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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079292/germ-cell-tumors-insights-from-the-drosophila-ovary-and-the-mouse-testis
#1
REVIEW
Helen K Salz, Emily P Dawson, Jason D Heaney
Ovarian and testicular germ cell tumors of young adults are thought to arise from defects in germ cell development, but the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant transformation are poorly understood. In this review, we focus on the biology of germ cell tumor formation in the Drosophila ovary and the mouse testis, for which the evidence supports common underlying mechanisms such as blocking initiation into the differentiation pathway, impaired lineage progression, and sexual identity instability. We then discuss how these concepts inform our understanding of the disease in humans...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073973/human-foetal-ovary-shares-meiotic-preventing-factors-with-the-developing-testis
#2
Nelly Frydman, Marine Poulain, Brahim Arkoun, Clotilde Duquenne, Sophie Tourpin, Sébastien Messiaen, René Habert, Virginie Rouiller-Fabre, Alexandra Benachi, Gabriel Livera
STUDY QUESTION: How can pre-meiotic germ cells persist in the human foetal ovary? SUMMARY ANSWER: Numerous oogonia escaping meiotic entry were retrieved throughout human ovarian development simultaneously with the expression of signalling pathways preventing meiosis, typically described in the rodent embryonic testis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The transition from mitosis to meiosis is a key event in female germ cells that remains poorly documented in research on the human ovary...
January 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067447/importance-of-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-heat-stress-in-mouse-male-germ-cells
#3
Jungbin Yoon, Kyosun Park, Deog Su Hwang, Kunsoo Rhee
Mammalian male germ cells are exceptionally labile to heat stress. A temporal arrest of translation is one immediate response to heat, which involves heat-induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) to block the formation of the translational initiation complex. Here, we investigated the protective mechanisms against heat stress in mouse male germ cells. All known eIF2α kinases were expressed in lineage- and developmental stage-specific manners in the testis; noteworthy was the presence of Gcn2 (General control nonderepressible 2 kinase) in spermatocytes of all seminiferous tubules...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055237/enrichment-propagation-and-characterization-of-mouse-testis-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#4
Mai Ahmed, Myret Ghabriel, Asma Amleh
The therapeutic potential of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) largely depends on the isolation and expansion methods used. In this study, we propose a laminin-based technique to select and enrich for MSCs isolated from the mouse testis. Primary cell cultures were prepared from juvenile mouse testes and the capacity to generate colony forming units together with population doubling time (PDT) during expansion were determined. The identity of MSCs was assayed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry for the active expression of cell surface markers, such as CD44, CD73, and CD29; absence of the CD45 hematopoietic cell marker; and in vitro differentiation of the cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053951/effects-of-betulinic-acid-on-the-male-reproductive-system-of-a-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-diabetic-mouse-model
#5
Akram Ahangarpour, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Layasadat Khorsandi, Golshan Arzani, Golshan Afshari
PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to evaluate the favorable or harmful effects of betulinic acid (BA) on a diabetic reproductive system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 60 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice (20∼25 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups: control, diabetes, diabetes+BA (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), and diabetes+ metformin (200 mg/kg). A diabetic model was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) injection intraperitoneally 15 minutes after an intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide (NA) (120 mg/kg)...
December 2016: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052023/spermatogonial-stem-cells-and-progenitors-are-refractory-to-reprogramming-to-pluripotency-by-the-transcription-factors-oct3-4-c-myc-sox2-and-klf4
#6
Sébastien Corbineau, Bruno Lassalle, Maelle Givelet, Inès Souissi-Sarahoui, Virginie Firlej, Paul Henri Romeo, Isabelle Allemand, Lydia Riou, Pierre Fouchet
The male germinal lineage, which is defined as unipotent, produces sperm through spermatogenesis. However, embryonic primordial germ cells and postnatal spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can change their fate and convert to pluripotency in culture when they are not controlled by the testicular microenvironment. The mechanisms underlying these reprogramming processes are poorly understood. Testicular germ cell tumors, including teratoma, share some molecular characteristics with pluripotent cells, suggesting that cancer could result from an abnormal differentiation of primordial germ cells or from an abnormal conversion of SCCs to pluripotency in the testis...
December 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051360/the-notch-ligand-jag1-regulates-gdnf-expression-in-sertoli-cells
#7
Thomas Xavier Garcia, Parag Parekh, Pooja Gandhi, Krishna M Sinha, Marie-Claude Hofmann
In the seminiferous epithelium of the testis, Sertoli cells are key niche cells directing proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) into spermatozoa. Sertoli cells produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which is essential for SSC self-renewal and progenitor expansion. While the role of GDNF in the testis stem cell niche is established, little is known about how this factor is regulated. Our previous studies on NOTCH activity in Sertoli cells demonstrated a role of this pathway in limiting stem/progenitor cell numbers, thus ultimately down-regulating sperm cell output...
January 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045957/normal-levels-of-sox9-expression-in-the-developing-mouse-testis-depend-on-the-tes-tesco-enhancer-but-this-does-not-act-alone
#8
Nitzan Gonen, Alexander Quinn, Helen C O'Neill, Peter Koopman, Robin Lovell-Badge
During mouse sex determination, transient expression of the Y-linked gene Sry up-regulates its direct target gene Sox9, via a 3.2 kb testis specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES), which includes a core 1.4 kb element, TESCO. SOX9 activity leads to differentiation of Sertoli cells, rather than granulosa cells from the bipotential supporting cell precursor lineage. Here, we present functional analysis of TES/TESCO, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in mice. Deletion of TESCO or TES reduced Sox9 expression levels in XY fetal gonads to 60 or 45% respectively relative to wild type gonads, and reduced expression of the SOX9 target Amh...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040413/in-search-of-an-improved-injection-technique-for-the-clinical-application-of-spermatogonial-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Katrien Faes, Tony Lahoutte, Anne Hoorens, Herman Tournaye, Ellen Goossens
When fertility is impaired by anticancer treatment, spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT) could be used as a fertility restoration technique later on in life. Previously, we have demonstrated that a testicular cell suspension could be injected into a human cadaver testis, however, leakage to the interstitium was observed. In this study, injection of mouse testicular cells at an injection height of 50 cm (hydrostatic pressure) or via an automated injection pump (1400 µl, 2600 µl and 3000 µl) was evaluated...
December 15, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029195/expression-of-tamoxifen-inducible-cre-recombinase-in-lcn5-creer-t2-transgenic-mouse-caput-epididymis
#10
Juan Xu, Guangxin Yao, Yanfei Ru, Shengsong Xie
The epididymis, which connects the testis to vas deferens, plays a crucial role regulating sperm maturation and fertilization. Here, a tamoxifen-inducible CreER(T2) recombinase transgenic mouse was generated to study the function of genes in the caput epididymis using the Cre/LoxP system, which is driven by the 1.8-kb Lcn5 promoter (Lcn5-CreER(T2) ). Both CRE recombinase and ER(T2) mRNA were specifically expressed in the caput epididymis, beginning at postnatal Day 30 and increasing thereafter. Crossing these Lcn5-CreER(T2) transgenic mice with Rosa26;mT/mG reporter mice, which express membrane-bound GFP (mGFP) only after CRE is active at its genetic locus, resulted in the presence of GFP only in the middle/distal caput epididymis after tamoxifen induction...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025148/circadian-clock-and-steroidogenic-related-gene-expression-profiles-in-mouse-leydig-cells-following-dexamethasone-stimulation
#11
Huatao Chen, Lei Gao, Yongjie Xiong, Dan Yang, Cuimei Li, Aihua Wang, Yaping Jin
Previous studies have shown that circadian clock genes are expressed in mammalian testes; however, it remains unclear if the expression patterns of these genes are cyclic. Furthermore, it is unknown whether Leydig cells, the primary androgen secreting cells in the testis, play a role in the rhythmicity of circadian clock and steroidogenic-related gene transcription. Here, we examine the circadian clock of mouse Leydig cells, and the link to steroidogenic-related gene transcription. We confirm, via sampling over a full circadian time (CT) period, a lack of circadian rhythmicity in mouse testes in comparison with the robust gene expression cycling of circadian clock genes in mouse livers...
December 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024311/lost-in-translation-the-search-for-an-in-vitro-screen-for-spermatogenic-toxicity
#12
Robert E Chapin, Timothy Winton, William Nowland, Nichole Danis, Steven Kumpf, Kjell Johnson, Aleasha Coburn, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg
The last two decades have seen an increasing search for in vitro models that can replace the use of animals for safety testing. We adapted the methods from a recent nonquantitative report of spermatogenesis occurring in ex vivo mouse testis explants and tried to develop them into a screening assay. The model consisted of small pieces of neonatal mouse testis (testis "chunks"), explanted and placed on pillars of agarose or chamber inserts, and cultured at the air-liquid interface. A peripheral torus-shaped zone in these explants would often contain tubules showing spermatogenesis, while the middle of each chunk was often necrotic, depending on the thickness of the tissue...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part B, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017657/direct-reprogramming-of-mouse-fibroblasts-toward-leydig-like-cells-by-defined-factors
#13
Yan Yang, Ziyi Li, Xupeng Wu, Haolin Chen, Wenting Xu, Qi Xiang, Qihao Zhang, Jie Chen, Ren-Shan Ge, Zhijian Su, Yadong Huang
Leydig cells (LCs) play crucial roles in producing testosterone, and their dysfunction leads to male hypogonadism. LC transplantation is a promising alternative therapy for male hypogonadism. However, the source of LCs limits this strategy for clinical applications. Here, we report our success in reprogramming mice fibroblasts into LCs by expressing three transcriptional factors, Dmrt1, Gata4, and Nr5a1. The induced Leydig-like cells (iLCs) expressed steroidogenic genes, had a global gene expression profile similar to that of adult LCs, and acquired androgen synthesis capabilities...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003832/identification-of-chd1l-as-an-important-regulator-for-spermatogonial-stem-cell-survival-and-self-renewal
#14
Shan-Shan Liu, Yin-Shan Bai, Li Feng, Wen-Wei Dong, Yang Li, Li-Ping Xu, Ning-Fang Ma
Chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like gene (Chd1l) participates in chromatin-dependent processes, including transcriptional activation and DNA repair. In this study, we have found for the first time that Chd1l is mainly expressed in the testicular tissues of prepubertal and adult mice and colocalized with PLZF, OCT4, and GFRα1 in the neonatal mouse testis and THY1(+) undifferentiated spermatogonia or spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Knockdown of endogenous Chd1l in cultured mouse undifferentiated SSCs inhibited the expression levels of Oct4, Plzf, Gfrα1, and Pcna genes, suppressed SSC colony formation, and reduced BrdU incorporation, while increasing SSC apoptosis...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998865/-interaction-of-dnajb13-with-hk1-in-mouse
#15
Meng-Yue Yang, Zi-Wei Xiong, Wei-Na Li, Miao-Miao Jia, Gang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of interactions between DNAJB13 and HK1. METHODS: The open reading frame of Dnajb13 gene was amplified from mouse testis cDNA by PCR. The PCR products were then inserted into pGEX-4T-1 vector after double digestion and identified by sequencing. The recombinant plasmids were transformated into competent DH5a cells, and the fusion protein was expressed with IPTG induction. SDS-PAGE Coomassie brilliant blue staining and Western blot analysis were used to detect the fusion protein expression...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992841/structural-analyses-of-the-nucleosome-complexes-with-human-testis-specific-histone-variants-hth2a-and-hth2b
#16
Sivaraman Padavattan, Viswanathan Thiruselvam, Toshie Shinagawa, Kazuya Hasegawa, Takashi Kumasaka, Shunsuke Ishii, Thirumananseri Kumarevel
Th2a and Th2b are the testis-specific histone variants highly expressed during spermatogenesis. Approximately 4% of the genome is retained in nucleosomes in mature human sperm, which is enriched at loci of developmental importance. Our recent studies revealed that the mouse histone variant homologs TH2a and TH2b are involved in reprogramming. In the present work, we report three nucleosome structures (NCPs) with human testis-specific histone variants hTh2a and hTh2b, [hGcH (hTh2a-hTh2b-H3-H4), hGcHV1 (hTh2a-H2b-H3-H4) and hGcHV2 (H2a-hTh2b-H3-H4)] and a 146-base pair (bp) duplex DNA fragment at ~3...
February 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992363/germ-cell-specific-sustained-activation-of-wnt-signalling-perturbs-spermatogenesis-in-aged-mice-possibly-through-non-coding-rnas
#17
Manish Kumar, Joshua Atkins, Murray Cairns, Ayesha Ali, Pradeep S Tanwar
Dysregulated Wnt signalling is associated with human infertility and testicular cancer. However, the role of Wnt signalling in male germ cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we first confirmed the activity of Wnt signalling in mouse, dog and human testes. To determine the physiological importance of the Wnt pathway, we developed a mouse model with germ cell-specific constitutive activation of βcatenin. In young mutants, similar to controls, germ cell development was normal. However, with age, mutant testes showed defective spermatogenesis, progressive germ cell loss, and flawed meiotic entry of spermatogonial cells...
December 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960177/alterations-in-fetal-leydig-cell-gene-expression-during-fetal-and-adult-development
#18
Kanako Miyabayashi, Yuichi Shima, Miki Inoue, Tetsuya Sato, Takashi Baba, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Mikita Suyama, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi
Fetal Leydig cells (FLCs) and adult Leydig cells (ALCs) develop in the mammalian prenatal and postnatal testes, respectively. In mice, FLCs emerge in the interstitial space of the testis as early as embryonic day 12.5 and thereafter increase in number during the fetal stage. We previously established a transgenic mouse line in which FLCs are labeled with EGFP and demonstrated that the EGFP-labeled FLCs were present even in adult testes. However, the characteristics of FLCs during postnatal stages remained unclear...
December 14, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959439/alanine-and-arginine-rich-domain-containing-protein-aard-is-directly-regulated-by-androgen-receptor-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#19
Qiang Geng, Li-Wei Ni, Bin Ouyang, Yan-Hua Hu, Yu Zhao, Jun Guo
Alanine and arginine rich domain containing protein (Aard) is specifically expressed in Sertoli cells (SCs) of mouse testis and the expression increases in an age‑dependent manner. A number of previous studies have indicated that androgen and androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathways are particularly important for spermatogenesis in mouse SCs, however, the association between Aard and AR remain to be elucidated. The present study identified Aard as a gene that is directly regulated by AR in mouse SCs, which is important in spermatogenesis...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941834/lin28a-promotes-self-renewal-and-proliferation-of-dairy-goat-spermatogonial-stem-cells-sscs-through-regulation-of-mtor-and-pi3k-akt
#20
Fanglin Ma, Zhe Zhou, Na Li, Liming Zheng, Chongyang Wu, Bowen Niu, Furong Tang, Xin He, Guangpeng Li, Jinlian Hua
Lin28a is a conserved RNA-binding protein that plays an important role in development, pluripotency, stemness maintenance, proliferation and self-renewal. Early studies showed that Lin28a serves as a marker of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and promotes the proliferation capacity of mouse SSCs. However, there is little information about Lin28a in livestock SSCs. In this study, we cloned Capra hircus Lin28a CDS and found that it is evolutionarily conserved. Lin28a is widely expressed in different tissues of Capra hircus, but is expressed at a high level in the testis...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
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