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Purinergic signalling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642706/toll-like-receptor-4-modulates-small-intestine-neuromuscular-function-through-nitrergic-and-purinergic-pathways
#1
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Silvia Cerantola, Mona Roozfarakh, Isabella Lante, Francesca Galuppini, Massimo Rugge, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Genny Orso, Maria Cecilia Giron
Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the homeostatic microflora-host crosstalk. TLR4-mediated modulation of both motility and enteric neuronal survival has been reported mainly for colon with limited information on the role of TLR4 in tuning structural and functional integrity of enteric nervous system (ENS) and in controlling small bowel motility. Methods: Male TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-), 9 ± 1 weeks old) and sex- and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639247/p2y1-receptors-properties-and-functional-activities
#2
Jolanta Barańska, Rafał Czajkowski, Paweł Pomorski
In this chapter we try to show a comprehensive image of current knowledge of structure, activity and physiological role of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. The structure, distribution and changes in the expression of this receptor are summarized, as well as the mechanism of its signaling activity by the intracellular calcium mobilization. We try to show the connection between the components of its G protein activation and cellular or physiological effects, starting from changes in protein phosphorylation patterns and ending with such remote effects as receptor-mediated apoptosis...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637679/characterization-of-ectonucleotidase-expression-in-the-rat-carotid-body-regulation-by-chronic-hypoxia
#3
Shaima Salman, Cathy Vollmer, Grant B McClelland, Colin A Nurse
The carotid body (CB) chemoreflex maintains blood PO2 and PCO2/H(+) homeostasis and displays sensory plasticity during exposure to chronic hypoxia. Purinergic signaling via P1 and P2 receptors plays a pivotal role in shaping the afferent discharge at the sensory synapse containing catecholaminergic chemoreceptor (type I) cells, glial-like type II cells, and sensory (petrosal) nerve endings. However, little is known about the family of ectonucleotidases that control synaptic nucleotide levels. Using quantitative PCR (QPCR), we first compared expression levels of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases1,2,3,5,6) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E5'Nt/CD73) mRNAs in juvenile rat CB versus brain, petrosal ganglia, sympathetic (superior cervical) ganglia, and a sympathoadrenal chromaffin (MAH) cell line...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630934/ligand-binding-to-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-captured-in-a-mass-spectrometer
#4
Hsin-Yung Yen, Jonathan T S Hopper, Idlir Liko, Timothy M Allison, Ya Zhu, Dejian Wang, Monika Stegmann, Shabaz Mohammed, Beili Wu, Carol V Robinson
G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors belong to the largest family of membrane-embedded cell surface proteins and are involved in a diverse array of physiological processes. Despite progress in the mass spectrometry of membrane protein complexes, G protein-coupled receptors have remained intractable because of their low yield and instability after extraction from cell membranes. We established conditions in the mass spectrometer that preserve noncovalent ligand binding to the human purinergic receptor P2Y1...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616712/vesicular-nucleotide-transporter-vnut-appearance-of-an-actress-on-the-stage-of-purinergic-signaling
#5
REVIEW
Yoshinori Moriyama, Miki Hiasa, Shohei Sakamoto, Hiroshi Omote, Masatoshi Nomura
Vesicular storage of ATP is one of the processes initiating purinergic chemical transmission. Although an active transport mechanism was postulated to be involved in the processes, a transporter(s) responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP remained unidentified for some time. In 2008, SLC17A9, the last identified member of the solute carrier 17 type I inorganic phosphate transporter family, was found to encode the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) that is responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP...
June 14, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596838/botulinum-neurotoxins-serotypes-a-and-b-induce-paralysis-of-mouse-striated-and-smooth-muscles-with-different-potencies
#6
Jacquie Maignel-Ludop, Marion Huchet, Johannes Krupp
To address the scarcity of direct comparison of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes activity on smooth versus striatal muscle, we have studied the action of BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 on ex vivo preparations of both muscle types. We have set up and characterized a model of neurogenic contractions in the isolated mouse bladder, and used this model to explore the effects of the two serotypes on contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation. Both toxins were also tested in the mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, to compare their potency in smooth versus striated muscle...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588493/p2x4-receptor-function-in-the-nervous-system-and-current-breakthroughs-in-pharmacology
#7
REVIEW
Leanne Stokes, Janice A Layhadi, Lucka Bibic, Kshitija Dhuna, Samuel J Fountain
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate is a well-known extracellular signaling molecule and neurotransmitter known to activate purinergic P2X receptors. Information has been elucidated about the structure and gating of P2X channels following the determination of the crystal structure of P2X4 (zebrafish), however, there is still much to discover regarding the role of this receptor in the central nervous system (CNS). In this review we provide an overview of what is known about P2X4 expression in the CNS and discuss evidence for pathophysiological roles in neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580666/connexins-and-pannexins-at-the-junction-of-neuro-glial-homeostasis-disease
#8
REVIEW
Andrew S Lapato, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
In the central nervous system (CNS), connexin (Cx)s and pannexin (Panx)s are an integral component of homeostatic neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Neuronal Cx gap junctions form electrical synapses across biochemically similar GABAergic networks, allowing rapid and extensive inhibition in response to principle neuron excitation. Glial Cx gap junctions link astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the pan-glial network that is responsible for removing excitotoxic ions and metabolites. In addition, glial gap junctions help constrain excessive excitatory activity in neurons and facilitate astrocyte Ca(2+) slow wave propagation...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572494/erythrocyte-purinergic-signaling-components-underlie-hypoxia-adaptation
#9
Kaiqi Sun, Hong Liu, Anren Song, Jeanne M Manalo, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kirk C Hansen, Rodney E Kellems, Holger K Eltzschig, Michael R Blackburn, Robert C Roach, Yang Xia
Erythrocytes are vital to human adaptation under hypoxic conditions because of their abundance in number and irreplaceable function of delivering oxygen (O2). However, although multiple large-scale altitude studies investigating the overall coordination of the human body for hypoxia adaptation have been conducted, detailed research with a focus on erythrocytes was missing due to lack of proper techniques. The recently maturing metabolomics profiling technology appears to be the answer to this limitation. Metabolomics profiling provides unbiased high-throughput screening data that reveal the overall metabolic status of erythrocytes...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555330/the-p2y1-receptor-mediated-leukocyte-adhesion-to-endothelial-cells-is-inhibited-by-melatonin
#10
Tassya Cataldi Cardoso, Thaís Emanuelle Pompeu, Claudia Lucia Martins Silva
Extracellular ATP (released by endothelial and immune cells) and its metabolite ADP are important pro-inflammatory mediators via the activation of purinergic P2 receptors (P2Y and P2X), which represent potential new targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. Endothelial P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) induces endothelial cell activation triggering leukocyte adhesion. A number of data have implicated melatonin as a modulator of immunity, inflammation, and endothelial cell function, but to date no studies have investigated whether melatonin modulates endothelial P2YR signaling...
May 29, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549259/purinergic-2x7-receptor-activation-regulates-wnt-signaling-in-human-mandibular-derived-osteoblasts
#11
Pimrumpai Rochanakit Sindhavajiva, Panunn Sastravaha, Mansuang Arksornnukit, Prasit Pavasant
OBJECTIVE: Purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) activation modulates in vitro mineralization by primary rat and human osteoblasts. However, the detailed mechanism of how P2X7R activation affects primary human osteoblasts remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of P2X7R activation on human mandibular-derived osteoblast (hMOB) differentiation. DESIGN: Primary human osteoblasts were obtained from non-pathologic mandibular bone from healthy patients...
May 18, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547658/time-of-day-dependent-expression-of-purinergic-receptors-in-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#12
Julian Lommen, Anna Stahr, Marc Ingenwerth, Amira A H Ali, Charlotte von Gall
Purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors are involved in mediating intercellular signalling via purines such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). P2X and P2Y receptors have been implicated in numerous body functions including learning, memory and sleep. All of these body functions show time-of-day-dependent variations controlled by the master circadian oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Evidence exists for a role of purinergic signalling in intercellular coupling within SCN. However, few studies have been performed on the expression of purinergic receptors in SCN...
May 26, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547528/manganese-ii-chloride-alters-nucleotide-and-nucleoside-catabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-adult-brain
#13
Stefani Altenhofen, Débora Dreher Nabinger, Talita Carneiro Brandão Pereira, Carlos Eduardo Leite, Maurício Reis Bogo, Carla Denise Bonan
ATP and adenosine, the main signaling molecules of purinergic system, are involved in toxicological effects induced by metals. The manganese (Mn) exposure induces several cellular changes, which could interfere with signaling pathways, such as the purinergic system. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to manganese(II) chloride (MnCl2) during 96 h on nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, followed by analyzing the gene expression patterns of NTPDases (entpd1, entpd2a...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547381/purinergic-signalling-links-mechanical-breath-profile-and-alveolar-mechanics-with-the-pro-inflammatory-innate-immune-response-causing-ventilation-induced-lung-injury
#14
REVIEW
Djo Hasan, Paul Blankman, Gary F Nieman
Severe pulmonary infection or vigorous cyclic deformation of the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells by mechanical ventilation leads to massive extracellular ATP release. High levels of extracellular ATP saturate the ATP hydrolysis enzymes CD39 and CD73 resulting in persistent high ATP levels despite the conversion to adenosine. Above a certain level, extracellular ATP molecules act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and activate the pro-inflammatory response of the innate immunity through purinergic receptors on the surface of the immune cells...
May 26, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547076/purinergic-signaling-during-intestinal-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Maria Serena Longhi, Alan Moss, Zhenghui Gordon Jiang, Simon C Robson
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a devastating disease that is associated with excessive inflammation in the intestinal tract in genetically susceptible individuals and potentially triggered by microbial dysbiosis. This illness markedly predisposes patients to thrombophilia and chronic debility as well as bowel, lymphatic, and liver cancers. Development of new therapies is needed to re-establish long-term immune tolerance in IBD patients without increasing the risk of opportunistic infections and cancer...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540569/altered-purinergic-signaling-in-uridine-adenosine-tetraphosphate-induced-coronary-relaxation-in-swine-with-metabolic-derangement
#16
Zhichao Zhou, Oana Sorop, Vincent J de Beer, Ilkka Heinonen, Caroline Cheng, A H Jan Danser, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
We previously demonstrated that uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) induces potent and partially endothelium-dependent relaxation in the healthy porcine coronary microvasculature. We subsequently showed that Up4A-induced porcine coronary relaxation was impaired via downregulation of P1 receptors after myocardial infarction. In view of the deleterious effect of metabolic derangement on vascular function, we hypothesized that the coronary vasodilator response to Up4A is impaired in metabolic derangement, and that the involvement of purinergic receptor subtypes and endothelium-derived vasoactive factors (EDVFs) is altered...
May 24, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530470/cd73-controls-extracellular-adenosine-generation-in-the-trigeminal-nociceptive-nerves
#17
X Liu, L Ma, S Zhang, Y Ren, R T Dirksen
Purinergic signaling is involved in pain generation and modulation in the nociceptive sensory nervous system. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) induces pain via activation of ionotropic P2X receptors while adenosine mediates analgesia via activation of metabotropic P1 receptors. These purinergic signaling are determined by ecto-nucleotidases that control ATP degradation and adenosine generation. Using enzymatic histochemistry, we detected ecto-AMPase activity in dental pulp, trigeminal ganglia (TG) neurons, and their nerve fibers...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528728/spontaneous-calcium-waves-in-the-developing-enteric-nervous-system
#18
Marlene M Hao, Annette J Bergner, Caroline S Hirst, Lincon A Stamp, Franca Casagranda, Joel C Bornstein, Werend Boesmans, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Heather M Young
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an extensive network of neurons in the gut wall that arises from neural crest-derived cells. Like other populations of neural crest cells, it is known that enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) influence the behaviour of each other and therefore must communicate. However, little is known about how ENCCs communicate with each other. In this study, we used Ca(2+) imaging to examine communication between ENCCs in the embryonic gut, using mice where ENCCs express a genetically-encoded calcium indicator...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522214/p2-purinergic-receptor-antagonists-disrupt-maternal-behavior-in-lactating-rats
#19
Luciana C Teodoro, Layla D M Cabral, Fabiana C Vilela, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva
The involvement of purinergic signaling in several brain functions has been recognized, but the modulation on maternal behavior by the purinergic system is not established, even though there are functional interactions between the purinergic and oxytocinergic systems. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether central administration of P2 receptor antagonists affected the maternal behavior of lactating rats and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the forebrain. On day 7 of lactation, female rats were treated with vehicle (5μL; i...
July 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521702/role-of-ectonucleotidases-in-the-synapse-formation-during-brain-development-physiological-and-pathological-implications
#20
Ivana Grković, Dunja Drakulić, Jelena Martinović, Nataša Mitrović
Extracellular adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, are among the most recently identified and least investigated diffusible signaling factors that contribute to the structural and functional remodeling of the brain, both during embryonic and postnatal development. Their levels in the extracellular milieu are tightly controlled by various ectonucleotidases: ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPP), alkaline phosphatases (AP), ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN)...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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