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(Cutaneous metastasis) pathogenesis

Kathleen Coggshall, Tiffany L Tello, Jeffrey P North, Siegrid S Yu
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cancer. It most commonly presents as an indurated plaque or nodule on sun-damaged skin in elderly patients and is characterized by high rates of local recurrence and nodal metastasis. Survival at five years is 51% for local disease and as low as 14% for distant disease, which underscores the aggressive nature of this tumor and challenges in management. Advances in immunology and molecular genetics have broadened our understanding of the pathophysiology of MCC and expanded our therapeutic arsenal...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Marn Joon Park, Jong-Lyel Roh, Seung-Ho Choi, Soon Yuhl Nam, Sang Yoon Kim, Yoon Se Lee
OBJECTIVE: De novo cancers of head and neck area in solid organ transplantation recipients show standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 3.8. Immunosuppression following transplantation is suggested to play as a crucial factor in pathogenesis of secondary malignancy. Prognosis of head and neck cancer arising in solid organ transplantation recipients is proven to have poor prognosis. The incidence, risk, prognosis, and survival of de novo malignancy of head and neck area in solid organ transplantation recipients in single-tertiary medical center followed up for 20 years...
November 14, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Shayna Gordon, Caroline Fischer, Ann Martin, Ilana S Rosman, M Laurin Council
BACKGROUND: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare, locally aggressive cutaneous neoplasm that commonly occurs on the face. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the current literature on MAC pertaining to epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histology, immunohistochemistry, prognosis, follow-up, and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extensive literature review was conducted using OVID MEDLINE and PubMed to identify articles relating to MAC...
August 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Emmanuel Agosto-Arroyo, Marilin Rosa, Alec Chau, Laila Khazai
BACKGROUND: Metastases represent a small percentage of the malignancies affecting the breast, and only 5% of melanomas originate from non-cutaneous sites. Multiple genetic aberrations have been associated with the development of melanocytic lesions, including BRAF V600E mutation. Mutations in PTEN gene have also been related to the pathogenesis of multiple malignancies. PURPOSE/METHOD: This is the case of a 28-year-old female who presented with a tender, palpable mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Mohammed Dany
Melanoma is by far the most aggressive type of skin cancer with a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Understanding the mechanisms involved in melanoma pathogenesis, response, and resistance to treatment has gained a lot of attention worldwide. Recently, the role of sphingolipid metabolism has been studied in cutaneous melanoma. Sphingolipids are bioactive lipid effector molecules involved in the regulation of various cellular signaling pathways such as inflammation, cancer cell proliferation, death, senescence, and metastasis...
July 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Kelly L Harms, Lorena Lazo de la Vega, Daniel H Hovelson, Samantha Rahrig, Andi K Cani, Chia-Jen Liu, Douglas R Fullen, Min Wang, Aleodor A Andea, Christopher K Bichakjian, Timothy M Johnson, Scott A Tomlins, Paul W Harms
Importance: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. In rare cases, the development of an additional cutaneous MCC tumor is clinically consistent with a second primary MCC tumor rather than a cutaneous metastasis, which has important treatment and prognostic implications. Objective: To evaluate genetic relatedness in 4 cases with the clinical diagnosis of multiple primary MCCs. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, 7 cases of clinically designated multiple primary MCC were identified; 4 cases met inclusion criteria for next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis...
June 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
Rebecca Kohnken, Karthik M Kodigepalli, Anjali Mishra, Pierluigi Porcu, Li Wu
Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) that is characterized by aggressive spread of neoplastic CD4+ T-cells from the skin into the bloodstream with metastasis to visceral organs. The deoxynucleoside triphosphohydrolase SAMHD1 is highly expressed in normal CD4+ T-cells, while its expression is down-regulated in CD4+ T-cells from SS patients. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation is an important epigenetic mechanism in the pathogenesis and progression of SS. MiR-181 has been shown to inhibit SAMHD1 expression in cell lines and was identified as an important prognostic biomarker in CTCL...
January 2017: Leukemia Research
Ann-Cathrine Larsen, Lauge H Mikkelsen, Rehannah Borup, Katalin Kiss, Peter B Toft, Christian von Buchwald, Sarah E Coupland, Jan U Prause, Steffen Heegaard
PURPOSE: Conjunctival melanoma (CM) is a rare disease associated with considerable mortality. As opposed to cutaneous melanoma, the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the development of CM and other mucosal melanomas (MMs) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify tumor-specific and prognostic microRNA (miRNA) in CM and to compare the miRNA profile with that of MM. METHODS: Using microarray analysis (Affymetrix) we determined the miRNA expression profile in 40 CMs compared with 7 normal conjunctival samples...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Klaus G Griewank
Malignant melanoma remains the skin cancer with the highest number of mortalities worldwide. While early diagnosis and complete surgical excision remain the best possibility for curing disease, prognosis at the stage of metastasis is still poor. Recent years have brought about considerable advances in terms of understanding the pathogenesis of melanoma and treating advanced disease. The discovery of activating BRAF mutations in around 50% of tumors has led to the introduction of targeted therapies downregulating BRAF signaling output...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
Harvind S Chahal, Yuan Lin, Katherine J Ransohoff, David A Hinds, Wenting Wu, Hong-Ji Dai, Abrar A Qureshi, Wen-Qing Li, Peter Kraft, Jean Y Tang, Jiali Han, Kavita Y Sarin
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7-11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2...
July 18, 2016: Nature Communications
Junna Oba, Wei Wei, Jeffrey E Gershenwald, Marcella M Johnson, Cynthia M Wyatt, Julie A Ellerhorst, Elizabeth A Grimm
The metabolic hormone leptin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and may contribute to the high rate of cancer in obese individuals. We reported that leptin and its receptor are expressed by melanoma tumors and cell lines, and that leptin stimulates proliferation of cultured melanoma cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that leptin contributes to early melanoma progression by assessing its association with sentinel node positivity in cutaneous melanoma patients. The study enrolled 72 patients who were scheduled to undergo lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sumana Devata, Ryan A Wilcox
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of extranodal lymphomas involving the skin. Diagnosis of the two main subtypes of CTCL-mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS)-is based on the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (ISCL/EORTC) classification system, which utilizes clinical, histopathological, molecular biologic, and immunopathologic features. Risk stratification, based on TNMB (tumor, node, metastasis, and blood) staging, provides prognostic information, with limited-stage disease conferring the longest median overall survival...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Kui-Rong Wang, Yuan-Jing Jia, Shui-Hong Zhou, Qin-Ying Wang, Yang-Yang Bao, Zhi-Ying Feng, Hong-Tian Yao, Jun Fan
The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Joanna Maj, Alina M Jankowska-Konsur, Agnieszka Hałoń, Zbigniew Woźniak, Ewa Plomer-Niezgoda, Adam Reich
INTRODUCTION: Chemokines play an important role in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis has been implicated in development of both solid tumors and hematological malignancies and is also relevant in the pathogenesis of the most common primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides (MF). AIM: To evaluate the expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in MF and to examine their associations with cell proliferation and angiogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material for the study consisted of skin samples obtained from 56 patients with MF and 20 healthy volunteers...
December 2015: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Rui Shen, Jinming Zhang, Fenggang Zhang, Yongjun DU, Weiqiang Liang, Lusheng Xu, Xueliang DU, Ping Chen, Xiaodong Chen
Marjolin's ulcers, which are epidermoid carcinomas arising on non-healing scar tissue, may be of various pathological types, including squamous cell carcinoma. The pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma arising in an ulcer differs from that of the primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. This squamous cell carcinoma is aggressive in nature, and has a high rate of metastasis. Between January 2001 and September 2013, 51 patients with Marjolin's ulcers were admitted to the Departments of Plastic Surgery of the Affiliated Foshan Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University...
October 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yutaka J Kawamura, Michitaka Kohno, Junji Shiga, Naoki Asakage, Minoru Hatano, Hirohisa Okame, Junichi Sasaki, Shoichi Tobari, Katsunori Nishida
Axillary lymph node metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is extremely rare, and this scarcity hinders understanding of its pathogenesis and, thus, the application of appropriate management. Here, we present a case with axillary lymph node metastasis of cecal carcinoma associated with macroscopic invasion of the skin of the abdominal wall with histological evidence of such invasion, findings which support our hypothesis that the axillary lymph node metastasis developed via the lymph channels in the skin of the abdominal wall...
2015: Surgical Case Reports
Katalin Barbara Horváth, Péter Pankovics, Endre Kálmán, Zsolt Kádár, Zita Battyáni, Zsuzsanna Lengyel, Gábor Reuter
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, highly aggressive skin tumour. In 2008, a Merkel cell polyomavirus (MC) was identified in MCCs as a potential etiological factor of MCC. The aims of this retrospective study were to investigate the epidemiological, clinicopathological and virological features of MCCs. Between 2007 and 2012, 11 patients had been diagnosed with MCC by histological methods in University of Pécs, Hungary. In eight MCC cases MC was tested by PCR (in primary skin lesions, lymph nodes/cutan metastases, MCC neighboring carcinomas)...
January 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Nicole M Reusser, Wesley Wu, Mohsin Mir
Cutaneous metastases manifesting as zosteriform eruptions are uncommon. To our knowledge, we report the second case of zosteriform cutaneous metastasis arising from a rectal carcinoma in a 58-year-old man who presented with a painless popular eruption in the T12 dermatomal distribution nine months after his primary diagnosis of rectal carcinoma was made. Furthermore, we discuss a review of the literature regarding zosteriform cutaneous metastases and the possible pathogenesis of these lesions.
May 2015: Dermatology Online Journal
Jiao Cao, Chen Zhang, Ting Chen, Rong Tian, Shuhong Sun, Xianshui Yu, Chunying Xiao, Gang Wang, Yufeng Liu, Meng Fu, Wei Li
BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) and its receptor, Plexin-B1, are involved in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by mediating angiogenesis or perineural invasion through the interaction between Sema4D expression on SCC cells and Plexin-B1 expression on endothelial cells or nerves. Plexin-B1 was also recently found to be expressed on SCC cells. Plexin-B1 expression on several types of tumor cells could mediate various, and occasionally opposing, effects, including tumor cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis...
August 2015: Journal of Dermatological Science
Laurent Lessard, Michelle Liu, Diego M Marzese, Hongwei Wang, Kelly Chong, Neal Kawas, Nicholas C Donovan, Eiji Kiyohara, Sandy Hsu, Nellie Nelson, Sivan Izraely, Orit Sagi-Assif, Isaac P Witz, Xiao-Jun Ma, Yuling Luo, Dave S B Hoon
In recent years, considerable advances have been made in the characterization of protein-coding alterations involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma. However, despite their growing implication in cancer, little is known about the role of long noncoding RNAs in melanoma progression. We hypothesized that copy number alterations (CNAs) of intergenic nonprotein-coding domains could help identify long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) associated with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Among several candidates, our approach uncovered the chromosome 6p22...
October 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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