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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221745/bronchoscopy-guided-antimicrobial-therapy-for-cystic-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Kamini Jain, Claire Wainwright, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment of lower respiratory tract infections are the mainstay of management of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. When sputum samples are unavailable, treatment relies mainly on cultures from oropharyngeal specimens; however, there are concerns regarding the sensitivity of these to identify lower respiratory organisms.Bronchoscopy and related procedures (including bronchoalveolar lavage) though invasive, allow the collection of lower respiratory specimens from non-sputum producers...
September 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221703/molecular-pathogenesis-involved-in-human-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-based-on-an-integrated-microrna%C3%A2-mrna-interaction-network
#2
Lijing Wang, Wei Huang, Lemeng Zhang, Qiong Chen, Hongjun Zhao
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is considered to be an ailment of the lungs that cannot be cured, wherein the lung tissues are characterized by increased thickness and stiffness, and/or scars. Despite the fact that extensive success has been achieved regarding the molecular diagnostics and pathobiology, the basic pathogenesis associated with IPF has not yet been fully elucidated and requires further clarification. In the current research, the changes in microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression in IPF were investigated through an integrative network technique...
September 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221137/extracellular-matrix-remodeling-in-human-disease
#3
REVIEW
Hala Salim Sonbol
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a meshwork of proteins and carbohydrates that supports many biological structures and processes, from tissue development and elasticity to preserve the structures of entire organs. In each organ, the composition of the ECM is distinct. It is a remarkably active three-dimensional structure that is continuously undergoing remodeling to regulate tissue homeostasis. This review aims to explain the role of ECM proteins in the remodeling process in different types of disease. The hardening of the ECM (desmoplasia), as well as its manipulation, induction, and impairment in regulation of its composition can play a role in several diseases, examples of which are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, spinal cord injury, progression and metastasis of breast cancer, and neurodegenerative condition in the brain such as Alzheimer's disease...
July 2018: Journal of microscopy and ultrastructure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220648/budesonide-formoterol-mdi-with-co-suspension-delivery-technology-in-copd-the-telos-study
#4
Gary T Ferguson, Alberto Papi, Antonio Anzueto, Edward M Kerwin, Christy Cappelletti, Elizabeth A Duncan, Jack Nyberg, Paul Dorinsky
TELOS compared budesonide (BD)/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (FF) metered dose inhaler (BFF MDI), formulated using innovative co-suspension delivery technology that enables consistent aerosol performance, with its monocomponents and budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate dry powder inhaler (DPI) in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), without a requirement for an exacerbation history.In this phase III, double-blind, parallel-group, 24-week study (NCT02766608), patients were randomised to BFF MDI 320/10 µg (n=664), BFF MDI 160/10 µg (n=649), FF MDI 10 µg (n=648), BD MDI 320 µg (n=209) or open-label budesonide/formoterol DPI 400/12 µg (n=219)...
September 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220345/noninvasive-determination-of-the-pulmonary-artery-input-impedance
#5
Fabijan Lulić, Zdravko Virag, Marko Jakopović, Ivan Korade
A reliable noninvasive method for the estimation of pulmonary function in healthy and diseased subjects should be of great importance in the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Here we propose such a method, which is based on the parameter identification of the five-element Windkessel model of pulmonary circulation. The method requires the following input variables: the heart rate, the stroke volume, the Doppler echocardiographic measurements of the tricuspid regurgitation and the pulmonary valve velocity profiles, and estimations of the right atrium and the pulmonary vein pressure...
November 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220079/remission-of-fibrosis-rage-to-the-rescue
#6
REVIEW
Matthew Alleyn, Mason Breitzig, Richard Lockey, Narasaiah Kolliputi
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by a progressive and permanent decline of lung function that eventually leads to expiry. A study published in 2017 performed by Kumar et al. revealed that the disease may not be as irreversible as was once believed. The research discovered a novel role for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in which it acts as a master regulator for DNA double-strand break repair. In doing so, Kumar et al. may have made a breakthrough that could redefine the translational approaches of IPF...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219680/sinapic-acid-ameliorates-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-rats
#7
Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Abdul Ahad, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea, Altaf Khan, Naushad Ali
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a multifaceted disease with high mortality and morbidity, and it is commonly nonresponsive to conventional therapy. PURPOSE: We explore the possible discourse of sinapic acid (SA) against the prevention of bleomycin (BLM)-instigated lung fibrosis in rats through modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. DESIGN/METHODS: Lung fibrosis was persuaded in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intratracheal BLM (6...
September 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219631/aicardi-gouti%C3%A3-res-syndrome-is-associated-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Laura A Adang, David B Frank, Ahmed Gilani, Asako Takanohashi, Nicole Ulrick, Abigail Collins, Zachary Cross, Csaba Galambos, Guy Helman, Usama Kanaan, Stephanie Keller, Dawn Simon, Omar Sherbini, Brian D Hanna, Adeline L Vanderver
While pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially life threatening complication of many inflammatory conditions, an association between Aicardi Goutières syndrome (AGS), a rare genetic cause of interferon (IFN) overproduction, and the development of PH has not been characterized to date. We analyzed the cardiac function of individuals with AGS enrolled in the Myelin Disorders Bioregistry Project using retrospective chart review (n = 61). Additional prospective echocardiograms were obtained when possible (n = 22)...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219401/impaired-cardiac-reserve-and-abnormal-vascular-load-limit-exercise-capacity-in-chronic-thromboembolic-disease
#9
Mathias Claeys, Guido Claessen, Andre La Gerche, Thibault Petit, Catharina Belge, Bart Meyns, Jan Bogaert, Rik Willems, Piet Claus, Marion Delcroix
OBJECTIVES: This study was a comprehensive evaluation of cardiopulmonary function in patients with chronic thromboembolic (pulmonary vascular) disease (CTED) during exercise. BACKGROUND: Exertional dyspnea is frequent following pulmonary embolism, but only a minority of patients eventually develops chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Better understanding of the factors that limit exercise capacity in patients with persistent pulmonary artery obstruction could help to further define the entity of CTED...
September 6, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219058/differential-effects-of-nintedanib-and-pirfenidone-on-lung-alveolar-epithelial-cell-function-in-ex-vivo-murine-and-human-lung-tissue-cultures-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#10
Mareike Lehmann, Lara Buhl, Hani N Alsafadi, Stephan Klee, Sarah Hermann, Kathrin Mutze, Chiharu Ota, Michael Lindner, Jürgen Behr, Anne Hilgendorff, Darcy E Wagner, Melanie Königshoff
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease. Repetitive injury and reprogramming of the lung epithelium are thought to be critical drivers of disease progression, contributing to fibroblast activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and subsequently loss of lung architecture and function. To date, Pirfenidone and Nintedanib are the only approved drugs known to decelerate disease progression, however, if and how these drugs affect lung epithelial cell function, remains largely unexplored...
September 15, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219039/phenotypic-and-functional-heterogeneity-of-peripheral-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-pulmonary-tb-and-hiv-patients-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#11
Mikias Negash, Aster Tsegaye, Liya Wassie, Rawleigh Howe
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported HIV infection alters the distribution and function of γδ T cells and their subsets. γδ T phenotypes in healthy and diseased individuals has received little attention in Ethiopia. We conducted this study to analyze the distribution of γδ T cells, the subsets and levels of expression of activation (CD38), exhaustion or anergy (CD95, PD1), adhesion (N-CAM/CD56 and CD103), among HIV and TB infected patients. METHOD: The distributions of total γδ T cells, Vδ1 and Vδ2 T cells subsets were analyzed in clinical samples collected from asymptomatic HIV, pulmonary TB patients and apparently healthy controls...
September 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218834/inferior-vena-cava-filter-resulting-in-perforation-and-massive-retroperitoneal-hematoma-presenting-as-acute-onset-of-lower-extremity-weakness
#12
Gregory A Magee, Matthew G Bartley, Anastasia Plotkin, Jeniann A Yi, Natalia O Glebova
Perforation of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter struts is a common incidental finding on postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans that is not associated with bleeding or major complications. However, in rare circumstances it can be associated with hemorrhage requiring immediate removal. We present a case of a 62-year-old man who developed abdominal pain and right lower extremity weakness two weeks after treatment of a pulmonary embolism with IVC filter placement and anticoagulation. A CT scan revealed a large right-sided retroperitoneal hematoma with active extravasation from the IVC filter struts that had perforated the IVC wall...
September 12, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218430/an-intensive-medical-care-network-led-to-successful-living-donor-liver-transplantation-in-late-onset-hepatic-failure-with-disseminated-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#13
Rie Kure, Natsumi Uehara, Kazuaki Inoue, Tomomi Kogiso, Kazuhisa Kodama, Makiko Taniai, Katsutoshi Tokushige, Masayuki Nakano, Hiroto Egawa, Masakazu Yamamoto
Here, we describe a 42-year-old male patient with late-onset hepatic failure (LOHF) due to acute-onset autoimmune hepatitis. At first, his response to steroid therapy was good, but hepatitis relapsed during steroid pulse therapy. Deterioration of liver function caused LOHF, and LOHF has a poor prognosis, particularly when it is complicated by infection. Systemic infection by Staphylococcus aureus resulted in a skin rash and septic pulmonary embolism, and is an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation (LT)...
September 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218288/red-blood-cell-distribution-width-as-a-potential-predictor-of-survival-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-associated-with-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Min Hui, Jiuliang Zhao, Zhuang Tian, Jieying Wang, Junyan Qian, Xiaoxi Yang, Qian Wang, Mengtao Li, Yan Zhao, Xiaofeng Zeng
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe complication and leading cause of mortality in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). This study was to investigate the overall survival rates and the utility of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) as a potential prognostic factor of pSS-PAH. This cohort study retrospectively enrolled 55 patients with pSS-PAH who were followed up at the Department of Rheumatology of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between August 2007 and May 2017. The patients were stratified according to the level of RDW (≤ 15...
September 14, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218155/imaging-features-of-chronic-bronchitis-with-preserved-ratio-and-impaired-spirometry-prism
#15
Xia Wei, Qi Ding, Nan Yu, Jiuyun Mi, Jingting Ren, Jie Li, Shudi Xu, Yanzhong Gao, Youmin Guo
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the quantitative chest tomographic features of chronic bronchitis with preserved ratio and impaired spirometry (PRISm), including airway wall area, emphysema index, and lung capacity. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study of 343 patients at the Ninth Hospital of Xi'an Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University between October 2014 and September 2017. The patients were divided into three groups: 77 cases of chronic bronchitis with normal lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity) (FEV1/FVC > 70%, FEV1%pred > 80%), 80 cases of chronic bronchitis with PRISm (FEV1/FVC > 70%, FEV1%pred < 80%), and 186 cases of the early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FEV1/FVC < 70%, FEV1%pred > 50%, that is, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grade 1 + 2)...
September 14, 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218146/the-effects-of-embryonic-hypoxic-programming-on-cardiovascular-function-and-autonomic-regulation-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-at-rest-and-during-swimming
#16
William Joyce, Tiffany E Miller, Ruth M Elsey, Tobias Wang, Dane A Crossley
Reptilian embryos naturally experience fluctuating oxygen levels in ovo, and developmental hypoxia has been established to have long-term impacts on cardiovascular function in vertebrates. In the present study, we investigated the impact of developmental 21% (normoxia) and 10% O2 (hypoxia) on juvenile (4-year-old) American alligator cardiovascular function in animals at rest and during swimming. In both experimental groups, combined right aortic and right subclavian blood flow approximately doubled during swimming...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217943/n-acetylcysteine-inhalation-improves-pulmonary-function-in-patients-received-liver-transplantation
#17
Xiaoyun Li, Xiaoxia Wei, Chaojin Chen, Zheng Zhang, Dezhao Liu, Ziqing Hei, Weifeng Yao
Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhalation on the incidence of PPCs and the outcomes of patients undergoing OLT is unknown. This prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effect of NAC inhalation during OLT on PPCs. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to the NAC group (n=30) or the control group (n=30) to receive inhaled NAC or sterilized water, respectively, for 30 min before surgery and 3 h after reperfusion...
September 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217724/acute-chronic-and-combined-pulmonary-responses-to-swimming-in-competitive-swimmers
#18
Ömer Faruk Yilmaz, Mustafa Özdal
The combined effects of swimming on the inspiratory muscles and pulmonary functions are not well known. The aim of the present study was to determine the acute, chronic, and combined effects of swimming on the pulmonary functions and respiratory muscles of competitive swimmers. Thirty males (15 in the experimental group [EG] and 15 in the control group [CG]) participated in this study. The EG subjects participated in an 8-week swim training program and performed 1 day before and after an 8-week 100-m swimming event...
September 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217373/usefulness-of-global-longitudinal-strain-for-early-identification-of-subclinical-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-active-cancer
#19
Michal Laufer-Perl, Matthew Derakhshesh, Assi Milwidsky, Liat Mor, Dor Ravid, Nadav Amrami, Jack Sherez, Gad Keren, Yan Topilsky, Yaron Arbel
Cardiotoxicity from cancer therapy has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The most commonly used definition is cancer therapeutic related cardiac dysfunction defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) reduction of >10%, to a value below 50%. However, according to the recent American and European Society of Echocardiography, global longitudinal strain (GLS) is the optimal parameter for early detection of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of GLS reduction in patients with active cancer and its correlation to other echocardiographic parameters...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217322/effects-of-preoperative-combined-aerobic-and-resistance-exercise-training-in-cancer-patients-undergoing-tumour-resection-surgery-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-trials
#20
REVIEW
Elise Piraux, Gilles Caty, Gregory Reychler
BACKGROUND: Surgical management remains the cornerstone of treatment for many cancers, but is associated with a high rate of postoperative complications, which are linked to poor preoperative functional capacity. Prehabilitation may have beneficial effects on functional capacity and postoperative outcomes. We evaluated the effects of prehabilitation combining endurance and resistance training (CT) on physical fitness, quality of life (QoL) and postoperative outcomes in cancer patients undergoing tumour resection surgery...
September 2018: Surgical Oncology
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