rupert Palme, Sophie Lumineau, Cécilia Houdelier, Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq, Ludovic Dickel, Violaine Colson, Fabien Cornilleau, Christophe Rat, Joel Delaveau, Cécile Arnould
The influence of embryonic microclimate on the behavioural development of birds remains unexplored. In this study, we experimentally tested whether chronic exposure to suboptimal temperatures engendered plasticity in the expression of fear-related behaviours and in the expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor in the brains of domestic chicks (Gallus g. domesticus). We compared the neurobehavioural phenotypes of a control group of chicks incubated in an optimal thermal environment (37.8 °C) with those of a group of experimental chicks exposed chronically in ovo to suboptimal temperatures (27...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jing Zhao, Cuiying Niu, Jianv Wang, Hongxia Yang, Yuzhi Du, Lixin Wei, Cen Li
Background: Zuotai, a famous Tibetan medicinal mixture containing metacinnabar, is traditionally used for the purpose of tranquilizing minds and soothing nerves. However, it still lacks substantial experimental data for it to be approved for use. Aim: This study was designed to assess the effects of Zuotai on depressive-like symptoms in a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model, and to explore its potential mechanism, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis pathway...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Gaowen Li, Gang Wang, Jing Shi, Xueyi Xie, Ning Fei, Ling Chen, Na Liu, Mingxin Yang, Jianchun Pan, Wu Huang, Ying Xu
trans-Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol enriched in grape seed and skin, has been extensively investigated for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-psychiatric properties. The present study examined the effects of trans-resveratrol on ameliorating anxiety-like behaviors and fear memory deficits induced by time-dependent sensitization (TDS) procedure, which is a classical animal model for mimicking posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results suggested that trans-resveratrol at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg (via gavage, i...
January 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Michel M M Verheij, Candice Contet, Peter Karel, Judith Latour, Rick H A van der Doelen, Bram Geenen, Josephus A van Hulten, Francisca Meyer, Tamas Kozicz, Olivier George, George F Koob, Judith R Homberg
BACKGROUND: Reduced expression of the serotonin transporter (SERT) promotes anxiety and cocaine intake in both humans and rats. We tested the hypothesis that median raphe nucleus (MRN) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonergic projections differentially mediate these phenotypes. METHODS: We used virally mediated RNA interference to locally downregulate SERT expression and compared the results with those of constitutive SERT knockout. Rats were allowed either short access (ShA) (1 hour) or long access (LgA) (6 hours) to cocaine self-administration to model moderate versus compulsive-like cocaine taking...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Yves Reznik, Pascal Barat, Jérôme Bertherat, Claire Bouvattier, Frédéric Castinetti, Olivier Chabre, Philippe Chanson, Christine Cortet, Brigitte Delemer, Bernard Goichot, Damien Gruson, Laurence Guignat, Emmanuelle Proust-Lemoine, Marie-Laure Raffin Sanson, Rachel Reynaud, Dinane Samara Boustani, Dominique Simon, Antoine Tabarin, Delphine Zenaty
The French endocrinology society (SFE) and the French pediatric endocrinology society (DFSDP) have drawn up recommendations for the management of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency in the adult and child, based on an analysis of the literature by 19 experts in 6 work-groups. A diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should be suspected in the presence of a number of non-specific symptoms except hyperpigmentation which is observed in primary adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis rely on plasma cortisol and ACTH measurement at 8am and/or the cortisol increase after synacthen administration...
February 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
Elena Goetz Davis, Jennifer Keller, Joachim Hallmayer, Heather Ryan Pankow, Greer M Murphy, Ian H Gotlib, Alan F Schatzberg
Corticotropin-releasing factor signaling through CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) has been shown to contribute to learning and memory function. A haplotype of alleles T-A-T in a set of common polymorphisms in the gene encoding for CRF1 (CRHR1) has been associated with both depression vulnerability and alterations in cognitive functioning. The present study investigated the relations between the TAT haplotype and specific symptoms of depression, self-reported ruminative behaviors, and neuropsychological performance on a learning and memory task...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Oliver J Bosch, Tobias T Pohl, Inga D Neumann, Larry J Young
When fathers leave the family, mothers are at increased risk of developing depression and anxiety disorders. In biparental, socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), sudden bond disruption increases passive stress-coping, indicative of depressive-like behavior, and acts as chronic stressor in both males and females. However, the consequences of separation in lactating prairie vole mothers are unknown. In the present study, following 18 days of cohousing, half of the prairie vole pairs were separated by removing the male...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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