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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792697/association-of-type-2-diabetes-with-submicron-titanium-dioxide-crystals-in-the-pancreas
#1
Adam Heller, Karalee Jarvis, Sheryl S Coffman
Pigment-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) of 200-300 nm particle diameter is one of the most widely used submicron-sized particle materials. Inhaled and ingested TiO2 particles are known to enter the bloodstream, to be phagocytized by macrophages and neutrophils, to be inflammatory, and to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. In this pilot study of 11 pancreatic specimens, 8 of the type 2 diabetic pancreas and 3 of the non-diabetic pancreas, we show that 110±70 nm average diameter TiO2 crystals abound in the type 2 diabetic pancreas, but not in the non-diabetic pancreas...
May 24, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792541/interaction-of-low-frequency-external-electric-fields-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-a-mathematical-modeling-approach-to-identify-the-influence-of-excitation-parameters
#2
Sajjad Farashi, Pezhman Sasanpour, Hashem Rafii-Tabar
Purpose-Although the effect of electromagnetic fields on biological systems has attracted attraction in recent years, there has not been any conclusive result concerning the effects of interaction and the underlying mechanisms involved. Besides the complexity of biological systems, the parameters of the applied electromagnetic field have not been estimated in most of the experiments. Material and Method-In this study, we have used computational approach in order to find the excitation parameters of an external electric field which produces sensible effects in the function of insulin secretory machinery, whose failure triggers the diabetes disease...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792143/recent-updates-on-novel-approaches-in-insulin-drug-delivery-a-review-of-challenges-and-pharmaceutical-implications
#3
Manisha Pandey, Hira Choudhury, Cheah Xiao Yi, Chen Wei Mun, Goh Khang Ping, Guee Xin Rou, Bhalqish Jeet Kaur A/P Ambar Jeet Singh, Angel Ng Ann Jhee, Lee Kai Chin, Prashant Kesharwani, Bapi Gorain, Zahid Hussain
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism, is mainly associated with insulin resistance to the body cells, or impaired production of insulin by the pancreatic β-cells. Insulin is mainly required to regulate glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients; however, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus also require insulin, especially when their condition cannot be controlled solely by oral hypoglycemic agents. Hence, major researches are ongoing attempting to improve the delivery of insulin in order to make it more convenient to patients who experience side effects from the conventional treatment procedure or non-adherence to insulin regimen due to multiple comorbid conditions...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792023/fern-9-11-ene-2%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-diol-action-on-insulin-secretion-in-hyperglycemic-conditions
#4
Allisson Jhonatan Gomes Castro, Luisa Helena Cazarolli, Gabrielle Da Luz, Delsi Altenhofen, Hemily Batista Da Silva, Francieli Kanumfre Carvalho, Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti, Fátima Rmb Silva
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect and the mechanism of action of fernenediol as insulin secretagogue. Wistar rats were treated with 0.1; 1 and 10 mg/kg fernenediol and then induced hyperglycemia by oral glucose. The glycaemia, insulin, LDH, calcium and hepatic glycogen were analyzed. Considering the intestine and pancreas as targets for the triterpene action, the duodenum was used to verify the influence of fernenediol on intestinal glycosidases. Additionally, pancreatic islets were used for studies of 14 C-deoxyglucose uptake and influx of 45 Ca2+ in hyperglycemic medium with/without fernenediol in the presence/absence of an inhibitor/activator of KATP channels, glibenclamide, diazoxide, nifedipine, calcium chelator (BAPTA- AM) and H-89 and ST the inhibitors of the PKA and PKC enzymes...
May 24, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791774/serotonergic-regulation-of-insulin-secretion
#5
REVIEW
Luis Rodrigo Cataldo Bascuñan, Claire Lyons, Hedvig Bennet, Isabella Artner, Malin Fex
The exact physiological role for the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) in modulation of insulin secretion is yet to be fully understood. Although the presence of this monoamine in islets of Langerhans is well established, it is only with recent advances that the complex signaling network in islets involving 5-HT is being unraveled. With more than fourteen different 5-HT receptors expressed in human islets, and receptor independent mechanisms in insulin producing β-cells, our understanding of 5-HT's regulation of insulin secretion is increasing...
May 23, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790274/polymer-scafffolds-for-pancreatic-islet-transplantion-progress-and-challenges
#6
Alexandra M Smink, Bart J de Haan, Jonathan R T Lakey, Paul de Vos
Pancreatic-islet transplantation is a safe and non-invasive therapy for Type 1 diabetes. However, the currently applied site for transplantation, i.e. the liver, is not the most optimal site for islet survival. Since the human body has shortcomings in providing an optimal site, artificial transplantation sites have been proposed. Such an artificial site could consist of a polymeric scaffold that mimics the pancreatic microenvironment and supports islet function. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in the technology of engineering scaffolds...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789944/the-association-between-age-at-menarche-and-later-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-is-mediated-by-insulin-resistance
#7
Clive J Petry, Ken K Ong, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, David B Dunger
AIMS: Associations have been reported between age at menarche and the later risk of gestational diabetes. However, it is not known whether these associations reflect differences in insulin sensitivity and/or pancreatic β-cell function in pregnancy. METHODS: We examined this question in women enrolled in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study who recalled their age at menarche in questionnaires during pregnancy. Polynomial logistic and linear regression models were used to relate menarche timing to the risk of gestational diabetes, both unadjusted and adjusted for the Homeostasis Model Assessments of insulin resistance (HOMA IR) and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA B) at week 28 of pregnancy...
May 22, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787616/efficacy-and-safety-of-saxagliptin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Peng Men, Xiao-Tong Li, Hui-Lin Tang, Suo-di Zhai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of saxagliptin for type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and two Chinese databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing saxagliptin with placebo or active comparators was performed up to July 2017. A complementary search was done to cover literature until March 2018. For continuous data, estimates were pooled using inverse variance methodology to calculate weighted mean differences (WMDs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787520/early-tlr4-blockade-attenuates-sterile-inflammation-mediated-stress-in-islets-during-isolation-and-promotes-successful-transplant-outcomes
#9
Charles A Chang, Kayla Murphy, Robert R Kane, Michael Lawrence, Bashoo Naziruddin
BACKGROUND: During the isolation process, pancreatic islets are exposed to an environment of sterile inflammation resulting in an upregulated inflammatory state prior to transplantation. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as a major mediator of sterile inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether early TLR4 blockade would be effective in reducing the inflammatory burden in islets pretransplant. METHODS: Islets from C57BL/6 mice were treated with a TLR4 antagonist during the pancreatic ductal perfusion and digestion steps of the isolation process...
May 22, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787378/larval-hemolymph-of-rhinoceros-beetle-allomyrina-dichotoma-enhances-insulin-secretion-through-atf3-gene-expression-in-ins-1-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#10
Seung-Whan Kim, Hyun-Woo Suh, Bo-Kyung Yoo, Kisang Kwon, Kweon Yu, Ji-Young Choi, O-Yu Kwon
In this study, we show that INS-1 pancreatic β-cells treated for 2 h with hemolymph of larvae of rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, secreted about twice as much insulin compared to control cells without such treatment. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was the highest upregulated gene in DNA chip analysis. The A. dichotoma hemolymph dose-dependently induced increased expression levels of genes encoding ATF3 and insulin. Conversely, treatment with ATF3 siRNA inhibited expression levels of both genes and curbed insulin secretion...
May 22, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785241/an-in-vivo-zebrafish-model-for-interrogating-ros-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-injury-response-and-prevention
#11
Abhishek A Kulkarni, Abass M Conteh, Cody A Sorrell, Anjali Mirmira, Sarah A Tersey, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann, Ryan M Anderson
It is well known that a chronic state of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic β -cells impairs their ability to release insulin in response to elevated plasma glucose. Moreover, at its extreme, unmitigated ROS drives regulated cell death. This dysfunctional state of ROS buildup can result both from genetic predisposition and environmental factors such as obesity and overnutrition. Importantly, excessive ROS buildup may underlie metabolic pathologies such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The ability to monitor ROS dynamics in β -cells in situ and to manipulate it via genetic, pharmacological, and environmental means would accelerate the development of novel therapeutics that could abate this pathology...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784651/immune-recognition-of-%C3%AE-cells-neoepitopes-as-key-players-in-the-loss-of-tolerance
#12
Eddie A James, Massimo Pietropaolo, Mark J Mamula
Prior to the onset of type 1 diabetes, there is progressive loss of immune self-tolerance, evidenced by the accumulation of islet autoantibodies and emergence of autoreactive T cells. Continued autoimmune activity leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin secretion. Studies of samples from patients with type 1 diabetes and of murine disease models have generated important insights about genetic and environmental factors that contribute to susceptibility and immune pathways that are important for pathogenesis...
June 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782007/intraportal-transplantation-of-pancreatic-islets-in-mouse-model
#13
Rahul Khatri, Birte Hussmann, Divya Rawat, Ali Osman Gürol, Thomas Linn
Pancreatic islet transplantation to reduce hyperglycemia is highly successful in rodents with chemically-induced diabetes. The most common transplantation site in experimental islet transplantation is the kidney capsule. However, as less is known about the interaction of pancreatic islets with blood constituents, it also makes sense to utilize the portal vein approach in experimental islet transplantation. This protocol demonstrates an intraportal islet transplantation technique in NMRI nude mice. Streptozotocin (180 mg/kg) is injected intraperitoneally to induce hyperglycemia in recipient mice...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781752/streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats-effects-of-white-butterfly-clerodendrum-volubile-leaves-on-blood-glucose-levels-lipid-profile-and-antioxidant-status
#14
Olorunfemi R Molehin, Omotade I Oloyede, Stephen A Adefegha
White Butterfly (Clerodendrum volubile) leaf is commonly used in traditional medicine for the management of various diseases including diabetes without the full understanding of the scientific basis for its use. This study sought to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effect of Clerodendrum volubile leaves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of C. volubile was prepared and its effect assessed on relevant enzymes associated with diabetes. Fifty Male Wistar rats were randomly separated into ten groups each containing five rats...
May 21, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780260/efficacy-and-safety-profile-of-once-weekly-dulaglutide-in-type-2-diabetes-a-report-on-the-emerging-new-data
#15
REVIEW
Anne J Kugler, Michael L Thiman
Dulaglutide is a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, which has been on the market in the USA since 2014. Dulaglutide has performed well in head-to-head studies against metformin, glargine, and sitagliptin, where its A1c lowering ranged from -0.78% to -1.64% over 52-104 weeks, and it consistently outperformed each of these agents. As an add-on therapy, dulaglutide provided additional A1c lowering of -1.4% to -1.44% over monotherapy with glimepiride or glargine at 24 and 28 weeks, respectively...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779868/new-onset-diabetes-after-pancreatoduodenectomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Lianne Scholten, Timothy H Mungroop, Simone A L Haijtink, Yama Issa, L Bengt van Rijssen, Bas Groot Koerkamp, Casper H van Eijck, Olivier R Busch, J Hans DeVries, Marc G Besselink
BACKGROUND: Pancreatoduodenectomy may lead to new-onset diabetes mellitus, also known as type 3c diabetes, but the exact risk of this complication is unknown. The aim of this review was to assess the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus after pancreatoduodenectomy. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase (Ovid), and the Cochrane Library for English articles published from March 1993 until March 2017 (PROSPERO registry number: CRD42016039784)...
May 17, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779830/exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-do-we-need-to-treat-it-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Gábor Zsóri, Dóra Illés, Viktória Terzin, Emese Ivány, László Czakó
The exocrine and endocrine pancreata are very closely linked both anatomically and physiologically. Abdominal symptoms such as nausea, bloating, diarrhea, steatorrhea, and weight loss can often occur in diabetic patients. Impairments of the exocrine pancreatic function seem to be a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus; however, they are largely overlooked. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current concepts of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (PEI) in diabetes mellitus. The prevalence and symptoms of PEI in diabetes mellitus, the pathomechanism, and difficulties of diagnosis and therapy of PEI are summarized in this systematic review...
May 17, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779190/therapeutic-strategies-for-modulating-the-extracellular-matrix-to-improve-pancreatic-islet-function-and-survival-after-transplantation
#18
REVIEW
Alexandra M Smink, Paul de Vos
PURPOSES OF REVIEW: Extracellular matrix (ECM) components modulate the interaction between pancreatic islet cells. During the islet isolation prior to transplantation as treatment for type 1 diabetes, the ECM is disrupted impacting functional graft survival. Recently, strategies for restoring ECM have shown to improve transplantation outcomes. This review discusses the current therapeutic strategies to modulate ECM components to improve islet engraftment. RECENT FINDINGS: Approaches applied are seeding islets in ECM of decellularized organs, supplementation of specific ECM components in polymeric scaffolds or immunoisolating capsules, and stimulating islet ECM production with specific growth factors or ECM-producing cells...
May 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779043/glis1-3-transcription-factors-critical-roles-in-the-regulation-of-multiple-physiological-processes-and-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Anton M Jetten
Krüppel-like zinc finger proteins form one of the largest families of transcription factors. They function as key regulators of embryonic development and a wide range of other physiological processes, and are implicated in a variety of pathologies. GLI-similar 1-3 (GLIS1-3) constitute a subfamily of Krüppel-like zinc finger proteins that act either as activators or repressors of gene transcription. GLIS3 plays a critical role in the regulation of multiple biological processes and is a key regulator of pancreatic β cell generation and maturation, insulin gene expression, thyroid hormone biosynthesis, spermatogenesis, and the maintenance of normal kidney functions...
May 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778021/the-homing-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-subsequent-modulation-of-macrophage-polarization-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#20
Yaqi Yin, Haojie Hao, Yu Cheng, Jieqing Gao, Jiejie Liu, Zongyan Xie, Qi Zhang, Li Zang, Weidong Han, Yiming Mu
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs), with both immunomodulatory and pro-regenerative properties, are promising for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As efficient cell therapy largely relies on appropriate homing to target tissues, knowing where and to what extent injected UC-MSCs have homed is critically important. However, bio-distribution data for UC-MSCs in T2DM subjects are extremely limited. Beneficial effects of UC-MSCs on T2DM subjects are associated with increased M2 macrophages, but no systemic evaluation of M2 macrophages has been performed in T2DM individuals...
May 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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