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N-acetylaspartate AND glutamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414127/striatal-neurometabolite-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-undergoing-long-term-antipsychotic-treatment-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-reliability-study
#1
Eric Plitman, Sofia Chavez, Shinichiro Nakajima, Yusuke Iwata, Jun Ku Chung, Fernando Caravaggio, Julia Kim, Youssef Alshehri, M Mallar Chakravarty, Vincenzo De Luca, Gary Remington, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies have reported disrupted levels of various neurometabolites in patients with schizophrenia. An area of particular interest within this patient population is the striatum, which is highly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study examined neurometabolite levels in the striatum of 12 patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic treatment for at least 1 year and 11 healthy controls using 3-Tesla 1H-MRS (PRESS, TE = 35 ms)...
January 31, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414126/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-changes-after-lithium-treatment-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Agata Szulc, Magdalena Wiedlocha, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Beata Galińska-Skok, Piotr Marcinowicz, Jacek Gierus, Anna Mosiolek
1H MRS is widely used in the research of mental disorders. It enables evaluation of concentration or ratios of several metabolites, which play important roles in brain metabolism: N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline containing compounds, myo-inositol and glutamate, glutamine and GABA (together as Glx complex or separately). Specifically in bipolar disorder brain metabolite abnormalities include mostly NAA reduces and Glx increases in different brain regions. Bipolar disorder is associated with impairment in neurotrophic and cellular plasticity, resilience pathways and in neuroprotective processes...
January 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391242/sex-and-sex-hormone-related-variations-in-energy-metabolic-frontal-brain-asymmetries-a-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#3
Helene Hjelmervik, Markus Hausmann, Marco Hirnstein, Alexander R Craven, Kenneth Hugdahl, Karsten Specht
Creatine is a key regulator of brain energy homeostasis, and well-balanced creatine metabolism is central in healthy brain functioning. Still, the variability of brain creatine metabolism is largely unattended in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) research. In the human brain, marginal sex differences in creatine levels have been found in the prefrontal cortex. It is however not known to what degree these sex differences are stable or change with varying gonadal hormone levels. The current study therefore investigated creatine in the prefrontal cortex across the menstrual cycle...
January 29, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385594/7t-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#4
Meredith A Reid, Nouha Salibi, David M White, Timothy J Gawne, Thomas S Denney, Adrienne C Lahti
Recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies suggest that abnormalities of the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia may be dependent on illness stage, medication status, and symptomatology. Glutamatergic metabolites appear to be elevated in the prodromal and early stages of schizophrenia but unchanged or reduced below normal in chronic, medicated patients. However, few of these studies have measured metabolites with high-field 7T MR scanners, which offer higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spectral resolution than 3T scanners and facilitate separation of glutamate and glutamine into distinct signals...
January 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377412/high-fat-diet-induces-a-neurometabolic-state-characterized-by-changes-in-glutamate-and-n-acetylaspartate-pools-associated-with-early-glucose-intolerance-an-in-vivo-multimodal-mri-study
#5
Mário Ribeiro, João Castelhano, Lorena I Petrella, José Sereno, Tiago Rodrigues, Christian Neves, Liliana Letra, Filipa I Baptista, Raquel Seiça, Paulo Matafome, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder with a broad range of complications in the brain that depend on the conditions that precede its onset, such as obesity and metabolic syndromes. It has been suggested that neurotransmitter and metabolic perturbations may emerge even before the early stages of T2DM and that high-caloric intake could adversely influence the brain in such states. Notwithstanding, evidence for neurochemical and structural alterations in these conditions are still sparse and controversial...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341105/metabolomic-characterization-of-human-hippocampus-from-drug-resistant-epilepsy-with-mesial-temporal-seizure
#6
Julien Detour, Caroline Bund, Charles Behr, Hélène Cebula, Ercument A Cicek, Maria-Paola Valenti-Hirsch, Béatrice Lannes, Benoît Lhermitte, Astrid Nehlig, Pierre Kehrli, François Proust, Edouard Hirsch, Izzie-Jacques Namer
OBJECTIVE: Within a complex systems biology perspective, we wished to assess whether hippocampi with established neuropathological features have distinct metabolome. Apparently normal hippocampi with no signs of sclerosis (noHS), were compared to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) type 1 (HS1) and/or type 2 (HS2). Hippocampus metabolome from patients with epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (EANTs), namely, gangliogliomas (GGs) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs), was also compared to noHS epileptiform tissue...
January 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335880/the-long-term-effect-of-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-given-to-preterm-infants-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-on-neurometabolites-in-early-childhood
#7
Charles Gasparovic, Arvind Caprihan, Ronald A Yeo, John Phillips, Jean R Lowe, Richard Campbell, Robin K Ohls
BACKGROUND: Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are neuroprotective in cell and animal models of preterm birth. Prematurity has been shown to alter neurometabolite levels in children in studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that ESA treatment in premature infants would tend to normalize neurometabolites by 4-6 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children in a longitudinal study of neurodevelopment underwent MRI and 1H-MRS at approximately 4 years and 6 years of age...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276351/abnormal-concentration-of-gaba-and-glutamate-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-an-in-vivo-1h-mrs-study
#8
Tianyi Chen, Yingchan Wang, Jianye Zhang, Zuowei Wang, Jiale Xu, Yao Li, Zhilei Yang, Dengtang Liu
Background: The etiology and pathomechanism of schizophrenia are unknown. The traditional dopamine (DA) hypothesis is unable to fully explain its pathology and therapeutics. The glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypotheses suggest Glu or GABA concentrations are abnormal in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) show glutamate level increases in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) including the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) in those with schizophrenia...
October 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274351/high-fat-diet-induced-hyperglutamatergic-activation-of-the-hippocampus-in-mice-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-at-9-4t
#9
Song-I Lim, Kyu-Ho Song, Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe
The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term neurochemical alterations in the hippocampus of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while plasma leptin and corticosterone levels were monitored. Although metabolic disturbances induced by the excess intake of fat are assumed to cause depression, the relationship underlying dysfunctional adipose tissue, stress hormone release, and excitatory metabolism has not been fully understood yet. Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were separated into a HFD-fed group (n = 8) and low-fat diet-fed group (n = 8)...
December 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177616/medial-frontal-lobe-neurochemistry-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-marked-by-reduced-n-acetylaspartate-and-unchanged-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-and-glutamate%C3%A2-%C3%A2-glutamine-levels
#10
Andreia Carvalho Pereira, Inês R Violante, Susana Mouga, Guiomar Oliveira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
The nature of neurochemical changes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains controversial. We compared medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurochemistry of twenty high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD without associated comorbidities and fourteen controls. We observed reduced total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) and total creatine, increased Glx/tNAA but unchanged glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and unchanged absolute or relative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA+) in the ASD group. Importantly, both smaller absolute and relative GABA+ levels were associated with worse communication skills and developmental delay scores assessed by the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R)...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172053/associations-of-neurofunctional-morphometric-and-metabolic-abnormalities-with-clinical-symptom-severity-and-recognition-deficit-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Chung-Man Moon, Gwang-Woo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) causes neural dysfunction associated with cognitive deficit and emotional dysregulation. This study assessed the associations of the neurofunctional changes, gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in conjunction with in vivo metabolic changes on the working memory tasks in patients with OCD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with OCD and 18 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational levels underwent high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), event-related functional MRI (fMRI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 3T...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165327/effects-of-dl-3-n-butylphthalide-on-cerebral-ischemia-infarction-in-rat-model-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#12
Run-Zhe Liu, Chao-Xin Fan, Zhi-Lin Zhang, Xin Zhao, Yi Sun, Hui-Hui Liu, Zong-Xiu Nie, Xiao-Ping Pu
Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a drug that is used in the treatment of ischaemic stroke. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no systematic studies investigating the effects of dl-3-n-butylphtalide on the brain metabolism of small molecules. In this study, we first investigated the effects of dl-3-n-butylphthalide on the spatial distribution of small molecules in the brains of rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) imaging...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143277/myo-inositol-concentration-in-mr-spectroscopy-for-differentiating-high-grade-glioma-from-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#13
Hiroaki Nagashima, Takashi Sasayama, Kazuhiro Tanaka, Katsusuke Kyotani, Naoko Sato, Masahiro Maeyama, Masaaki Kohta, Junichi Sakata, Yusuke Yamamoto, Kohkichi Hosoda, Tomoo Itoh, Ryohei Sasaki, Eiji Kohmura
It is sometimes difficult to distinguish gliomas from other tumors on routine imaging. In this study, we assessed whether 3-T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with LCModel software might be useful for discriminating glioma from other brain tumors, such as primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and metastatic tumors. A total of 104 cases of brain tumor (66 gliomas, 20 PCNSLs, 6 metastatic tumors, 12 other tumors) were preoperatively investigated with short echo time (35 ms) single-voxel 3-T MRS...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130590/quantification-of-gaba-glutamate-and-glutamine-in-a-single-measurement-at-3%C3%A2-t-using-gaba-edited-mega-press
#14
Faezeh Sanaei Nezhad, Adriana Anton, Emilia Michou, JeYoung Jung, Laura M Parkes, Stephen R Williams
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu), major neurotransmitters in the brain, are recycled through glutamine (Gln). All three metabolites can be measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo, although GABA measurement at 3 T requires an extra editing acquisition, such as Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS). In a GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS spectrum, Glu and Gln co-edit with GABA, providing the possibility to measure all three in one acquisition. In this study, we investigated the reliability of the composite Glu + Gln (Glx) peak estimation and the possibility of Glu and Gln separation in GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS spectra...
November 12, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106544/effects-of-adult-female-rat-androgenization-on-brain-morphology-and-metabolomic-profile
#15
Carmen Perez-Laso, Sebastián Cerdan, Carme Junque, Ángel Gómez, Esperanza Ortega, Mireia Mora, Carlos Avendaño, Esther Gómez-Gil, María Cruz Rodríguez Del Cerro, Antonio Guillamon
Androgenization in adult natal women, as in transsexual men (TM), affects brain cortical thickness and the volume of subcortical structures. In order to understand the mechanism underlying these changes we have developed an adult female rat model of androgenization. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to monitor brain volume changes, white matter microstructure and ex vivo metabolic profiles over 32 days in androgenized and control subjects. Supraphysiological doses of testosterone prevents aging decrease of fractional anisotropy values, decreased general cortical volume and the relative concentrations of glutamine (Gln) and myo-Inositol (mI)...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105187/improved-resolution-of-glutamate-glutamine-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-with-optimized-point-resolved-spectroscopy-sequence-timings-for-their-simultaneous-quantification-at-9-4%C3%A2-t
#16
Brennen J Dobberthien, Anthony G Tessier, Atiyah Yahya
Glutamine (Gln), glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are relevant brain metabolites that can be measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This work optimizes the point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence echo times, TE1 and TE2 , for improved simultaneous quantification of the three metabolites at 9.4 T. Quantification was based on the proton resonances of Gln, Glu and GABA at ≈2.45, ≈2.35 and ≈2.28 ppm, respectively. Glu exhibits overlap with both Gln and GABA; in addition, the Gln peak is contaminated by signal from the strongly coupled protons of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), which resonate at about 2...
November 3, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099292/cerebral-metabolism-and-vascular-reactivity-during-breath-hold-and-hypoxic-challenge-in-freedivers-and-healthy-controls
#17
Mark B Vestergaard, Henrik Bw Larsson
The goal of the present study was to examine the cerebral metabolism and vascular reactivity during extended breath-holds (ranging from 2 min 32 s to 7 min 0 s) and during a hypoxic challenge in freedivers and non-diver controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the global cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the cerebral lactate, glutamate+glutamine, N-acetylaspartate and phosphocreatine+creatine concentrations in the occipital lobe...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958033/an-objective-short-sleep-insomnia-disorder-subtype-is-associated-with-reduced-brain-metabolite-concentrations-in-vivo-a-preliminary-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#18
Christopher B Miller, Caroline D Rae, Michael A Green, Brendon J Yee, Christopher J Gordon, Angela L D'Rozario, Simon D Kyle, Colin A Espie, Ronald R Grunstein, Delwyn J Bartlett
Objectives: To evaluate brain metabolites in objective insomnia subtypes defined from polysomnography (PSG): insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD) and insomnia with normal sleep duration (I-NSD), relative to good sleeping controls (GSCs). Methods: PSG empirically grouped insomnia patients into I-SSD (n = 12: mean [SD] total sleep time [TST] = 294.7 minutes [30.5]) or I-NSD (n = 19: TST = 394.4 minutes [34.9]). 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) acquired in the left occipital cortex (LOCC), left prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex was used to determine levels of creatine, aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine (referenced to water)...
November 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955291/assessing-metabolism-and-injury-in-acute-human-traumatic-brain-injury-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-current-and-future-applications
#19
REVIEW
Matthew G Stovell, Jiun-Lin Yan, Alison Sleigh, Marius O Mada, T Adrian Carpenter, Peter J A Hutchinson, Keri L H Carpenter
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a series of complex pathophysiological processes. These include abnormalities in brain energy metabolism; consequent to reduced tissue pO2 arising from ischemia or abnormal tissue oxygen diffusion, or due to a failure of mitochondrial function. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows non-invasive interrogation of brain tissue metabolism in patients with acute brain injury. Nuclei with "spin," e.g., (1)H, (31)P, and (13)C, are detectable using MRS and are found in metabolites at various stages of energy metabolism, possessing unique signatures due to their chemical shift or spin-spin interactions (J-coupling)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889092/quantitative-mr-spectroscopic-imaging-in-metachromatic-leukodystrophy-value-for-prognosis-and-treatment
#20
Diane F van Rappard, Antoine Klauser, Marjan E Steenweg, Jaap Jan Boelens, Marianna Bugiani, Marjo S van der Knaap, Nicole I Wolf, Petra J W Pouwels
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging is useful in predicting clinical course of patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), an inherited white matter disorder treatable with haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). METHODS: 21 patients with juvenile or adult MLD (12 HCT-treated) were compared with 16 controls in the same age range. Clinical outcome was determined as good, moderate or poor. Metabolites were quantified in white matter, and significance of metabolite concentrations at baseline for outcome prediction was assessed using logistic regression analysis...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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