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(Intracranial OR cerebral) AND (athersclerosis OR stenosis OR occlusion)

C Liu, L Zhong, X-L Tian, Y-C Han
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of 8-MOP on the blood-brain barrier in mice model of cerebral infarction and the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established to induce permanent cerebral infarction. The neurological function was observed and scored by the modified longa score method after model establishment. Besides, the water content of brain tissue was measured by the standard dry weight method. Evans blue exudation rate was used to evaluate the effect of 8-MOP on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Anne Sebastiani, Frederik Greve, Christina Gölz, Carola Y Förster, Hermann Koepsell, Serge C Thal
Acute cerebral lesions are associated with dysregulation of brain glucose homeostasis. Previous studies showed that knockdown of Na+ -D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 impaired outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion and that widely expressed intracellular RS1 (RSC1A1) is involved in transcriptional and posttranslational downregulation of SGLT1. In the present study, we investigated whether SGLT1 is upregulated during traumatic brain injury (TBI) and whether removal of RS1 in mice (RS1-KO) influences SGLT1 expression and outcome...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Salma A El-Marasy, Rehab F Abdel-Rahman, Reham M Abd-Elsalam
Stroke is the leading cause of death worldwide. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of anti-diabetic drugs for treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, independent of its anti-diabetic properties in non-diabetic rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Anesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to either left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham operation followed by reperfusion after 30 min of MCAO...
July 18, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Artemis Matsou, Chrysanthos Symeonidis, Maria Dermenoudi, Vasileios Sachpekidis
A 65-year-old woman presented with sudden bilateral visual loss of recent onset. She was recently diagnosed with multiple acute stroke syndrome for which she was commenced on antiplatelet therapy. Funduscopic examination revealed bilateral inferotemporal retinal artery occlusions. The recent history of multiple cerebral infarcts combined with the current ocular findings prompted a transoesophageal echocardiogram which successfully revealed caseous calcification of the mitral valve annulus as the source of the numerous sequential emboli, a finding which the conventional transthoracic echocardiogram had failed to disclose as a result of suboptimal image quality...
July 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Hongxue Sun, Di Zhong, Cheng Wang, Yilei Sun, Jiaying Zhao, Guozhong Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study investigated the role of the microRNA miR-298 and its target Act1 in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed with the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry, and mRNA and protein expression were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The regulatory relationship between miR-298 and Act1 was evaluated with the luciferase assay...
July 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Silun Wang, Yonggang Li, Ramesh Paudyal, Byron D Ford, Xiaodong Zhang
Stroke is a devastating neurovascular disorder that results in damage to neurons and white matter tracts. It has been previously demonstrated that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) protects neurons from ischemic injury following stroke. Here, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was utilized to characterize the effects of NRG-1 treatment on cererbral infarction and integrity of white matter after ischemic insult using a permanent middle celebral artery occlusion (pMCAo) rat model. In the present study, sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats underwent pMCAo surgery and received either a single intra-arterial bolus (20 μg/kg) dose of NRG-1 or saline immediately prior to pMCAo...
July 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Connor Howe, Saswat Mishra, Yun-Soung Kim, Yanfei Chen, Sang-Ho Ye, William R Wagner, Jae-Woong Jeong, Hun-Soo Byun, Jong-Hoon Kim, Youngjae Chun, Woon-Hong Yeo
Random weakening of an intracranial blood vessel results in abnormal blood flow into an aneurysmal sac. Recent advancements show that an implantable flow diverter, integrated with a medical stent, enables a highly effective treatment of cerebral aneurysms by guiding blood flow into the normal vessel path. None of such treatment systems, however, offers post-treatment monitoring to assess the progress of sac occlusion. Therefore, physicians rely heavily on either angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Both methods require a dedicated facility with sophisticated equipment settings and time-consuming, cumbersome procedures...
July 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Chuanjie Wu, Wenbo Zhao, Hong An, Longfei Wu, Jian Chen, Mohammed Hussain, Yuchuan Ding, Chuanhui Li, Wenjing Wei, Jiangang Duan, Chunmei Wang, Qi Yang, Di Wu, Liqiang Liu, Xunming Ji
This is a prospective non-randomized cohort study of 113 consecutive patients to investigate the safety and efficacy of a short-duration intraarterial selective cooling infusion (IA-SCI) targeted into an ischemic territory combined with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in patients with large vessel occlusion-induced acute ischemic stroke (AIS); 45/113 patients underwent IA-SCI with 350 ml 0.9% saline at 4℃ for 15 min at the discretion of the interventionalist. Key parameters such as vital signs and key laboratory values, symptomatic and any intracranial hemorrhage, coagulation abnormalities, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and mortality were not significantly different between the two groups...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Brunelli da Ros Peruch, Brenna Lepaus Monteiro, Rafaela Aires, Cristina Martins E Silva, Marco Cesar Cunegundes Guimaraes, Elisardo Corral Vasquez, Breno Valentim Nogueira
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of severe and long-term disability in adult individuals. Treatment of this disease is limited by the narrow therapeutic window in which intervention is crucial. An alternative therapy for stroke could be cellular growth factors, which participate in several pathways that mediate neuronal cell death. METHODS: We evaluated the neuroprotective ability of different doses of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg/day) in the mouse model of global cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 80 minutes...
July 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Yanhua Qin, Weiming Hu, Yang Yang, Zhiying Hu, Weiyun Li, Marong Fang
Aberrant production of nitric oxide following inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression has been implicated in cell death and contributes to ischemic brain injury. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of NOS activity. Herein, we evaluated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), a guanosine 5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO) and investigated the underlying mechanism...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Rui Lan, Yong Zhang, Tao Wu, Yun-Zhi Ma, Bao-Qi Wang, Hai-Zhong Zheng, Ya-Na Li, Yan Wang, Chun-Qing Gu, Ji-Tao Wu
We investigated whether Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction reduced mitophagy activation and kept mitochondrial function in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham, ischemia and reperfusion (IR), IR plus XXMD (60 g/kg/day) (XXMD60), IR plus cyclosporin A (10 mg/kg/day) (CsA), and IR plus vehicle (Vehicle). Focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion models were induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cerebral infarct areas were measured by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Nan Li, Lingling Feng, Yujun Tan, Yan Xiang, Ruoqi Zhang, Ming Yang
The dry root of Scutellaria baicalensis , has traditionally been applied in the treatment of cerebral ischemia in Chinese clinics. Baicalin (BA) is considered the key ingredient in it for the brain protection effects. The bioavailability of BA is very low because of its poor lipid and water solubility, which limits the therapeutic effects and clinical application. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel BA-loaded liposome (BA-LP) formulation to improve the drug lipophilicity and further to enhance the drug-concentration in the brain tissues...
July 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sangheon Kim, Hyo Sung Kwak, Seung Bae Hwang, Gyung-Ho Chung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early detection of intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) in the carotid artery is important as it is correlated with an increased risk of cerebral ischemic events. We examined changes in IPH with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over an extended follow-up period in patients with mild carotid stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2013 to November 2015, we retrospectively reviewed cerebral MRI of 2036 patients, including magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences obtained with a 3...
August 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Nan Zhang, Hongyi Zhu, Song Han, Leiming Sui, Junfa Li
Conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)γ and synapsin Ia/b have been implicated in the development of ischemic stroke, but their relationships and functions are unclear. In the present study, the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced ischemic insult in primary cultured cortical neurons in vitro and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke model in vivo were used to elucidate the function of cPKCγ and its modulation on synapsin Ia/b phosphorylation in ischemic stroke. We found that cPKCγ knockout significantly increased the infarct volume of mice after 1 h MCAO/72 h reperfusion by using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Xueying Yu, Guihong Wang, Jiong Zhan, Zaiqiang Zhang, Tao Feng, Jun Xu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The risk factors of cerebral large artery disease (carotid atherosclerosis) have been well recognized, but not of small artery disease, especially leukoaraiosis. In this study, we investigated the risk factors of pure leukoaraiosis (without stroke), and the association with preclinical carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS: Data from 384 subjects with leukoaraiosis and 379 controls with normal cerebral parenchyma were collected at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital from 1 January, 2009 to 31 December, 2015...
June 20, 2018: Atherosclerosis
István Gacsályi, Krisztina Móricz, Gábor Gigler, Katalin Megyeri, Patricia Machado, Ferenc A Antoni
This study examined the potential of the selective extra-synaptic α5-GABAA receptor inhibitor S44819 (Egis-13529) to improve cognitive performance in preclinical models of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Chronic hypoperfusion of the brain in mice was induced by permanent occlusion of the right common carotid artery (rUCO). rUCO induced impairments of cognitive function in the object recognition test (OR) and the rewarded T-maze (RTM). In both tests, a single oral treatment with S44819 (OR - 0.1-3mg/kg, RTM - 1-3mg/kg p...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Roberto Rodriguez Rubio, Vera Vigo, Rina Di Bonaventura, Adib A Abla
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the trigeminal root entry zone are rare and can be associated with neurovascular compression syndromes as well as intracranial hemorrhage.1 They generally have a small nidus located on and around the pial surface of the brainstem; thus, they are feasible for surgery. Nevertheless, they represent a challenge given the vicinity and involvement of cranial nerves and brainstem perforators.2-4This video demonstrates the case of a 57-yr-old man with new onset of a severe headache without neurological deficit associated with MRI evidence of a vascular malformation around the cisternal right trigeminal nerve...
July 13, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Mersedeh Bahr Hosseini, Graham Woolf, Latisha K Sharma, Jason D Hinman, Neal M Rao, Bryan Yoo, Reza Jahan, Sidney Starkman, May Nour, Radoslav Raychev, David S Liebeskind, Jeffrey L Saver
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endovascular therapy (ET) has become the standard of care for selected patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). However, many LVO or medium vessel occlusion (MVO) patients are ineligible for ET, including some who harbor salvageable tissues. To develop complementary therapies for these patients, it is important to delineate their prevalence, clinical features, and outcomes. METHODS: In a prospectively maintained database, we reviewed consecutive AIS patients between December 2015 and September 2016...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Jonghoon Kim, Chulhoon Chang, Young Jin Jung
BACKGROUND: Endovascular coiling has emerged as an option for the management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, which was traditionally treated via surgical clipping. Unlike aneurysms elsewhere, aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) have several features that are favorable for surgery. However, endovascular treatment can be difficult for MCA aneurysms, especially if they have incorporated branches. We report the results of coil embolization of incorporated MCA aneurysms. METHODS: From 2012 to 2017, 129 unruptured aneurysms including 10 incorporated MCA aneurysms were treated...
July 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Makoto Katsuno, Eitaro Ishisaka, Kiyotaka Toyota, Kazutsune Kawasaki, Izumi Inaba
BACKGROUND: Although it is well-known that vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) because of atherothrombosis with bilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion is resistant to medical treatment from the acute to subacute stages, the most appropriate treatment for progressive infarction at these stages remains unclear. Here, we described a patient with VBI who underwent emergency superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery (STA-SCA) bypass under partial mastoidectomy after confirming mismatch between diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings and clinical symptoms...
July 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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