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Corticotropin AND Spleen

Ai-Ling Chen, Xi Sun, Wei Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Xin Zeng, Jing-Fan Qiu, Xin-Jian Liu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression has been described as a consequence of brain injury and infection by different mechanisms. Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause injury to the central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Both T cell and B cell immunity play an essential role in the resistance of the infection. However, whether brain injury caused by A. cantonensis infection can lead to immunosuppression is not clear. Therefore, the present study sought to observe the alteration of immune responses in mice infected with A...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Huiling Zhu, Yulan Liu, Shaokui Chen, Xiuying Wang, Dingan Pi, Weibo Leng, Feng Chen, Jing Zhang, Ping Kang
Stress induces injury in intestinal barrier function in piglets. Long-chain n-3 PUFA have been shown to exhibit potential immunomodulatory and barrier protective effects in animal models and clinical trials. In addition, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)/CRH receptor (CRHR) signalling pathways play an important role in stress-induced alterations of intestinal barrier function. We hypothesised that fish oil could affect intestinal barrier function and CRH/CRHR signalling pathways. In total, thirty-two weaned pigs were allocated to one of four treatments...
June 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Burcu Hasdemir, Pallavi Mhaske, Sreenivasan Paruthiyil, Elizabeth A Garnett, Melvin B Heyman, Mehrdad Matloubian, Aditi Bhargava
We investigated whether corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRF2) and its high-affinity agonist urocortin 1 (Ucn1) mediate sex-specific signaling and immune responses. Intrarectal trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid was used to induce experimental colitis in wild-type, CRF2 knockout (CRF2KO), and heterozygous (CRF2Ht) mice of both sexes. Changes in plasma extravasation, organ weight, survival, immune cell numbers, inflammatory cytokines, and the MAPK signaling pathway were assessed. Stored intestinal biopsies from patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and age- and sex-matched individuals without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy to characterize Ucn1 and CRF receptor expression...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Yan Chen, Jing Li, Ke-ying Zhu, Sheng Xiao, Yan-qing Wang, Gen-cheng Wu, Jun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on cytotoxic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells after surgical trauma via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 5 pathway in the rats' hypothalamus, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improving immune disorders after surgery. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following 6 groups: control, trauma model, EA, sham EA, 4 nmol-BIX 02188 (an inhibitor for ERK 5 catalytic activity) and 20 nmol-BIX 02188 (n = 6 rats per group)...
June 2015: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Shilpi Mahajan, Min Liao, Paris Barkan, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Aditi Bhargava
Urocortins (Ucn1-3), members of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides, are emerging as potent immunomodulators. Localized, cellular expression of Ucn1 and Ucn2, but not Ucn3, has been demonstrated during inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of Ucn3 in a rat model of Crohn's colitis and the relative contribution of CRF receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) in regulating Ucn3 expression at baseline and during inflammation. Ucn3 mRNA and peptide were ubiquitously expressed throughout the GI tract in naïve rats...
April 2014: Peptides
Yulan Liu, Feng Chen, Quan Li, Jack Odle, Xi Lin, Huiling Zhu, Dingan Pi, Yongqing Hou, Yu Hong, Haifeng Shi
Long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids exert beneficial effects in neuroendocrine dysfunctions in animal models and clinical trials. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the beneficial effects remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that dietary treatment with fish oil (FO) could mitigate LPS-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein signaling pathways. Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and the main factors consisted of diet (5% corn oil vs...
November 2013: Journal of Nutrition
T R De Jong, B N Harris, J P Perea-Rodriguez, W Saltzman
Social environment and parental state affect stress responses in mammals, but their impact may depend on the social and reproductive strategy of the species. The influences of cohabitation with a male or female conspecific, and the birth of offspring, on the physiological and endocrine responses to chronic variable stress were studied in the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Adult male California mice were housed either with a male cage mate (virgin males, VM), a female cage mate (pair-bonded males, PBM), or a female cage mate and their first newborn litter (new fathers, NF)...
October 2013: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Zhan Li, Renhui Liu, Xue Kang, Xiujuan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To establish a kidney deficient aging model (KDAM), assess it in antioxidant capacity, HPAT axis function and bone metabolism, and compare with D-galactose aging model. METHOD: Aging rat model was established by injecting D-galactose solution, meanwhile dexamethasone solution was injected to establish kidney deficient aging model. Then these models were evaluated by serum MDA (malondialdehyde) and GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), liver SOD (superoxide dismutase), adrenal, thymus and spleen index, CD4(+), CD8(+), and serum COR (cortisol), BGP (bone Gla-protein), plasma ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone)...
August 2012: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hai-yan Wang, Wen-ting Gao, Qing-hua He, Ce Yang, Wei Gu, Jun Yan, Jian-xin Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of Treg-Th17 balance influenced by corticosterone, major effect hormone of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis under running stress. METHODS: A total of 25 corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) wildtype (CRH+/+) and knockout (CRH-/-) mice were adopt and divided into 4 groups as follows: CRH+/+ ctrl, CRH+/+ stress, CRH-/- ctrl and CRH-/- stress. All mice in stress groups were under 2 h running. After 1 h, blood plasma in all groups was collected and the expression of corticosterone and IL-17A was detected by ELISA...
2012: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Zurine De Miguel, Oscar Vegas, Larraitz Garmendia, Amaia Arregi, Garikoitz Beitia, Arantza Azpiroz
Individual variation in behavioral coping strategies to stress implies that animals may have a distinct physiological adaptation to stress; these differences may underlie differences in vulnerability to stress-related diseases. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that different behavioral coping strategies (active vs. passive) are stable over time and that they would be associated with differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adreno-medular (SAM) axes, and monoaminergic and immune activity...
December 1, 2011: Behavioural Brain Research
Abdeslam Mouihate, Michael A Galic, Shaun L Ellis, Sarah J Spencer, Shigeki Tsutsui, Quentin J Pittman
A single postnatal exposure to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), reduces the neuroimmune response to a subsequent LPS exposure in the adult rat. The attenuated fever and proinflammatory response is caused by a paradoxical, amplified, early corticosterone response to LPS. Here we identify the mechanisms underlying the heightened corticosterone response to LPS in adults after early life exposure to LPS. In postnatal LPS-treated rats, hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA, pituitary proopiomelanocortin mRNA, and circulating adrenocorticotrophic hormone were all increased after adult exposure to LPS without significant modification to hippocampal or hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor mRNA or protein or vagally mediated afferent signaling to the brain...
June 9, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Elyse M Mallimo, Mike A Ansonoff, John E Pintar, Alexander W Kusnecov
Opioid receptor like-1 receptor (ORL(1)) is selective for orphaninFQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), a peptide linked to stress. Since immunologic stimuli exert stressor-like effects, the neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of the T-cell superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) were tested in ORL(1)(-/-) and ORL(1)(+/+) wildtype 129S6 mice. Within 2h of SEA challenge both genotypes showed elevated corticosterone, but only wildtypes were elevated after 4h, and had altered hypothalamic CRH mRNA. Although amygdaloid CRH and TNFalpha mRNA was increased by SEA, this did not vary with genotype...
January 25, 2010: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Rachel A Kohman, Beth Crowell, Daniella Urbach-Ross, Alexander W Kusnecov
Aged subjects are more vulnerable to administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, but research on age-associated sensitivity to other immune stimulants has been limited. The current study examined the effects of administering the superantigen, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), to young (4-month-old) and aged (20-month-old) male C57BL/6J mice on consumption of a novel liquid, cytokine production, corticosterone levels, and expression of central mRNA levels of cytokines and corticotropin-releasing hormone...
October 2009: European Journal of Neuroscience
Nadka I Boyadjieva, María Ortigüela, Alvaro Arjona, Xiaodong Cheng, Dipak K Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cell dysfunction is associated with hyperresponse of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) to immune challenge and with a loss of beta-endorphin (BEP) neurons in fetal alcohol exposed animals. Recently, we established a method to differentiate neural stem cells into BEP neurons using cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-elevating agents in cultures. Hence, we determined whether in vitro differentiated BEP neurons could be used for reversing the compromised stress response and immune function in fetal alcohol exposed rats...
May 2009: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Chun-Chun Chen, Russell D Fernald
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is well known for its role in regulating the stress response in vertebrate species by controlling release of glucocorticoids. CRF also influences other physiological processes via two distinct CRF receptors (CRF-Rs) and is co-regulated by a CRF binding protein (CRFBP). Although CRF was first discovered in mammals, it is important for the regulation of the stress response, motor behavior, and appetite in all vertebrates. However, it is unclear how the actions of CRF, CRF-Rs, and CRFBP are coordinated...
June 2008: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Mori, Takanori Ida, Masayasu Kojima, Noboru Murakami, Kenji Kangawa
We identified a novel 36-amino acid neuropeptide in rat brain as an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptors FM-3/GPR66 and FM-4/TGR-1, which were identified to date as the neuromedin U (NMU) receptors, and designated this peptide neuromedin S (NMS) because it was specifically expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. NMS shared a C-terminal core structure with NMU. NMS mRNA was highly expressed in the central nervous system, spleen and testis. In rat brain, NMS expression was restricted to the ventrolateral portion of the SCN and has a diurnal peak under light/dark cycling, but remains stable under constant darkness...
January 10, 2008: Regulatory Peptides
Nadka Boyadjieva, Juan P Advis, Dipak K Sarkar
BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that alcohol feeding suppresses natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity partly by decreasing the function of hypothalamic beta-endorphin (beta-EP) neurons. The neuronal mechanism by which hypothalamic beta-EP communicates with the spleen to regulate the action of ethanol on NK cells is not known. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of beta-EP neurons, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in regulation of the ethanol effect on splenic NK cell cytolytic function...
October 2006: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
A W Taylor, N Kitaichi, D Biros
The nervous system contributes to the mechanisms of ocular immune privilege by the constitutive presence of the immunosuppressive neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in the eye. Alpha-MSH through the melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r) mediates induction of CD4+ regulatory T cells that suppress in an antigen specific manner autoimmune disease. We investigated whether there was a role for MC5r expression in ocular immunity and the natural induction of regulatory T cells that emerged following resolution of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU)...
2006: Cellular and Molecular Biology
L Kubovcakova, L Micutkova, Z Bartosova, E L Sabban, O Krizanova, R Kvetnansky
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, EC is the terminal enzyme of the catecholaminergic pathway converting noradrenaline to adrenaline. Although preferentially localized in adrenal medulla, evidence exists that PNMT activity and gene expression are also present in the rat heart, kidney, spleen, lung, skeletal muscle, thymus, retina and different parts of the brain. However, data concerning PNMT gene expression in sympathetic ganglia are still missing. In this study, our effort was focused on identification of PNMT mRNA and/or protein in stellate ganglia and, if present, testing the effect of stress on PNMT mRNA and protein levels in this type of ganglia...
June 2006: Journal of Neurochemistry
Xing Xia, Ying Pan, Wei-Yun Zhang, Guang Cheng, Ling-Dong Kong
The ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. (turmeric), possesses a wide variety of biological activities related to the treatment and prevention of affective disorders. To study their antidepressant effects, the impacts of chronic mild stress (CMS) and of the subsequent administration of ethanolic extracts of C. longa were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to the CMS procedure demonstrated increased serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, as well as a reduction of natural killer cell activity in splenocytes...
May 2006: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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