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Central aortic pressure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136192/assessing-the-hydration-status-of-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-and-on-dialysis-a-comparison-of-techniques
#1
Caroline S Y Eng, Devina Bhowruth, Mark Mayes, Lynsey Stronach, Michelle Blaauw, Amy Barber, Lesley Rees, Rukshana C Shroff
Background: Fluid balance is pivotal in the management of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and on dialysis. Although many techniques are available to assess fluid status, there are only a few studies for children, of which none have been comparable against cardiovascular outcome measures. Methods: We performed a longitudinal study in 30 children with CKD5-5D and 13 age-matched healthy controls (71 measurements) to determine a correlation between optimal weight by bioimpedance spectroscopy (Wt-BIS) and clinical assessment (Wt-CA)...
November 9, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129735/arterial-stiffness-and-cerebral-hemodynamic-pulsatility-during-cognitive-engagement-in-younger-and-older-adults
#2
Kevin S Heffernan, Jacqueline A Augustine, Wesley K Lefferts, Nicole L Spartano, William E Hughes, Randall S Jorgensen, Brooks B Gump
This study examined central artery stiffness and hemodynamic pulsatility during cognitive engagement in younger and older adults. METHODS: Vascular-hemodynamic measures were completed in 19 younger (age 35±1yrs) and 20 older (age 69±2yrs) adults at rest and during a Stroop task. Aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, PWV) and carotid pulse pressure (PP) were assessed using applanation tonometry. Carotid stiffness was assessed as a single-point PWV using Doppler Ultrasound...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118111/differential-cell-matrix-mechanoadaptations-and-inflammation-drive-regional-propensities-to-aortic-fibrosis-aneurysm-or-dissection-in-hypertension
#3
M R Bersi, R Khosravi, A J Wujciak, D G Harrison, J D Humphrey
The embryonic lineage of intramural cells, microstructural organization of the extracellular matrix, local luminal and wall geometry, and haemodynamic loads vary along the length of the aorta. Yet, it remains unclear why certain diseases manifest differentially along the aorta. Toward this end, myriad animal models provide insight into diverse disease conditions-including fibrosis, aneurysm and dissection-but inherent differences across models impede general interpretations. We examined region-specific cellular, matrix, and biomechanical changes in a single experimental model of hypertension and atherosclerosis, which commonly coexist...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114731/association-of-cardiac-hemodynamic-factors-with-severity-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-chronic-valvular-heart-disease
#4
Woo-Jin Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Young Jin Ryu, Jeong-Min Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Kon Chu, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Jae-Kyu Roh
Importance: The cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is frequently noted in patients with chronic heart disease. Long-term alteration of cardiac hemodynamics might have an influence on the mechanism of cerebral WMH. Objective: To investigate the association between chronically altered cardiac hemodynamics and severity of cerebral WMH in patients with chronic valvular heart disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional analysis identified 303 consecutive patients at a tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2016 who were 50 years or older, and diagnosed with severe chronic valvular heart disease and underwent cardiac catherization, echocardiography, and received brain magnetic resonance imaging...
November 6, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114001/impaired-central-pulsatile-hemodynamics-in-children-and-adolescents-with-marfan-syndrome
#5
Andrea Grillo, Paolo Salvi, Susan Marelli, Lan Gao, Lucia Salvi, Andrea Faini, Giuliana Trifirò, Renzo Carretta, Alessandro Pini, Gianfranco Parati
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is characterized by aortic root dilation, beginning in childhood. Data about aortic pulsatile hemodynamics and stiffness in pediatric age are currently lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 young patients with Marfan syndrome (12.0±3.3 years), carotid tonometry was performed for the measurement of central pulse pressure, pulse pressure amplification, and aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity). Patients underwent an echocardiogram at baseline and at 1 year follow-up and a genetic evaluation...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110304/beta-blockers-for-preventing-aortic-dissection-in-marfan-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Hyun-Kyoung Koo, Kendra Ak Lawrence, Vijaya M Musini
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is a hereditary disorder affecting the connective tissue and is caused by a mutation of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene. It affects multiple systems of the body, most notably the cardiovascular, ocular, skeletal, dural and pulmonary systems. Aortic root dilatation is the most frequent cardiovascular manifestation and its complications, including aortic regurgitation, dissection and rupture are the main cause of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of beta-blocker therapy as compared to placebo, no treatment or surveillance only in people with Marfan syndrome...
November 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101266/a-59-year-old-woman-with-visible-precordial-pulsations
#7
Alastair J Moss, Renzo Pessotto, Andrew D Flapan
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A retired 59-year-old woman presented to the cardiology clinic concerned with cardiac pulsations that were visible on her chest wall. These were not associated with dyspnoea, syncope or chest discomfort.Of note, 8 years previously, she complained of recurrent nocturnal diaphoresis and 5 kg weight loss. Blood sampling at that time revealed a microcytic anaemia, reactive thrombocytosis and raised inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate 99 mm/hour, C-reactive protein 161 mg/L)...
November 3, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094424/fetal-sheep-central-hemodynamics-and-cardiac-function-during-ascending-aorta-occlusion
#8
Heikki Huhta, Juulia Junno, Mervi Haapsamo, Tiina Erkinaro, Pasi Ohtonen, Lowell E Davis, A Roger Hohimer, Ganesh Acharya, Juha Rasanen
Fetal aortic isthmus (AoI) allows communication between left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular outputs and represents arterial watershed between the brachiocephalic (brain) and subdiaphragmatic (placenta) circulations. To understand the capability of AoI to maintain the balance between upper and lower body circulations, we performed a complete fetal ascending aorta occlusion in 9 chronically instrumented sheep at near term gestation. We hypothesized that the occlusion would significantly decrease LV output and concomitantly increase RV output in order to maintain adequate systemic cardiac output and perfusion pressure to the fetal brain circulation through retrograde filling of the AoI...
November 2, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089345/loss-of-female-sex-hormones-exacerbates-cerebrovascular-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-aortic-banded-miniswine-through-a-neuropeptide-y-ca-2-activated-potassium-channel-nitric-oxide-mediated-mechanism
#9
T Dylan Olver, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Todd R Schachtman, Cheryl M Heesch, Paul J Fadel, M Harold Laughlin, Craig A Emter
BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women represent the largest cohort of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and vascular dementia represents the most common form of dementia in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that the combination of cardiac pressure overload (aortic banding [AB]) and the loss of female sex hormones (ovariectomy [OVX]) impairs cerebrovascular control and spatial memory. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female Yucatan miniswine were separated into 4 groups (n=7 per group): (1) control, (2) AB, (3) OVX, and (4) AB-OVX...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084016/validation-of-a-new-piezoelectric-device-for-noninvasive-measurement-of-central-aortic-systolic-blood-pressure
#10
Paula E Cuffaro, Margarita S Morales, Jessica Barochiner, Marcelo A Rada, José Alfie, Lucas S Aparicio, Carlos R Galarza, Rubén G Micali, Marcos J Marin, Gabriel D Waisman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the aortic piezoelectric device for noninvasive measurement of central aortic systolic blood pressure (cSBP) with the SphygmoCor. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 85 participants from both sexes, aged 18-80 years, were stratified into three age groups (<30, 30-60, >60 years), with an equal number of healthy volunteers and hypertensive patients. We performed three cSBP measurements with each device, in an alternate manner, using the Bland-Altman method to determine the level of agreement...
October 27, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075482/fluid-resuscitation-practices-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-in-the-usa-a-survey-of-health-care-providers
#11
Solomon Aronson, Paul Nisbet, Martin Bunke
BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation during cardiac surgery is common with significant variability in clinical practice. Our goal was to investigate current practice patterns of fluid volume expansion in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries in the USA. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 124 cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiovascular anesthesiologists, and perfusionists. Survey questions were designed to assess clinical decision-making patterns of intravenous (IV) fluid utilization in cardiovascular surgery for five types of patients who need volume expansion: (1) patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) without bleeding, (2) patients undergoing CPB with bleeding, (3) patients undergoing acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH), (4) patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or use of a ventricular assist device (VAD), and (5) patients undergoing either off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCABG) surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)...
2017: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073803/the-usefulness-of-a-single-arm-cuff-oscillometric-method-arteriograph-to-assess-changes-in-central-aortic-blood-pressure-and-arterial-stiffness-by-antihypertensive-treatment-results-from-the-doxazosin-ramipril-study
#12
Andreas Jekell, Thomas Kahan
PURPOSE: Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system may have effects on vascular structure and function beyond the effects on blood pressure (BP) reduction. We studied the ability of a single arm cuff oscillometric method (Arteriograph, TensioMed, Hungary) to assess effects of antihypertensive treatment on BP and arterial stiffness. Furthermore, this technique was compared to pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor, AtCor Medical, Australia). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brachial and aortic BP, augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was simultaneously assessed by both techniques in 71 untreated hypertensive patients...
October 26, 2017: Blood Pressure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066444/effect-of-monthly-high-dose-long-term-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-central-blood-pressure-parameters-a-randomized-controlled-trial-substudy
#13
John D Sluyter, Carlos A Camargo, Alistair W Stewart, Debbie Waayer, Carlene M M Lawes, Les Toop, Kay-Tee Khaw, Simon A McG Thom, Bernhard Hametner, Siegfried Wassertheurer, Kim H Parker, Alun D Hughes, Robert Scragg
BACKGROUND: The effects of monthly, high-dose, long-term (≥1-year) vitamin D supplementation on central blood pressure (BP) parameters are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 517 adults (58% male, aged 50-84 years) were recruited into a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial substudy and randomized to receive, for 1.1 years (median; range: 0.9-1.5 years), either (1) vitamin D3 200 000 IU (initial dose) followed 1 month later by monthly 100 000-IU doses (n=256) or (2) placebo monthly (n=261)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060599/low-group-delay-signal-conditioning-for-wearable-central-blood-pressure-monitoring-device
#14
German Fierro, Fernando Silveira, Ricardo Armentano
Pulse transit time (ptt) is a widely researched approach for wearable, unobtrusive, blood pressure monitoring. The estimation of ptt, being a delay measurement, may be affected by the group delay introduced by the signal conditioning chain. In this work a previously reported method for estimating central (aortic) blood pressure from ptt at aortic domain, using ECG R wave and BCG J wave detection, is considered. A simple design approach for the signal conditioning chain, which is suitable for a wearable device and that takes care of minimizing the impact of eventually introduced spurious delays is presented...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060128/acute-effects-of-incremental-exercise-on-central-hemodynamics-in-young-basketball-athletes
#15
Yahui Zhang, Lin Qi, Lisheng Xu, Yang Yao, Wenlong Lv, Chenglin Du
Acute effects of competitive sports on central hemodynamics are controversial. This study was aimed to evaluate acute effects of incremental exercise on central hemodynamics in young basketball athletes during 1-hour recovery. Fifteen young basketball athletes and fifteen controls underwent the acquisition of peripheral and central blood pressure before exercise and at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 min after incremental exercise. The incremental exercise was performed by Bruce test. Aortic systolic pressure (ASP), sub-endocardial viability ratio and stroke volume were significantly higher in athletes at all time points measured before and after exercise (P<;0...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038203/effect-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-weight-loss-or-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-plus-weight-loss-on-central-hemodynamics-and-arterial-stiffness
#16
Snigdha Jain, Indira Gurubhagavatula, Raymond Townsend, Samuel T Kuna, Karen Teff, Thomas A Wadden, Jesse Chittams, Alexandra L Hanlon, Greg Maislin, Hassam Saif, Preston Broderick, Zeshan Ahmad, Allan I Pack, Julio A Chirinos
Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist. Little is known about the effects of obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, or their treatment on central aortic pressures and large artery stiffness. We randomized 139 adults with obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea to (1) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy (n=45), (2) weight loss (WL) therapy (n=48), or (3) combined CPAP and WL (n=46) for 24 weeks. We assessed the effect of these interventions on central pressures and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (a measure of large artery stiffness), measured with arterial tonometry...
October 16, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035941/arterial-stiffness-and-cardiometabolic-phenotype-of-cameroonian-pygmies-and-bantus
#17
William Ngatchou, Daniel Lemogoum, Christian Mélot, Virginie Guimfacq, Philippe van de Borne, Jean Claude Wautrecht, Michel P Hermans, Luc Van Bortel, Marc Leeman
BACKGROUND: Pygmies living in the Central African rainforest with a traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyle have a low incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Because of progressive loss of traditional habitat and ancestral lands, some Pygmies have migrated to urban areas and adopt specific Bantu lifestyles such as increased salt consumption and a sedentary way of life. We tested the hypothesis that migrant Pygmies could present with hemodynamic and metabolic characteristics different from those of traditional in-situ Pygmies and possibly closer to those of Bantu farmers...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031802/extreme-levels-of-ambient-air-pollution-adversely-impact-cardiac-and-central-aortic-hemodynamics-the-aircmd-china-study
#18
Shuo Liu, Robert D Brook, Wei Huang, Zhongjie Fan, Hongbing Xu, Rongshan Wu, Zhichao Sun, Xiaoyi Zhao, Yanping Ruan, Jianhua Yan, Lixian Sun, Ruijuan Liang, Hui Lian, Dongfeng Gu, Sanjay Rajagopalan
Ambient air pollution is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. We performed a panel study on 65 nonsmoking patients with metabolic syndrome, with four repeated clinical visits between 2012 and 2013 in Beijing, China. Cardiac and central aortic hemodynamic parameters were measured by pulse wave analyses as subendocardial viability ratio, ejection duration, and central aortic pressure. We also calculated rate-pressure product parameter and collected peripheral blood for analyses...
November 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029087/the-effect-of-sacubitril-valsartan-compared-to-olmesartan-on-cardiovascular-remodelling-in-subjects-with-essential-hypertension-the-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-active-controlled-study
#19
Roland E Schmieder, Frank Wagner, Michael Mayr, Christian Delles, Christian Ott, Christian Keicher, Maja Hrabak-Paar, Tobias Heye, Solveig Aichner, Yasser Khder, Denise Yates, Diego Albrecht, Thomas Langenickel, Patrick Freyhardt, Rolf Janka, Jens Bremerich
Aims: Progressive aortic stiffening eventually leads to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and heart failure if left untreated. Anti-hypertensive agents have been shown to reverse this to some extent. The effects of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), a dual-action angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and neprilysin inhibitor, on arterial stiffness and LV remodelling have not been investigated. Methods and results: This was a randomized, multi-centre, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, parallel group, study to compare the effects on cardiovascular remodelling of sacubitril/valsartan with those of olmesartan in patients with hypertension and elevated pulse pressure...
September 27, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025900/multiple-coupled-resonances-in-the-human-vascular-tree-refining-the-westerhof-model-of-the-arterial-system
#20
Gerhard Schumacher, Jens J Kaden, Frederik Trinkmann
The human arterial vascular tree can be described by multi-compartment models using electrical components. Being first introduced in the 1960s by Noordergraaf and Westerhof these hardware-based approaches required several simplifications. We were able to remove the restrictions using modern software simulation tools and improve overall model quality considerably. While the original Westerhof model consisted of 121 Windkessel elements, the refined model has 711 elements and gives realistic pulse waveforms of the aorta, brachial and radial arteries with realistic blood pressures...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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