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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644709/pcos-and-diabetes-mellitus-from-insulin-resistance-to-altered-beta-pancreatic-function-a-link-in-evolution
#1
Rosita A Condorelli, Aldo E Calogero, Maurizio Di Mauro, Sandro La Vignera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643455/pathways-governing-development-of-stem-cell-derived-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-lessons-from-embryogenesis
#2
Sara Al-Khawaga, Bushra Memon, Alexandra E Butler, Shahrad Taheri, Abdul B Abou-Samra, Essam M Abdelalim
The loss of functional β cells leads to development of diabetes. Several studies have shown that β cells are specified through several stages of progenitors during pancreas development, each stage defined by the expression of specific transcription factors (TFs). Understanding signalling pathways that control the differentiation and specification processes during embryogenesis will facilitate efforts to obtain functional β cells in vitro. Our current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in pancreatic β cell development and survival under normal or diabetic conditions has come largely from animal studies...
June 22, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642056/can-stem-cells-ameliorate-the-pancreatic-damage-induced-by-streptozotocin-in-rats
#3
Amira Ragab El Barky, Amany Abdel Hamid Ezz, Abeer Abd-Elhameed Alm-Eldeen, Samy Ali Hussein, Yehia Ahmed Hafez, Tarek Mostafa Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy holds great promise for the repair of injured tissues and organs, and it is one of the most promising therapies for diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to elucidate the antidiabetic effect of both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and insulin-producing cells (IPCs) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs were derived from bone marrow of male albino rats. MSCs were characterized morphologically and by Cluster of differentiation (CD(-ve34)) and (CD(+ve105))...
June 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641522/advances-on-ppar%C3%AE-research-in-the-emerging-era-of-precision-medicine
#4
Pinyi Lu, Zhongming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. It regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity, and cellular growth and differentiation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers that function by activating PPARs, with a high specificity for PPARγ. Due to their ability to preserve pancreatic beta cell function and reduce insulin resistance, TZDs have become one of the most prescribed classes of medications for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and initial use in 1997...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639886/a-competing-endogenous-rna-network-identifies-novel-mrna-mirna-and-lncrna-markers-for-the-prognosis-of-diabetic-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Kanyu Yao, Qi Wang, Jianhua Jia, Haiping Zhao
Pancreatic cancer (PaC) is highly associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the mechanisms are insufficient. The study aimed to uncover the underlying regulatory mechanism on diabetic PaC and find novel biomarkers for the disease prognosis. Two RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) datasets, GSE74629 and GSE15932, as well as relevant data in TCGA were utilized. After pretreatment, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) or miRNAs (DEMs) or lncRNAs (DELs) between diabetic PaC and non-diabetic PaC patients were identified, and further examined for their correlations with clinical information...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637794/a-trpv1-to-secretagogin-regulatory-axis-controls-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival-by-modulating-protein-turnover
#6
Katarzyna Malenczyk, Fatima Girach, Edit Szodorai, Petter Storm, Åsa Segerstolpe, Giuseppe Tortoriello, Robert Schnell, Jan Mulder, Roman A Romanov, Erzsébet Borók, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Gábor Szabó, Rickard Sandberg, Stefan Kubicek, Gert Lubec, Tomas Hökfelt, Ludwig Wagner, Leif Groop, Tibor Harkany
Ca(2+)-sensor proteins are generally implicated in insulin release through SNARE interactions. Here, secretagogin, whose expression in human pancreatic islets correlates with their insulin content and the incidence of type 2 diabetes, is shown to orchestrate an unexpectedly distinct mechanism. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals retained expression of the TRP family members in β-cells from diabetic donors. Amongst these, pharmacological probing identifies Ca(2+)-permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels (TRPV1) as potent inducers of secretagogin expression through recruitment of Sp1 transcription factors...
June 21, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635562/nanoformulated-natural-therapeutics-for-management-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-potential-use-of-curcumin-nanoformulation
#7
Yousra M El-Far, Mahmoud M Zakaria, Mahmoud M Gabr, Amal M El Gayar, Laila A Eissa, Ibrahim M El-Sherbiny
AIM: The goal of this study was to improve curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility and bioavailability via nanoformulation, and then study its activity and mechanism of action as an antidiabetic agent. METHODS: CUR-loaded pluronic nanomicelles (CURnp) were prepared and characterized. Biochemical assessments were performed as well as histological, confocal and RTPCR studies on pancreatic target tissues. RESULTS: CURnp with a diameter of 333 ± 6 nm and ζ potential of -26...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634594/pancreatic-cancer-heralded-by-worsening-glycemic-control-a-report-of-two-cases
#8
Dimpi Desai, Devika Rao, Vineeth Sukrithan, Eleanor Weinstein, Akankasha Goyal, Ulrich Schubart
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Since it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, its prognosis remains poor. The initial presentation varies according to the tumor location. The most common presenting signs are weight loss, jaundice, and pain. Several epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies over the past 2 decades have shown that long-standing diabetes is a modest risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, new-onset diabetes has also been observed to be an early manifestation of pancreatic cancer...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634585/high-plasma-glucagon-levels-correlate-with-waist-to-hip-ratio-suprailiac-skinfold-thickness-and-deep-subcutaneous-abdominal-and-intraperitoneal-adipose-tissue-depots-in-nonobese-asian-indian-males-with-type-2-diabetes-in-north-india
#9
Shajith Anoop, Anoop Misra, Surya Prakash Bhatt, Seema Gulati, Harsh Mahajan, Gokulraj Prabakaran
We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (n = 81; BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) with T2DM of less than one-year duration and nonobese males without diabetes (n = 30) were evaluated for the following: anthropometry (BMI, waist circumference, W-HR, and truncal skinfolds), whole-body DEXA (for body fat and fat-free mass), and MRI scan (for volumes of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) including superficial and deep, intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (including intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT), retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver span and fatty liver, and pancreatic volume))...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634486/%C3%AE-cell-replacement-strategies-the-increasing-need-for-a-%C3%AE-cell-dogma
#10
REVIEW
Andhira Vieira, Noémie Druelle, Fabio Avolio, Tiziana Napolitano, Sergi Navarro-Sanz, Serena Silvano, Patrick Collombat
Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease resulting in the loss of pancreatic β-cells and, consequently, in chronic hyperglycemia. Insulin supplementation allows diabetic patients to control their glycaemia quite efficiently, but treated patients still display an overall shortened life expectancy and an altered quality of life as compared to their healthy counterparts. In this context and due to the ever increasing number of diabetics, establishing alternative therapies has become a crucial research goal. Most current efforts therefore aim at generating fully functional insulin-secreting β-like cells using multiple approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633420/pancreas-fat-and-beta-cell-mass-in-humans-with-and-without-diabetes-an-analysis-in-the-japanese-population
#11
Rie Murakami, Yoshifumi Saisho, Yuusuke Watanabe, Jun Inaishi, Tami Tsuchiya, Kinsei Kou, Seiji Sato, Minoru Kitago, Yuko Kitagawa, Taketo Yamada, Hiroshi Itoh
Context: The mechanisms by which beta cell mass is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remain unclear. It has been postulated that ectopic fat deposits in the pancreas induce beta cell apoptosis, leading to the development of diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of intra-pancreatic fat on beta and alpha cell mass in humans with and without diabetes. Design, Subjects and Methods: Using our tissue database, pancreas sections of 72 Japanese non-diabetic (NDM) autopsy cases and 50 diabetic (DM) and 49 age- and BMI-matched NDM patients who underwent pancreatic surgery were analyzed...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632818/benefits-of-islet-transplantation-as-an-alternative-to-pancreas-transplantation-retrospective-study-of-more-than-10-ten-years-of-experience-in-a-single-center
#12
Barbora Voglová, Martina Zahradnická, Peter Girman, Jan Kríž, Zuzana Berková, Tomáš Koblas, Ema Vávrová, Lenka Németová, Lucie Kosinová, David Habart, Eva Fábryová, Eva Dovolilová, Ivan Leontovyc, Tomáš Neškudla, Jan Peregrin, Jozef Kovác, Kvetoslav Lipár, Matej Kocík, Tomáš Marada, Jirí Svoboda, František Saudek
BACKGROUND: Pancreas transplantation (PTx) represents the method of choice in type 1 diabetic patients with conservatively intractable hypoglycemia unawareness syndrome. In 2005, the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKEM) launched a program to investigate the safety potential of islet transplantation (ITx) in comparison to PTx. AIM: This study aims to compare the results of PTx and ITx regarding severe hypoglycemia elimination, metabolic control, and complication rate...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632450/combinations-of-activin-a-or-nicotinamide-with-the-pancreatic-transcription-factor-pdx1-support-differentiation-of-human-amnion-epithelial-cells-toward-a-pancreatic-lineage
#13
Shruti Balaji, Yu Zhou, Emmanuel C Opara, Shay Soker
The differentiation of multipotent stem cells toward a pancreatic lineage provides us with an alternative cell-based therapeutic approach to type 1 diabetes and enables us to study pancreas development. The current study aims to study the effect of growth factors such as activin A or nicotinamide, alone and in combinations with the transcription factor, PDX1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1), on human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) toward a pancreatic lineage. Ectopic expression of Pdx1 followed by treatment of hAECs with nicotinamide for 4 days resulted in strong induction of pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic progenitor genes, including NKX6...
June 20, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631500/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival-and-proliferation-are-promoted-by-protein-kinase-g-type-i%C3%AE-and-downstream-regulation-of-akt-foxo1
#14
Janica C Wong, Van Vo, Priyatham Gorjala, Ronald R Fiscus
Early studies showed nitric oxide as a pro-inflammatory-cytokine-induced toxin involved in pancreatic β-cell destruction during pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes. However, nitric oxide has both cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects on mammalian cells, depending on concentration and micro-environmental surroundings. Our studies have shown that low/physiological-level nitric oxide selectively activates protein kinase G type Iα isoform, promoting cytoprotective/pro-cell-survival effects in many cell types. In bone marrow-derived stromal/mesenchymal stem cells, protein kinase G type Iα mediates autocrine effects of nitric oxide and atrial natriuretic peptide, promoting DNA-synthesis/proliferation and cell survival...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631216/safety-and-tolerability-of-empagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-pooled-analysis-of-phase-i-iii-clinical-trials
#15
Sven Kohler, Cordula Zeller, Hristo Iliev, Stefan Kaspers
INTRODUCTION: We characterized the safety and tolerability of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg, or empagliflozin 25 mg in clinical trials. METHODS: Pooled data were analyzed from patients with T2DM treated with placebo (N = 4203), empagliflozin 10 mg (N = 4221), or empagliflozin 25 mg (N = 4196) in 15 randomized phase I-III trials plus four extension studies. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed descriptively in participants who took at least one dose of study drug...
June 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630926/vasculogenic-hydrogel-enhances-islet-survival-engraftment-and-function-in-leading-extrahepatic-sites
#16
Jessica D Weaver, Devon M Headen, Jahizreal Aquart, Christopher T Johnson, Lonnie D Shea, Haval Shirwan, Andrés J García
Islet transplantation is a promising alternative therapy for insulin-dependent patients, with the potential to eliminate life-threatening hypoglycemic episodes and secondary complications of long-term diabetes. However, widespread application of this therapy has been limited by inadequate graft function and longevity, in part due to the loss of up to 60% of the graft in the hostile intrahepatic transplant site. We report a proteolytically degradable synthetic hydrogel, functionalized with vasculogenic factors for localized delivery, engineered to deliver islet grafts to extrahepatic transplant sites via in situ gelation under physiological conditions...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630246/ominous-triad-triggered-by-high-dose-glucocorticosteroid-therapy
#17
Sarah Bär, Fritz Daudel, Thomas Zueger
Glucocorticosteroids (CS) play a key role in the treatment of numerous diseases. Nonetheless, they can be accompanied by several adverse effects. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who was treated with high-dose CS for a relapse of her multiple sclerosis. After 5 days of treatment, the patient developed severe diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis-a potentially life-threatening triad which has previously been described, in our case, however, for the first time as a complication of CS therapy...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628651/the-density-of-parasympathetic-axons-is-reduced-in-the-exocrine-pancreas-of-individuals-recently-diagnosed-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Marcus Lundberg, Andreas Lindqvist, Nils Wierup, Lars Krogvold, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen, Oskar Skog
To elucidate the etiology of type 1 diabetes, the affected pancreas needs to be thoroughly characterized. Pancreatic innervation has been suggested to be involved in the pathology of the disease and a reduction of sympathetic innervation of the islets was recently reported. In the present study, we hypothesized that parasympathetic innervation would be altered in the type 1 diabetes pancreas. Human pancreatic specimens were obtained from a unique cohort of individuals with recent onset or long standing type 1 diabetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627773/oleanolic-acid-derivative-dks26-exerts-antidiabetic-and-hepatoprotective-effects-in-diabetic-mice-and-promotes-glp-1-secretion-and-expression-in-intestinal-cells
#19
Fei-Fei Chen, Jian-Ta Wang, Li-Xia Zhang, Shu-Fang Xing, Yun-Xia Wang, Kai Wang, Shu-Li Deng, Ji-Quan Zhang, Lei Tang, Hao-Shu Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an important target for diabetes therapy based on its key role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study was designed to investigate antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effects of novel oleanolic acid derivative DKS26 in diabetic mice and elucidate its underlying GLP-1 related antidiabetic mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The therapeutic effects of DKS26 were inspected in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced and db/db diabetic mouse models including levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated serum protein (GSP), lipid profiles, insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), oral glucose tolerance (OGT), pancreatic islets and hepatic histopathological morphology, liver lipid levels and expression of pro-inflammation cytokines...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627654/bioinformatics-analysis-of-transcription-profiling-of-solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas
#20
Yongping Zhang, Xu Han, Hao Wu, Yifeng Zhou
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a low-grade malignant neoplasm that accounts for ~5% of cystic pancreatic tumors and ~0.9‑2.7% of exocrine pancreatic tumors. The transcription profiling data (GSE43795) of 14 SPN and 6 control samples were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Using the Limma package, Student's t‑tests were performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between SPN and control samples [with the following criterion: False discovery rate (FDR)<0...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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