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(Intracranial OR cerebral) AND (athersclerosis OR stenosis OR occlusion)

Xiaoqiang Zhang, Hao Ma, Lin Li, Junjie Zou, Yuanyong Jiao, Xiwei Zhang, Hongyu Yang
OBJECTIVE: High grade stenoses of the common carotid artery (CCA) are rare and represent a therapeutic dilemma for the treating physician. Endovascular treatment through antegrade access has been proposed as a less invasive treatment option. The aim of this study is to review the existing literature on such procedure. METHODS: A meta-analysis of all studies reporting on endovascular treatment for the treatment of CCA was performed. RESULT: Six studies, including 227 patients were identified...
November 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Zhiyong Zhai, Juan Feng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential effects of left versus right cerebral hemisphere on the infarct volume and behavioral function following focal cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in the right-handed rats by filament insertion for 1.5 hr, and then reperfusion was established according to Zea-Longa method. A total of 36 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a left MCAO group or a right MCAO group...
November 19, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Kuo-Jen Wu, Seong-Jin Yu, Chia-Wen Chiang, Yu-Wei Lee, B Linju Yen, Chun-Sen Hsu, Li-Wei Kuo, Yun Wang
Increasing evidence have supported that Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cell (WJ-MSCs) have immunomodulatory and protective effects against several diseases including kidney, liver pathologies, and heart injury. Few in vitro studies have reported that WJ-MSCs reduced inflammation in hippocampal slices after oxygen-glucose deprivation. We recently reported the neuroprotective effects of human WJ-MSCs (hWJ-MSCs) in rats exposed to a transient right middle cerebral artery occlusion. hWJ-MSCs transplantation significantly reduced brain infarction and microglia activation in the penumbra leading with a significant reduction of neurological deficits...
July 2018: Brain Circulation
Chih-Fan Yeh, Shyang-Rong Shih, Mao-Shin Lin, Hung-Yuan Li, Yin-Hsien Chen, Ching-Chang Huang, Chi-Sheng Hung, Hsien-Li Kao
Background: Brain ischemia may affect hypothalamic-pituitary axis function, which may influence the outcomes of patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis/occlusion. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of successful carotid revascularization on pituitary function in patients with severe ICA stenosis/occlusion. Methods: This study was conducted from April 2009 to December 2014. Patients receiving successful endovascular interventions for severe ICA stenosis/occlusion were enrolled...
November 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Kazuhiko Higuchi, Hirotoshi Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Miyairi
A severely calcified ascending aorta increases the risk of perioperative cerebral damage in cardiac surgery. Conventional aortic valve replacement using an external aortic cross clamp may be dangerous in patients with this morbidity. We used an intra-aortic balloon occlusion catheter(IABOC)to minimize risks of aortic valve replacement(AVR) in an 81-year-old man with severe aortic stenosis combined with a severely calcified aorta. IABOC was introduced to the ascending aorta via the right femoral artery by esophageal echocardiography...
November 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Gorka Zabalo San Juan, Alfonso Vázquez Míguez, Idoya Zazpe Cenoz, Ainhoa Casajús Ortega, Mariate García Campos, Daniel de Frutos Marcos, Juan Carlos García Romero
Depressed fractures that occur on the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) cause stenosis or thrombosis of the sinus in 11.5% of cases. Despite this, the appearance of signs and symptoms derived from high intracranial pressure is an infrequent event. So far, only 17 cases of venous sinus injury causing intracranial hypertension have been documented. It is necessary to establish treatment immediately before clinical suspicion. Surgical treatment by craniectomy is a fast, effective and safe alternative according to the series...
November 15, 2018: Neurocirugía
Chin Lik Tan, Gopinathan Anil, Tseng Tsai Yeo, Ning Chou
BACKGROUND: Bihemispheric posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is a rare anatomical variant, wherein a single PICA supplies both cerebellar hemispheres. Being the only PICA, treatment of aneurysms arising from this anatomical variant is more complex. We present a case of a ruptured bihemispheric PICA aneurysm and the challenges encountered in its management. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 54-year-old man presented with giddiness and nausea. Otherwise, he was neurologically intact...
November 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
He He, Qing Zeng, Guozhi Huang, Yiqiu Lin, Hongxin Lin, Wei Liu, Pengcheng Lu
Although cerebral ischemia itself is associated with a high rate of disability, secondary cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury following recanalization is associated with much more severe outcomes. The mechanisms underlying cerebral I/R injury are complex, involving neuronal death caused by apoptosis and autophagy. Autophagy is critical for cell survival and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral I/R injury. Research has indicated that transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is effective in repairing and reconstructing brain tissue, and that this effect may be associated with the regulation of autophagy...
November 15, 2018: Brain Research
Ching-Chang Chen, Young Dae Cho, Dong Hyun Yoo, Jusun Moon, Jeongjun Lee, Hyun-Seung Kang, Jeong Eun Kim, Won-Sang Cho, Moon Hee Han
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiply occurring intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) have been documented but rarely occur, and neither pathogenesis nor prognosis is clearly understood. This study was conducted to analyze angiographic characteristics of multiple dAVFs and to chronicle our treatment experience. METHODS: Between April, 2002 and January, 2018, data prospectively collected from 310 patients with intracranial dAVFs were systematically reviewed, assessing clinical and anatomic outcomes of endovascular treatment in 32 patients with multiple dAVFs (≥2 fistulas each)...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
L Martín-Aguilar, M Hernández-Pérez, A Planas, J Broto, C Llibre, E Fernández-Nofrerias, C Castaño, S Remollo, J L Subirats, L Dorado, M Millán
Ischemic stroke is the most common neurological complication of cardiac catheterization resulting in a high morbidity and mortality. We present a 44-year-old man admitted for vasospastic angina that suffered a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion after a cardiac catheterization. Mechanical thrombectomy was indicated and complete arterial recanalization was achieved. The material obtained showed a fragment of a healthy artery. Partial radial endarterectomy and cerebral embolization may be a rare complication of cardiac catheterization...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
P Brandicourt, C Blanc, L Bonnet, Y Béjot, F Ricolfi, C Drouet, T Moulin, L Thines
INTRODUCTION: Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) is a progressive steno-occlusive disease of the distal internal carotid arteries mainly described in Asia. It induces the development of collateral vascular networks to reduce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Symptoms depend on the patient's age in Asia: children are at greater risk of transient or constituted ischemic events, whereas adults are more exposed to hemorrhagic stroke. Data from the literature seem to show that the pattern of MMA in western countries differs from that in Asia...
November 14, 2018: Revue Neurologique
Shiquan Wang, Yuheng Li, Jinlong Wei, Pei Li, Qianzi Yang
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane preconditioning induces brain ischemic tolerance, but the mechanism remains poorly elucidated. Nitration is an important form of post-translational modification in pathological signaling. This study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) nitration in neuroprotection effect induced by sevoflurane preconditioning in a transient stroke model in rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were preconditioned with 2% sevoflurane or vehicle oxygen exposure, 1 h per day, for 5 consecutive days...
November 17, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Wei Zuo, Zhenyu Liu, Feng Yan, Dan Mei, Xiaomin Hu, Bo Zhang
Exposure to hyperglycemia after cerebral ischemia exacerbates cerebral damage; however, little is known regarding the mechanism. In this study, we focused on the relationship between post-ischemic hyperglycemia and mitochondrial homeostasis at the early stage of ischemia (within the 6h clinical therapeutic window for thrombolysis). Permanent cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) for 1, 3, and 6h. We first elucidated the role of post-ischemic hyperglycemia on mitochondria-mediated injury by testing reactive oxygen species generation, cyt-c release, and caspase-3 activation...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jennifer Saunders, Helen L Carlson, Filomeno Cortese, Bradley G Goodyear, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke causes lifelong disability, particularly hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) are large, cortical, and subcortical injuries acquired near birth due to acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Periventricular venous infarctions (PVI) are smaller, subcortical strokes acquired prior to 34 weeks gestation involving injury to the periventricular white matter. Both stroke types can damage motor pathways, thus, we investigated resulting alterations in functional motor networks and probed function...
November 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ali Harati, Stefan Rohde, Dominik Zeh, Paul Oni, Kirsten Schmieder, Juha Hernesniemi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to determine the association of vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) and other anatomical variants with saccular vertebral artery posterior inferior cerebellar artery (VA-PICA) aneurysms. METHODS: The prevalence of VAH, vertebral artery (VA) atresia, VA aplasia, and PICA aplasia was analyzed using CT angiography in 64 patients with VA-PICA aneurysms (43 ruptured and 21 unruptured) and compared to 128 age- and sex-matched controls...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jun Zeng, Wei Wei
We presented a 39-year-old female patient with life-threatening hypoxemia after tricuspid valve replacement because of Ebstein's anomaly. And the severe cyanosis is due to bioprosthetic valve stenosis and atrial septal defect. Anesthetic management of a patient with severe obstructive prosthetic valve dysfunction can be challenging. Similar considerations should be given to patients with Ebstein's anomaly to maintain the pressure equalized between the right and left atrial. Transesophageal echocardiography and cerebral oxygen saturation provided real time information in perioperative care...
November 13, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Judianne Davis, Feng Xu, Joshua Hatfield, Hedok Lee, Michael D Hoos, Dominique Popescu, Elliot Crooks, Regina Kim, Steven O Smith, John K Robinson, Helene Benveniste, William E Van Nostrand
Accumulation of fibrillar amyloid β protein in blood vessels of the brain, a condition known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is a common pathology of elderly individuals, a prominent comorbidity of Alzheimer disease, and a driver of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. Although several transgenic mouse strains have been generated that develop varying levels of CAA, consistent models of associated cerebral microhemorrhage and vasculopathy observed clinically have been lacking. Reliable preclinical animal models of CAA and microhemorrhage are needed to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of this condition...
November 10, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Ivo S Muskens, Omar Hertgers, Geert J Lycklama À Nijeholt, Marike L D Broekman, Wouter A Moojen
BACKGROUND: Long-term results from the International Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Trial (ISAT) and Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) indicate considerably higher retreatment rates for aneurysms treated with coiling compared to clipping, but do not report the outcome of retreatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retreatment related outcomes. METHODS: A meta-analysis in accordance with PRISMA guidelines was conducted using Medline search engines PubMed and EMBASE to identify articles describing outcomes after retreatment for intracranial aneurysms...
November 16, 2018: Neurosurgery
Xu Zhang, Hai-Hua Zhao, Dan Li, Hong-Peng Li
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleave almost all components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cause acute neurovascular disruption and parenchymal destruction. Previously, MMPs inhibition was considered to be a therapeutic strategy in early stages of ischemia. This study was designed to investigate whether early MMPs inhibition could promote the recovery of cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h and reperfusion. The rats were divided into three groups: sham + vehicle (S + V) group, MCAO + vehicle (M + V) group, and MCAO + GM6001 (M + G) group...
November 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Yu-Xi Zhou, Xin Wang, Dan Tang, Yan Li, Ying-Fu Jiao, Yu Gan, Xiao-Ming Hu, Li-Qun Yang, Wei-Feng Yu, Ruth Anne Stetler, Pei-Ying Li, Da-Xiang Wen
AIMS: Demyelination, one of the major pathological changes of white matter injury, is closely related to T-cell-mediated immune responses. Thus, we investigate the role of an IL-2 monoclonal antibody (IL-2mAb, JES6-1) in combatting demyelination during the late phase of stroke. METHODS: IL-2mAb or IgG isotype antibody (0.25 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 2 and 48 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery. Infarct volume, peripheral immune cell infiltration, microglia activation, and myelin loss were measured by 2,3,5-triphenyte trazoliumchloride staining, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry, and Western blot...
November 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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