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Function pulmonary

Lars Eichler, Jakob Mueller, Jörn Grensemann, Inez Frerichs, Christian Zöllner, Stefan Kluge
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) may lead to transient impairment of pulmonary function due to suboptimal ventilation, loss of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and repetitive suction maneuvers during the procedure. Possible changes in regional lung aeration were investigated using electrical impedance tomography (EIT), an increasingly implied instrument for bedside monitoring of pulmonary aeration. METHODS: With local ethics committee approval, after obtaining written informed consent 29 patients scheduled for elective PDT under bronchoscopic control were studied during mechanical ventilation in supine position...
November 15, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
David I Fielding, Justin Travers, Phan Nguyen, Michael G Brown, Gunter Hartel, Stephen Morrison
Expiratory dynamic airways collapse (EDAC) is a condition that affects the central airways; it is not well characterised physiologically, with relatively few studies. We sought to characterise impulse oscillometry (IOS) features of EDAC in patients with normal spirometry. Expiratory data were hypothesised to be the most revealing. In addition, we compared IOS findings in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with and without EDAC. EDAC was identified at bronchoscopy as 75-100% expiratory closure at the carina or bilateral main bronchi...
October 2018: ERJ Open Research
Ju-Hyeon Jung, Nan-Soo Kim
Postural changes induce changes in chest wall kinematics and eventually pulmonary function, and affect chest wall shape and chest motion. This study aimed to examine the effects of postural change on changes in the chest wall during respiratory muscle training. Using a repeated measures design, this study followed 13 healthy adults (13 men; mean age, 23.73 years). All participants performed four postures (neutral, full trunk rotation, half-range trunk rotation, and lateral ribcage shift postures) during respiratory muscle training...
October 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Almaz Akunov, Akylbek Sydykov, Turgun Toktash, Anara Doolotova, Akpay Sarybaev
Chronic high altitude hypoxia leads to an increase in red cell numbers and hemoglobin concentration. However, the effects of long-term intermittent hypoxia on hemoglobin concentration have not fully been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemoglobin levels in workers commuting between an elevation of 3,800 m (2-week working shift) and lowland below 1,700 m (2 weeks of holiday). A total of 266 healthy males, aged from 20 to 69 years (mean age 45.9 ± 0.6 years), were included into this study. The duration of intermittent high altitude exposure ranged from 0 to 21 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Nasser K Altorki, Xiaofei Wang, Dennis Wigle, Lin Gu, Gail Darling, Ahmad S Ashrafi, Rodney Landrenau, Daniel Miller, Moishe Liberman, David R Jones, Robert Keenan, Massimo Conti, Gavin Wright, Linda J Veit, Suresh S Ramalingam, Mohamed Kamel, Harvey I Pass, John D Mitchell, Thomas Stinchcombe, Everett Vokes, Leslie J Kohman
BACKGROUND: Increased detection of small-sized, peripheral, non-small-cell lung cancer has renewed interest in sublobar resection instead of lobectomy, the traditional standard of care for early-stage lung cancer. We aimed to assess morbidity and mortality associated with lobar and sublobar resection for early-stage lung cancer. METHODS: CALGB/Alliance 140503 is a multicentre, international, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial in patients with peripheral non-small-cell lung cancer clinically staged as T1aN0...
November 12, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Nyanza K L M Timmers, Rebecca K Stellato, Cornelis K van der Ent, Roderick H J Houwen, Janna W Woestenenk
Pancreatic-insufficient children with cystic fibrosis (CF) receive age-group-specific vitamin D supplementation according to international CF nutritional guidelines. The potential advantageous immunomodulatory effect of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) on pulmonary function (PF) is yet to be established and is complicated by CF-related vitamin D malabsorption. We aimed to assess whether current recommendations are optimal for preventing deficiencies and whether higher serum 25(OH)D levels have long-term beneficial effects on PF...
November 16, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Shengtian Mu, Yina Liu, Jing Jiang, Renyu Ding, Xu Li, Xin Li, Xiaochun Ma
BACKGROUND: Endothelial barrier dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated acute lung injury (ALI). Microtubule (MT) dynamics in vascular endothelium are crucial for the regulation of endothelial barrier function. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) possesses various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory activity and endothelial barrier protection during sepsis. METHODS: Here, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of UFH on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction...
November 15, 2018: Respiratory Research
Sumei Wang, Miao Yu, Xiangchun Zheng, Shangjuan Dong
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be relieved by pharmacological interventions, especially the targeted drug, which is classified into endothelin receptor antagonist, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, prostaglandin I2 , soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator and selective non-prostanoid prostacyclin receptor agonist. To solve the contradictions existing in reported trials and provide a comprehensive guideline for clinical practice. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and were searched. The basic information about the article, trial, arm, intervention, and the detailed data of outcome, including 6 minutes walking distance (6MWD) change, WHO functional class (FC) improvement, Borg dyspnea score (BDS) change, cardiac index (CI) change, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) change, mean right arterial pressure (mRAP) change, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) change, clinical worsening, hospitalization, death, severe adverse events (SAEs), and withdrawal were extracted...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Barbora Nussbaumerová, Hana Rosolová
Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by typical symptoms (e.g. breathlessness, ankle swelling and fatigue) that may be accompanied by signs (e.g. elevated jugular venous pressure, pulmonary crackles and periphe-ral oedema) caused by a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality, resulting in a reduced cardiac output and/or elevated intracardiac pressures at rest or during stress. Natriuretic peptides have a significant nega-tive predictive value for excluding of heart failure. Echocardiography is the most important imaging method in heart failure...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Ekin Karasan, Abubakar Abid, Rebecca J Mieloszyk, Baruch S Krauss, Thomas Heldt, George C Verghese
Capnography records CO2 partial pressure in exhaled breath as a function of time or exhaled volume. Time-based capnography, which is our focus, is a point-of-care, noninvasive, effort-independent and widely available clinical monitoring modality. The generated waveform, or capnogram, reflects the ventilation-perfusion dynamics of the lung, and thus has value in the diagnosis of respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Effective discrimination between normal respiration and obstructive lung disease can be performed using capnogram-derived estimates of respiratory parameters in a simple mechanistic model of CO2 exhalation...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Wei-Ling Chen, Chung-Dann Kan
Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation is a technique to treat narrowed pulmonary valves or leaky pulmonary valves in congenital heart disease. This technique provides a promising strategy to reduce surgical risk. In clinical cases, due to stent size restrictions, commercial valve stents are sometimes unsuitable for children or certain patients. Hence, handmade pulmonary valved conduits prove useful because a customized size can be obtained for valve replacement. We propose a meta-learning-based intelligent model to train an estimator (including two sub-estimators) to determine optimal trileaflet parameters for customized trileaflet valve reconstruction...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
S Iacoponi, C Massaroni, D Lo Presti, P Saccomandi, M A Caponero, R DrAmato, E Schena
In recent years, no-invasive and small size systems are meeting the demand of the new healthcare system, in which the vital signs monitoring is gaining in importance. In this context, Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are becoming very popular and FBG-based systems could be used for monitoring vital signs. At the same time, FBG could be able to sense chemical parameters by the polymer functionalization. The aim of our study was investigating the ability of a polymer-coated FBG-based probe for monitoring breathing patterns and respiratory rates...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Guang Yang, Jun Chen, Zhifan Gao, Heye Zhang, Hao Ni, Elsa Angelini, Raad Mohiaddin, Tom Wong, Jennifer Keegan, David Firmin
Accurate delineation of heart substructures is a prerequisite for abnormality detection, for making quantitative and functional measurements, and for computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning. Late Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiac MRI (LGE-CMRI) is an emerging imaging technology for myocardial infarction or scar detection based on the differences in the volume of residual gadolinium distribution between scar and healthy tissues. While LGE-CMRI is a well-established non-invasive tool for detecting myocardial scar tissues in the ventricles, its application to left atrium (LA) imaging is more challenging due to its very thin wall of the LA and poor quality images, which may be produced because of motion artefacts and low signal-to-noise ratio...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
S Rajaraman, S Candemir, Z Xue, P O Alderson, M Kohli, J Abuya, G R Thoma, S Antani
Chest x-ray (CXR) analysis is a common part of the protocol for confirming active pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB). However, many TB endemic regions are severely resource constrained in radiological services impairing timely detection and treatment. Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) tools can supplement decision-making while simultaneously addressing the gap in expert radiological interpretation during mobile field screening. These tools use hand-engineered and/or convolutional neural networks (CNN) computed image features...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Muhammad Awais Azam, Aeman Shahzadi, Asra Khalid, Syed M Anwar, Usman Naeem
Human breath analysis plays important role for diagnosis and management of pulmonary diseases to guarantee normal health. The critical task is to distinguish normal and abnormal lung sounds. This research work presents a scheme for breath analysis used to detect irregular patterns occurred in respiratory cycles due to respiratory diseases. After de-noising breath segments using wavelet de-noising method, intrinsic mode functions are extracted with complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD). Instantaneous frequency (IF) and instantaneous envelope are extracted to get robust features for classification...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Chenqiu Du, Jun Kang, Wei Yu, Mingqing Chen, Baizhan Li, Hong Liu, Han Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies from epidemiology suggest that ambient temperature is one of the underlying triggers and potential causes of asthma. The aim of this study was to examine the impact and the molecular mechanism of temperature-invoked airway inflammation using an experimental model of asthma in BALB/c mice. METHODS: Mice were exposed to different temperature conditions (steady 26°C, 26°C/18°C cycle, 26°C/10°C cycle) and received sensitization and challenge of ovalbumin (OVA) during a 21-day period...
November 15, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Chengfen Yin, Xinjing Gao, Zhibo Li, Jie Zhang, Lei Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different appropriate modes of weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). METHODS: Patients with AECOPD and mechanically ventilated by orotracheal intubation, suitable for continuous positive airway pressure+proportional pressure support (CPAP+PPS) and CPAP+assisted spontaneous breath (ASB) ventilation mode for weaning from MV, admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Tianjin Third Central Hospital form January 1st, 2016 to December 31st, 2017 were enrolled...
October 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: In the subjects with high cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), The difference of respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function according to supine and sitting position were investigated whether there are changes in the tendency. METHODS: Twenty-three subjects with high cervical SCI and 23 subjects with low cervical and thoracic SCI were evaluated. The reference neurological level of injury for dividing the groups was fifth cervical vertebrae (C5)...
September 15, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Vincenzo Russotto, Sergi Sabaté, Jaume Canet
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pneumonia is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Prediction models of pneumonia that are currently available are based on retrospectively collected data and administrative coding systems. OBJECTIVE: To identify independent variables associated with the occurrence of postoperative pneumonia. DESIGN: A prospective observational study of a multicentre cohort (Prospective Evaluation of a RIsk Score for postoperative pulmonary COmPlications in Europe database)...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Kambez H Benam, Eszter K Vladar, William J Janssen, Christopher M Evans
Respiratory tissues are bombarded by billions of particles daily. If allowed to accumulate, these particles can cause injury, inflammation, or infection, and thus may significantly disrupt airflow and gas exchange. Mucociliary defense, a primary mechanism for protecting host tissues, operates through the coordinated functions of mucus and cilia that trap and eliminate inhaled materials. Mucociliary function is also required for the elimination of endogenous cells and debris. Although defense is necessarily robust, it is also tightly regulated to minimize physiologic disruption of the host...
November 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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