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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108832/beat-by-beat-assessment-of-cardiac-afterload-using-descending-aortic-velocity-pressure-loop-during-general-anesthesia-a-pilot-study
#1
Fabrice Vallée, Arthur Le Gall, Jona Joachim, Olivier Passouant, Joaquim Matéo, Arnaud Mari, Sandrine Millasseau, Alexandre Mebazaa, Etienne Gayat
Continuous cardiac afterload evaluation could represent a useful tool during general anesthesia (GA) to titrate vasopressor effect. Using beat to beat descending aortic pressure(P)/flow velocity(U) loop obtained from esophageal Doppler and femoral pressure signals might allow to track afterload changes. Methods We defined three angles characterizing the PU loop (alpha, beta and Global After-Load Angle (GALA)). Augmentation index (AIx) and total arterial compliance (Ctot) were measured via radial tonometry. Peripheral Vascular Resistances (PVR) were also calculated...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106664/ethnic-differences-regarding-arterial-stiffness-of-6-8-year-old-black-and-white-boys
#2
Gontse G Mokwatsi, Aletta E Schutte, Ruan Kruger
OBJECTIVES: Vascular deterioration is suggested to occur earlier in black than white populations, thereby increasing their risk for developing hypertension. To establish whether this is the case, we compared different estimates of arterial stiffness in black and white children and investigated the links with body composition and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as potential contributors. METHODS: We included 40 black and 41 white boys (aged 6-8 years) from similar schools and measured arterial stiffness [pulse wave velocity (PWV) in different arterial sections, systemic arterial compliance and carotid stiffness estimates], anthropometry as well as urinary pentosidine as a marker of AGEs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100923/reductions-in-central-arterial-compliance-with-age-are-related-to-sympathetic-vasoconstrictor-nerve-activity-in-healthy-men
#3
Hirofumi Tanaka, Frank A Dinenno, Douglas R Seals
The compliance of large elastic arteries in the cardiothoracic circulation declines, whereas sympathetic nervous system activity increases markedly with advancing age in adult humans. We tested the hypothesis that the reduction in compliance of the large elastic arteries with age is associated with elevations in sympathetic tone to vascular smooth muscle in 16 young and 17 older adults. Carotid arterial compliance (via ultrasonography) was 45% lower in healthy older compared with young men (P<0.001), and was inversely related to sympathetic nerve activity (via microneurography) (r=-0...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096935/practical-first-line-management-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-community-practice
#4
REVIEW
Henry Conter
Sunitinib is an oral receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targets signalling by vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). The standard sunitinib dosing schedule for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is 50 mg for four weeks (28 days) of treatment, followed by a two-week (14-day) break from treatment (four/two schedule). However, this schedule is associated with toxicities that can limit the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and impede treatment compliance. Given the generally incurable nature of mRCC and the toxicity associated with therapy, treatment strategies should focus on achieving long-term response, preserving HRQOL, and minimizing treatment-related toxicity...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090301/pulmonary-pulse-wave-transit-time-is-associated-with-right-ventricular-pulmonary-artery-coupling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
Kurt W Prins, E Kenneth Weir, Stephen L Archer, Jeremy Markowitz, Lauren Rose, Marc Pritzker, Richard Madlon-Kay, Thenappan Thenappan
Pulmonary pulse wave transit time (pPTT), defined as the time for the systolic pressure pulse wave to travel from the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary veins, has been reported to be reduced in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, the underlying mechanism of reduced pPTT is unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that abbreviated pPTT in PAH results from impaired right ventricular-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) coupling. We quantified pPTT using pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound from 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls and 36 patients with PAH...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070018/curcumin-supplementation-improves-vascular-endothelial-function-in-healthy-middle-aged-and-older-adults-by-increasing-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-and-reducing-oxidative-stress
#6
Jessica R Santos-Parker, Talia R Strahler, Candace J Bassett, Nina Z Bispham, Michel B Chonchol, Douglas R Seals
We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0...
January 3, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063459/cardiac-remodeling-following-reperfused-acute-myocardial-infarction-is-linked-to-the-concomitant-evolution-of-vascular-function-as-assessed-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#7
Olivier Huttin, Damien Mandry, Romain Eschalier, Lin Zhang, Emilien Micard, Freddy Odille, Marine Beaumont, Renaud Fay, Jacques Felblinger, Edoardo Camenzind, Faïez Zannad, Nicolas Girerd, Pierre Y Marie
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) remodeling following acute myocardial infarction (MI) is difficult to predict at an individual level although a possible interfering role of vascular function has yet to be considered to date. This study aimed to determine the extent to which this LV remodeling is influenced by the concomitant evolution of vascular function and LV loading conditions, as assessed by phase-contrast Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) of the ascending aorta. METHODS: CMR was performed in 121 patients, 2-4 days after reperfusion of a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 6 months thereafter...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062508/arterial-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus-preclinical-models-and-translational-implications
#8
John N Stabley, Dwight A Towler
Diabetes mellitus increasingly afflicts our aging and dysmetabolic population. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the antecedent metabolic syndrome represent the vast majority of the disease burden-increasingly prevalent in children and older adults. However, type 1 diabetes mellitus is also advancing in preadolescent children. As such, a crushing wave of cardiometabolic disease burden now faces our society. Arteriosclerotic calcification is increased in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and type 1 diabetes mellitus-impairing conduit vessel compliance and function, thereby increasing the risk for dementia, stroke, heart attack, limb ischemia, renal insufficiency, and lower extremity amputation...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042341/anti-angiogenic-nanotherapy-inhibits-airway-remodeling-and-hyper-responsiveness-of-dust-mite-triggered-asthma-in-the-brown-norway-rat
#9
Gregory M Lanza, John Jenkins, Anne H Schmieder, Aigul Moldobaeva, Grace Cui, Huiying Zhang, Xiaoxia Yang, Qiong Zhong, Jochen Keupp, Ismail Sergin, Krishna S Paranandi, Lindsey Eldridge, John S Allen, Todd Williams, Michael J Scott, Babak Razani, Elizabeth M Wagner
Although angiogenesis is a hallmark feature of asthmatic inflammatory responses, therapeutic anti-angiogenesis interventions have received little attention. Objective: Assess the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic Sn2 lipase-labile prodrugs delivered via αvβ3-micellar nanotherapy to suppress microvascular expansion, bronchial remodeling, and airway hyper-responsiveness in Brown Norway rats exposed to serial house dust mite (HDM) inhalation challenges. Results: Anti-neovascular effectiveness of αvβ3-mixed micelles incorporating docetaxel-prodrug (Dxtl-PD) or fumagillin-prodrug (Fum-PD) were shown to robustly suppress neovascular expansion (p<0...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039898/response-of-arterial-stiffness-four-weeks-ater-terminating-short-term-aerobic-exercise-training-in-a-sedentary-lifestyle
#10
Murat Baykara, Adnan Demirel, İhsan Yavuzatmaca, Mehmet Bilgen
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of arterial stiffness in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle at 4 weeks after terminating a 2-week aerobic exercise session. METHODS: Arterial stiffness was evaluated in 38 participants before starting and after completing a prescribed aerobic exercise program and also at 4 weeks after returning back to their sedentary lifestyle. Parameters regarding arterial compliance, distensibility, wall stress, and the elastic modulus were estimated from the information gained from sonography on the dimensions of carotid and femoral arteries and a sphygmomanometer on the pulse pressure...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038405/comprehensive-mechanical-characterization-of-pla-fabric-combined-with-pcl-to-form-a-composite-structure-vascular-graft
#11
Chaojing Li, Fujun Wang, Graeham Douglas, Ze Zhang, Robert Guidoin, Lu Wang
Vascular grafts made by tissue engineering processes are prone to buckling and twisting, which can impede blood flow and lead to collapse of the vessel. These vascular conduits may suffer not only from insufficient tensile strength, but also from vulnerabilities related to compression, torsion, and pulsatile pressurization. Aiming to develop a tissue engineering-inspired blood conduit, composite vascular graft (cVG) prototypes were created by combining a flexible polylactic acid (PLA) knitted fabric with a soft polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018834/detailed-measurement-of-wall-strain-with-3d-speckle-tracking-in-the-aortic-root-a-case-of-bionic-support-for-clinical-decision-making
#12
Sebastian Vogt, Konstantinos Karatolios, Andreas Wittek, Christopher Blasé, Anette Ramaswamy, Nikolas Mirow, Rainer Moosdorf
Three-dimensional (3D) wall motion tracking (WMT) based on ultrasound imaging enables estimation of aortic wall motion and deformation. It provides insights into changes in vascular compliance and vessel wall properties essential for understanding the pathogenesis and progression of aortic diseases. In this report, we employed the novel 3D WMT analysis on the ascending aorta aneurysm (AA) to estimate local aortic wall motion and strain in case of a patient scheduled for replacement of the aortic root. Although progression of the diameter indicates surgical therapy, at present we addressed the question for optimal surgical time point...
December 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009782/prolonged-evlp-using-ocs-lung-cellular-and-acellular-perfusates
#13
Gabriel Loor, Brian T Howard, John R Spratt, Lars M Mattison, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Roland Z Brown, Tinen L Iles, Carolyn M Meyer, Haylie Helms, Andrew Price, Paul A Iaizzo
BACKGROUND: We report the ability to extend lung preservation up to 24 hours (24H) by using autologous whole donor blood circulating within an ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) system. This approach facilitates donor lung reconditioning in a model of extended normothermic EVLP. We analyzed comparative responses to cellular and acellular perfusates to identify these benefits. METHODS: Twelve pairs of swine lungs were retrieved after cardiac arrest and studied for 24H on the Organ Care System (OCS) Lung EVLP platform...
December 22, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009731/combining-systems-and-teamwork-approaches-to-enhance-the-effectiveness-of-safety-improvement-interventions-in-surgery-the-safer-delivery-of-surgical-services-s3-program
#14
Peter McCulloch, Lauren Morgan, Steve New, Ken Catchpole, Eleanor Roberston, Mohammed Hadi, Sharon Pickering, Gary Collins, Damian Griffin
IMPORTANCE: Patient safety improvement interventions usually address either work systems or team culture. We do not know which is more effective, or whether combining approaches is beneficial. OBJECTIVE: To compare improvement in surgical team performance after interventions addressing teamwork culture, work systems, or both. DESIGN: Suite of 5 identical controlled before-after intervention studies, with preplanned analysis of pooled data for indirect comparisons of strategies...
January 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993561/loss-of-smooth-muscle-cell-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase-17-transiently-suppresses-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-and-end-organ-damage
#15
Mengcheng Shen, Jude Morton, Sandra T Davidge, Zamaneh Kassiri
Hypertension is associated with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is a membrane-bound enzyme reported to mediate SMC hypertrophy through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We investigated the role of ADAM17 in Ang II-induced hypertension and end-organ damage. VSMC was isolated from mice with intact ADAM17 expression (Adam17(f/f)) or lacking ADAM17 in the SMC (Adam17(f/f)/Cre(Sm22)). Human VSMCs were isolated from the aorta of donors, and ADAM17 deletion was achieved by siRNA transfection...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990791/the-role-of-carbon-adsorbent-in-the-conservative-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Toshimitsu Niwa
Indoxyl sulfate is a uremic toxin, and cannot be removed efficiently by hemodialysis due to its protein-binding. Indoxyl sulfate induces cellular dysfunction by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor through its uptake via organic anion transporters (OAT1 and OAT3). Indoxyl sulfate shows toxic effects on a variety of cells such as renal proximal tubular cells, glomerular mesangial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, monocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and myocytes...
December 16, 2016: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969937/tct-568-acute-mechanical-effects-of-stent-implantation-and-late-biological-vascular-healing-relationship-to-baseline-plaque-morphology-and-compliance
#17
Micheli Galon, Audrey Schnell, Guilherme Attizzani, Hiram Bezerra, Pedro Lemos, Abdulla Damluji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966109/renal-ultrasound-and-doppler-sonography-in-hypertension-an-update
#18
Maria Boddi
Ultrasound (US) allows the non-invasive evaluation of morphological changes of kidney structure (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of renal and extrarenal vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US). In hypertensive subjects it offers a relevant contribution to the diagnosis of early renal damage, acute or chronic nephropathies and nephrovascular disease. However, morphological changes are often detected late and non-specific and in recent years evidence has increased regarding the clinical relevance of renal resistive index (RRI) for the study of vascular and renal parenchymal renal abnormalities...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943622/uncertainty-quantification-of-inflow-boundary-condition-and-proximal-arterial-stiffness-coupled-effect-on-pulse-wave-propagation-in-a-vascular-network
#19
Antoine Brault, Laurent Dumas, Didier Lucor
This work aims at quantifying the effect of inherent uncertainties from cardiac output on the sensitivity of a human compliant arterial network response based on stochastic simulations of a reduced-order pulse wave propagation model. A simple pulsatile output form is utilized to reproduce the most relevant cardiac features with a minimum number of parameters associated with left ventricle dynamics. Another source of significant uncertainty is the spatial heterogeneity of the aortic compliance which plays a key role in the propagation and damping of pulse waves generated at each cardiac cycle...
December 10, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941369/pulmonary-arterial-compliance-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-clinical-determinants-and-association-with-outcome-from-the-fluid-and-catheter-treatment-trial-cohort
#20
Thomas S Metkus, Emmanouil Tampakakis, Christopher J Mullin, Brian A Houston, Todd M Kolb, Stephen C Mathai, Rachel Damico, Bradley A Maron, Paul M Hassoun, Roy G Brower, Ryan J Tedford
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary vascular dysfunction is associated with adverse prognosis in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome; however, the prognostic impact of pulmonary arterial compliance in acute respiratory distress syndrome is not established. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 363 subjects with acute respiratory distress syndrome who had complete baseline right heart catheterization data from the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial to test whether pulmonary arterial compliance at baseline and over the course of treatment predicted mortality...
December 9, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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