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(Cutaneous metastasis) pathogenesis

Rebecca Kohnken, Karthik M Kodigepalli, Anjali Mishra, Pierluigi Porcu, Li Wu
Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) that is characterized by aggressive spread of neoplastic CD4+ T-cells from the skin into the bloodstream with metastasis to visceral organs. The deoxynucleoside triphosphohydrolase SAMHD1 is highly expressed in normal CD4+ T-cells, while its expression is down-regulated in CD4+ T-cells from SS patients. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation is an important epigenetic mechanism in the pathogenesis and progression of SS. MiR-181 has been shown to inhibit SAMHD1 expression in cell lines and was identified as an important prognostic biomarker in CTCL...
January 2017: Leukemia Research
Ann-Cathrine Larsen, Lauge H Mikkelsen, Rehannah Borup, Katalin Kiss, Peter B Toft, Christian von Buchwald, Sarah E Coupland, Jan U Prause, Steffen Heegaard
PURPOSE: Conjunctival melanoma (CM) is a rare disease associated with considerable mortality. As opposed to cutaneous melanoma, the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the development of CM and other mucosal melanomas (MMs) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify tumor-specific and prognostic microRNA (miRNA) in CM and to compare the miRNA profile with that of MM. METHODS: Using microarray analysis (Affymetrix) we determined the miRNA expression profile in 40 CMs compared with 7 normal conjunctival samples...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Klaus G Griewank
Malignant melanoma remains the skin cancer with the highest number of mortalities worldwide. While early diagnosis and complete surgical excision remain the best possibility for curing disease, prognosis at the stage of metastasis is still poor. Recent years have brought about considerable advances in terms of understanding the pathogenesis of melanoma and treating advanced disease. The discovery of activating BRAF mutations in around 50% of tumors has led to the introduction of targeted therapies downregulating BRAF signaling output...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
Harvind S Chahal, Yuan Lin, Katherine J Ransohoff, David A Hinds, Wenting Wu, Hong-Ji Dai, Abrar A Qureshi, Wen-Qing Li, Peter Kraft, Jean Y Tang, Jiali Han, Kavita Y Sarin
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7-11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2...
July 18, 2016: Nature Communications
Junna Oba, Wei Wei, Jeffrey E Gershenwald, Marcella M Johnson, Cynthia M Wyatt, Julie A Ellerhorst, Elizabeth A Grimm
The metabolic hormone leptin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and may contribute to the high rate of cancer in obese individuals. We reported that leptin and its receptor are expressed by melanoma tumors and cell lines, and that leptin stimulates proliferation of cultured melanoma cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that leptin contributes to early melanoma progression by assessing its association with sentinel node positivity in cutaneous melanoma patients. The study enrolled 72 patients who were scheduled to undergo lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sumana Devata, Ryan A Wilcox
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of extranodal lymphomas involving the skin. Diagnosis of the two main subtypes of CTCL-mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS)-is based on the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (ISCL/EORTC) classification system, which utilizes clinical, histopathological, molecular biologic, and immunopathologic features. Risk stratification, based on TNMB (tumor, node, metastasis, and blood) staging, provides prognostic information, with limited-stage disease conferring the longest median overall survival...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Kui-Rong Wang, Yuan-Jing Jia, Shui-Hong Zhou, Qin-Ying Wang, Yang-Yang Bao, Zhi-Ying Feng, Hong-Tian Yao, Jun Fan
The incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoids is approximately 20%. However, the pathogenesis and natural history of, and prognostic factors for, the condition remain poorly understood. We reported a 54-year-old female presented with cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from atypical laryngeal carcinoid. Laryngoscopy revealed a 0.5 × 1.5-cm reddish mass on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. Under general anesthesia, a biopsy sample was obtained via suspension laryngoscopy...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Joanna Maj, Alina M Jankowska-Konsur, Agnieszka Hałoń, Zbigniew Woźniak, Ewa Plomer-Niezgoda, Adam Reich
INTRODUCTION: Chemokines play an important role in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis has been implicated in development of both solid tumors and hematological malignancies and is also relevant in the pathogenesis of the most common primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides (MF). AIM: To evaluate the expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in MF and to examine their associations with cell proliferation and angiogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material for the study consisted of skin samples obtained from 56 patients with MF and 20 healthy volunteers...
December 2015: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Rui Shen, Jinming Zhang, Fenggang Zhang, Yongjun DU, Weiqiang Liang, Lusheng Xu, Xueliang DU, Ping Chen, Xiaodong Chen
Marjolin's ulcers, which are epidermoid carcinomas arising on non-healing scar tissue, may be of various pathological types, including squamous cell carcinoma. The pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma arising in an ulcer differs from that of the primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. This squamous cell carcinoma is aggressive in nature, and has a high rate of metastasis. Between January 2001 and September 2013, 51 patients with Marjolin's ulcers were admitted to the Departments of Plastic Surgery of the Affiliated Foshan Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University...
October 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yutaka J Kawamura, Michitaka Kohno, Junji Shiga, Naoki Asakage, Minoru Hatano, Hirohisa Okame, Junichi Sasaki, Shoichi Tobari, Katsunori Nishida
Axillary lymph node metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is extremely rare, and this scarcity hinders understanding of its pathogenesis and, thus, the application of appropriate management. Here, we present a case with axillary lymph node metastasis of cecal carcinoma associated with macroscopic invasion of the skin of the abdominal wall with histological evidence of such invasion, findings which support our hypothesis that the axillary lymph node metastasis developed via the lymph channels in the skin of the abdominal wall...
2015: Surgical Case Reports
Katalin Barbara Horváth, Péter Pankovics, Endre Kálmán, Zsolt Kádár, Zita Battyáni, Zsuzsanna Lengyel, Gábor Reuter
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, highly aggressive skin tumour. In 2008, a Merkel cell polyomavirus (MC) was identified in MCCs as a potential etiological factor of MCC. The aims of this retrospective study were to investigate the epidemiological, clinicopathological and virological features of MCCs. Between 2007 and 2012, 11 patients had been diagnosed with MCC by histological methods in University of Pécs, Hungary. In eight MCC cases MC was tested by PCR (in primary skin lesions, lymph nodes/cutan metastases, MCC neighboring carcinomas)...
January 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Nicole M Reusser, Wesley Wu, Mohsin Mir
Cutaneous metastases manifesting as zosteriform eruptions are uncommon. To our knowledge, we report the second case of zosteriform cutaneous metastasis arising from a rectal carcinoma in a 58-year-old man who presented with a painless popular eruption in the T12 dermatomal distribution nine months after his primary diagnosis of rectal carcinoma was made. Furthermore, we discuss a review of the literature regarding zosteriform cutaneous metastases and the possible pathogenesis of these lesions.
May 2015: Dermatology Online Journal
Jiao Cao, Chen Zhang, Ting Chen, Rong Tian, Shuhong Sun, Xianshui Yu, Chunying Xiao, Gang Wang, Yufeng Liu, Meng Fu, Wei Li
BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) and its receptor, Plexin-B1, are involved in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by mediating angiogenesis or perineural invasion through the interaction between Sema4D expression on SCC cells and Plexin-B1 expression on endothelial cells or nerves. Plexin-B1 was also recently found to be expressed on SCC cells. Plexin-B1 expression on several types of tumor cells could mediate various, and occasionally opposing, effects, including tumor cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis...
August 2015: Journal of Dermatological Science
Laurent Lessard, Michelle Liu, Diego M Marzese, Hongwei Wang, Kelly Chong, Neal Kawas, Nicholas C Donovan, Eiji Kiyohara, Sandy Hsu, Nellie Nelson, Sivan Izraely, Orit Sagi-Assif, Isaac P Witz, Xiao-Jun Ma, Yuling Luo, Dave S B Hoon
In recent years, considerable advances have been made in the characterization of protein-coding alterations involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma. However, despite their growing implication in cancer, little is known about the role of long noncoding RNAs in melanoma progression. We hypothesized that copy number alterations (CNAs) of intergenic nonprotein-coding domains could help identify long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) associated with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Among several candidates, our approach uncovered the chromosome 6p22...
October 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Giulia Ganzetti, Oriana Simonetti, Anna Campanati, Katia Giuliodori, Vitangelo Scocco, Marina Brugia, Massimo Tocchini, Anamaria Offidani
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional glycophosphoprotein secreted by many cell types, including osteoblasts, lymphocites, macrophages, epithelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. It has been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes, such as cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, cell survival, and tumor invasion and metastasis. Osteopontin has multiple emerging roles in cutaneous biology and pathology and OPN involvement has been emphasized in Th1-mediated diseases such as psoriasis...
2015: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Scott M Norberg, Michelle Oros, Varsha Manucha, Daniel Eun, Marijo Bilusic
Cutaneous metastases from urologic cancers are very uncommon, usually represent widespread metastatic disease and are associated with a very poor prognosis. They may occur in 1% of patients with urologic malignancies, most commonly from kidney, followed by bladder and prostate tumors. In this report, we describe a case of urothelial carcinoma with metastases to the scrotum treated with platinum based chemotherapy with a durable complete response lasting more than 14 months. Molecular profiling revealed deleterious mutations in e-cadherin and retinoblastoma genes, suggesting their possible role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous metastases...
April 2015: Canadian Journal of Urology
Cristina Carrera, Joan A Puig-Butillè, Gemma Tell-Marti, Adriana García, Celia Badenas, Llucia Alós, Susana Puig, Josep Malvehy
IMPORTANCE: BRAF inhibitors have become the standard of care in metastatic BRAF-mutant melanomas. Compared with chemotherapies, BRAF inhibitors improve overall and disease-free survival and speed the recovery of symptomatic patients with metastatic disease. The most worrisome finding is the possible development of resistance to new malignant tumors. OBSERVATIONS: A patient in her 30s developed massive BRAFV600E melanoma metastasis during her 30th week of pregnancy...
May 2015: JAMA Dermatology
Adriana C H van Engen-van Grunsven, Heidi Kusters-Vandevelde, Patricia J T A Groenen, Willeke A M Blokx
In this article, we give an update on recent findings regarding molecular pathology in cutaneous melanocytic tumors. The focus lies on use of genetics in the diagnosis of distinct subtypes of spitzoid tumors that are often characterized by specific phenotypic-genotypic alterations that can frequently be recognized by adequate histological examination. Typical illustrating cases are given in order to increase recognition of these lesions in daily dermatopathology practice. New molecular findings in the pathogenesis of congenital melanocytic tumors and neurocutaneous melanosis are reviewed...
2014: Frontiers in Medicine
Piotr Donizy, Maciej Kaczorowski, Agnieszka Halon, Marek Leskiewicz, Cyprian Kozyra, Rafal Matkowski
BACKGROUND/AIM: Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been a subject of growing scientific interest; however, a full picture of their role in cancer pathogenesis is still unclear. The present study aimed to reveal correlations between TIL grade and clinicopathological features, especially 5-year survival parameters in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Presence of TILs was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining in routine diagnostic histopathological specimens from 104 patients with cutaneous melanoma...
January 2015: Anticancer Research
Silviu Albu, Opincariu Iulian, Sorin Necula
While metastases to the paranasal sinuses are unusual, metastases to the sphenoid sinus are exceedingly rare, especially metastases of a cutaneous melanoma to the mucosa. We report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with a solitary sphenoid sinus metastasis that had spread from a cutaneous malignant melanoma. The metastasis was removed via a wide, endoscopically assisted sphenoidotomy. The patient was further treated with external radiotherapy, and at 8 months of follow-up he was free of disease. However, he experienced a recurrence at 3 years that proved to be fatal...
December 2014: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
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