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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215680/production-of-sperm-from-porcine-fetal-testicular-tissue-after-cryopreservation-and-grafting-into-nude-mice
#1
Hiroyuki Kaneko, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Nguyen Thi Men, Michiko Nakai, Junko Noguchi, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Junya Ito
A major goal of testicular xenografting is to salvage germ cells from immature animals that cannot be used for reproduction and generate their offspring. In this study, we investigated whether porcine fetal testicular tissue would acquire the ability to produce sperm with full developmental competence after they had been cryopreserved and grafted into nude mice. Testicular fragments from fetuses at 35, 55 and 90 days postartificial insemination (dpi) were vitrified and stored in liquid nitrogen. Immediately after warming, testicular fragments at each fetal stage were transplanted under the back skin of castrated nude mice (Crlj:CD1-Foxn1(nu)) (35-, 55- and 90-dpi groups, respectively) (day 0 = grafting)...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214591/hyperglycemia-is-associated-with-reduced-testicular-function-and-activin-dysregulation-in-the-ins2-akita-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#2
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Helen Ludlow, Hans-Peter Hammes, David M de Kretser, Mark P Hedger, Thomas Linn
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with subfertility in men. We hypothesised that this results from inhibitory effects of chronic hyperglycemia on testicular function and used the Ins2(Akita ±) mouse model to investigate this. Diabetic mice exhibited progressive testicular dysfunction, with a 30% reduction in testis weight at 24 weeks of age. Diabetic mice showed significantly reduced seminiferous tubule diameters and increased spermatogenic disruption, although testes morphology appeared grossly normal. Unexpectedly, serum LH and intra-testicular testosterone were similar in all groups...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214373/improved-detection-of-zika-virus-rna-in-human-and-animal-specimens-by-a-novel-highly-sensitive-and-specific-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-targeting-the-5-untranslated-region-of-zika-virus
#3
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Kah-Meng Tee, Zheng Zhu, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Terance Gi-Wai Tsang, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Siddharth Sridhar, Feifei Yin, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Sandy Ka-Yee Chau, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We developed and evaluated five novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting conserved regions in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), envelope (E'), non-structural protein 2A (NS2A), NS5, and 3'-UTR of the ZIKV genome. RESULTS: The ZIKV-5'-UTR assay exhibited the lowest in-vitro limit of detection (5-10 RNA copies/reaction and 3.0×10(-1) plaque-forming units/ml). Compared to the modified version of a widely adopted RT-PCR assay targeting the ZIKV-E gene, the ZIKV-5'-UTR assay showed better sensitivity in human clinical specimens, and representative mouse specimens, including many organs which are known to be involved in human ZIKV infection but difficult to obtain in clinical settings...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209515/cell-type-specific-role-of-the-rna-binding-protein-nono-in-the-dna-double-strand-break-response-in-the-mouse-testes
#4
Shuyi Li, Feng-Jue Shu, Zhentian Li, Lahcen Jaafar, Shourong Zhao, William S Dynan
The tandem RNA recognition motif protein, NONO, was previously identified as a candidate DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor in a biochemical screen for proteins with end-joining stimulatory activity. Subsequent work showed that NONO and its binding partner, SFPQ, have many of the properties expected for bona fide repair factors in cell-based assays. Their contribution to the DNA damage response in intact tissue in vivo has not, however, been demonstrated. Here we compare DNA damage sensitivity in the testes of wild-type mice versus mice bearing a null allele of the NONO homologue (Nono (gt))...
February 10, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196872/muc16-regulates-tspyl5-for-lung-cancer-cell-growth-and-chemoresistance-by-suppressing-p53
#5
Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Shireen Salfity, Parthasarathy Seshacharyulu, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Abigail Thomas, Srustidhar Das, Prabin D Majhi, Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Raghupathy Vengoji, Subodh M Lele, Moorthy P Ponnusamy, Surinder K Batra, Apar Kishor Ganti
PURPOSE: MUC16, a tumor biomarker and cell surface associated mucin, is overexpressed in various cancers; however, its role in lung cancer pathogenesis is unknown. Here, we have explored the mechanistic role of MUC16 in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To identify the functional role of MUC16, stable knockdown was carried in lung cancer cells with two different shRNAs. Clinical significance of MUC16 was evaluated in lung cancer patient's tissues using IHC. We have generated genetically engineered mouse model (KrasG12D; AdCre) to evaluate the preclinical significance of MUC16...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196369/leveraging-online-resources-to-prioritize-candidate-genes-for-functional-analyses-using-the-fetal-testis-as-a-test-case
#6
Kathryn S McClelland, Humphrey H-C Yao
With each new microarray or RNA-seq experiment, massive quantities of transcriptomic information are generated with the purpose to produce a list of candidate genes for functional analyses. Yet an effective strategy remains elusive to prioritize the genes on these candidate lists. In this review, we outline a prioritizing strategy by taking a step back from the bench and leveraging the rich range of public databases. This in silico approach provides an economical, less biased, and more effective solution. We discuss the publicly available online resources that can be used to answer a range of questions about a gene...
February 15, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193725/the-tgf-%C3%AE-family-in-the-reproductive-tract
#7
Diana Monsivais, Martin M Matzuk, Stephanie A Pangas
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family has a profound impact on the reproductive function of various organisms. In this review, we discuss how highly conserved members of the TGF-β family influence the reproductive function across several species. We briefly discuss how TGF-β-related proteins balance germ-cell proliferation and differentiation as well as dauer entry and exit in Caenorhabditis elegans. In Drosophila melanogaster, TGF-β-related proteins maintain germ stem-cell identity and eggshell patterning...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191733/a-novel-dynamic-expression-of-vasa-in-male-germ-cells-during-spermatogenesis-in-the-chinese-soft-shell-turtle-pelidiscus-sinensis
#8
Wei Li, Piaoyi Zhang, Xuling Wu, Xinping Zhu, Hongyan Xu
vasa gene encodes a highly conserved DEAD-box RNA helicase, required for germ cell development across animal kingdom. Vasa mutations cause male infertility in mammals. It has been widely used as a biomarker for studying animal fertility or manipulating germ cells in organisms. However, in reptilians, the functions of vasa gene involved in germ cell differentiation are largely unclear; this hampers the development of biological techniques and the improvement of the productivity in these species. Here a vasa cDNA was isolated in Chinese soft-shell turtle and it predicts a protein of 691 amino acid residues, which is 72%, 69%, 58%, 59%, and 54-56% identical to its homolog from mouse, platypus, frog, chicken, and fish, respectively, and named as PsVasa...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185954/wip1-directly-dephosphorylates-nlk-and-increases-wnt-activity-during-germ-cell-development
#9
Seung-Ju Cho, Bok-Sik Cha, Ok-Seon Kwon, Jisun Lim, Dong-Myung Shin, Dong Wook Han, Tohru Ishitani, Eek-Hoon Jho, Albert J Fornace, Hyuk-Jin Cha
Mice null for wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) display defects in testis development and spermatogenesis, resulting in reduced fertility. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these abnormalities in the testis remains uncharacterized. We report that the phosphatase activity of WIP1 increases Wnt activity through Nemo-like kinase (NLK). WIP1 directly interacted with NLK, which is highly homologous to p38 MAPK, a WIP1 substrate, and dephosphorylated its activation site. The WIP1-mediated inhibition of NLK activity markedly decreased the phosphorylation of lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1), disrupting its interaction with β-catenin...
February 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182716/lyzl6-an-acidic-bacteriolytic-human-sperm-related-protein-plays-a-role-in-fertilization
#10
Peng Huang, Wenshu Li, Zhifang Yang, Ning Zhang, Yixin Xu, Jianying Bao, Deke Jiang, Xianping Dong
Lysozyme-like proteins (LYZLs) belong to the c-type lysozyme/α-lactalbumin family and are selectively expressed in the mammalian male reproductive tract. Two members, human sperm lysozyme-like protein (SLLP) -1 and mouse LYZL4, have been reported to contribute to fertilization but show no bacteriolytic activity. Here, we focused on the possible contribution of LYZL6 to immunity and fertilization. In humans, LYZL6 was selectively expressed by the testis and epididymis and became concentrated on spermatozoa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181583/bile-acid-homeostasis-controls-car-signaling-pathways-in-mouse-testis-through-fxralpha
#11
Emmanuelle Martinot, Marine Baptissart, Aurélie Véga, Lauriane Sèdes, Betty Rouaisnel, Fred Vaz, Jean-Paul Saru, Angélique de Haze, Silvère Baron, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H Volle
Bile acids (BAs) are molecules with endocrine activities controlling several physiological functions such as immunity, glucose homeostasis, testicular physiology and male fertility. The role of the nuclear BA receptor FXRα in the control of BA homeostasis has been well characterized. The present study shows that testis synthetize BAs. We demonstrate that mice invalidated for the gene encoding FXRα have altered BA homeostasis in both liver and testis. In the absence of FXRα, BA exposure differently alters hepatic and testicular expression of genes involved in BA synthesis...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178517/meiotic-knockdown-and-complementation-reveals-essential-role-of-rad51-in-mouse-spermatogenesis
#12
Jieqiong Dai, Oleg Voloshin, Svetlana Potapova, R Daniel Camerini-Otero
Meiotic homologous recombination (HR) is important for proper chromosomal segregation during gametogenesis and facilitates evolutionary adaptation via genomic reshuffling. In most eukaryotes, HR is mediated by two recombinases, the ubiquitous RAD51 and the meiosis-specific DMC1. The role of RAD51 in mammalian meiosis is unclear and study of its function is limited due to embryonic lethality of RAD51 knockouts. Here, we developed an in vivo meiotic knockdown and protein complementation system to study RAD51 during mouse spermatogenesis...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150810/differential-lactate-and-cholesterol-synthetic-activities-in-xy-and-xx-sertoli-cells
#13
Yurina Shishido, Takashi Baba, Tetsuya Sato, Yuichi Shima, Kanako Miyabayashi, Miki Inoue, Haruhiko Akiyama, Hiroshi Kimura, Yoshiakira Kanai, Yasuhiro Ishihara, Shogo Haraguchi, Akira Miyazaki, Damjana Rozman, Takeshi Yamazaki, Man-Ho Choi, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Mikita Suyama, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi
SRY, a sex-determining gene, induces testis development in chromosomally female (XX) individuals. However, mouse XX Sertoli cells carrying Sry (XX/Sry Sertoli cells) are incapable of fully supporting germ cell development, even when the karyotype of the germ cells is XY. While it has therefore been assumed that XX/Sry Sertoli cells are not functionally equivalent to XY Sertoli cells, it has remained unclear which specific functions are affected. To elucidate the functional difference, we compared the gene expression of XY and XX/Sry Sertoli cells...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146551/correction-normal-levels-of-sox9-expression-in-the-developing-mouse-testis-depend-on-the-tes-tesco-enhancer-but-this-does-not-act-alone
#14
Nitzan Gonen, Alexander Quinn, Helen C O'Neill, Peter Koopman, Robin Lovell-Badge
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006520.].
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145452/testis-specific-transcriptional-regulators-selectively-occupy-boris-bound-ctcf-target-regions-in-mouse-male-germ-cells
#15
Samuel Rivero-Hinojosa, Sungyun Kang, Victor V Lobanenkov, Gabriel E Zentner
Despite sharing the same sequence specificity in vitro and in vivo, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and its paralog brother of the regulator of imprinted sites (BORIS) are simultaneously expressed in germ cells. Recently, ChIP-seq analysis revealed two classes of CTCF/BORIS-bound regions: single CTCF target sites (1xCTSes) that are bound by CTCF alone (CTCF-only) or double CTCF target sites (2xCTSes) simultaneously bound by CTCF and BORIS (CTCF&BORIS) or BORIS alone (BORIS-only) in germ cells and in BORIS-positive somatic cancer cells...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144589/estimation-of-photon-specific-absorbed-fractions-in-digimouse-voxel-phantom-using-monte-carlo-simulation-code-fluka
#16
A Sinha, H K Patni, B M Dixit, N K Painuly, N Singh
BACKGROUND: Most preclinical studies are carried out on mice. For internal dose assessment of a mouse, specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values play an important role. In most studies, SAF values are estimated using older standard human organ compositions and values for limited source target pairs. OBJECTIVE: SAF values for monoenergetic photons of energies 15, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 4000 keV were evaluated for the Digimouse voxel phantom incorporated in Monte Carlo code FLUKA...
December 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137912/l2hgdh-deficiency-accumulates-l-2-hydroxyglutarate-with-progressive-leukoencephalopathy-and-neurodegeneration
#17
Shenghong Ma, Renqiang Sun, Bowen Jiang, Jun Gao, Wanglong Deng, Peng Liu, Ruoyu He, Jing Cui, Minbiao Ji, Wei Yi, Pengyuan Yang, Xiaohui Wu, Yue Xiong, Zilong Qiu, Dan Ye, Kun-Liang Guan
L-2-hydroxyglutarate aciduria (L-2-HGA) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by a mutation in the L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L2HGDH) gene. In this study, we generated L2hgdh knockout (KO) mice and observed a robust increase of 2-hydroxyglutarate (L-2-HG) levels in multiple tissues. The highest levels of L-2-HG were observed in the brain and testis with a corresponding increase in histone methylation in these tissues. L2hgdh KO mice exhibit white matter abnormalities, extensive gliosis, microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, and an expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs)...
January 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128212/bcas2-is-involved-in-alternative-mrna-splicing-in-spermatogonia-and-the-transition-to-meiosis
#18
Wenbo Liu, Fengchao Wang, Qianhua Xu, Junchao Shi, Xiaoxin Zhang, Xukun Lu, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Zheng Gao, Huaixiao Ma, Enkui Duan, Fei Gao, Shaorong Gao, Zhaohong Yi, Lei Li
Breast cancer amplified sequence 2 (BCAS2) is involved in multiple biological processes, including pre-mRNA splicing. However, the physiological roles of BCAS2 are still largely unclear. Here we report that BCAS2 is specifically enriched in spermatogonia of mouse testes. Conditional disruption of Bcas2 in male germ cells impairs spermatogenesis and leads to male mouse infertility. Although the spermatogonia appear grossly normal, spermatocytes in meiosis prophase I and meiosis events (recombination and synapsis) are rarely observed in the BCAS2-depleted testis...
January 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126411/perfluorooctanoic-acid-affects-endocytosis-involving-clathrin-light-chain-a-and-microrna-133b-3p-in-mouse-testes
#19
Yin Lu, Jianshe Wang, Xuejiang Guo, Shengmin Yan, Jiayin Dai
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an abundant perfluoroalkyl substance widely applied in industrial and consumer products. Among its potential health hazards, testicular toxicity is of major concern. To explore the potential effect of miRNA on post-translational regulation after PFOA exposure, changes in miRNAs were detected via miRNA array. Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed (eight upregulated, nine downregulated) in male mouse testes after exposure to 5mg/kg/d of PFOA for 28d (>1.5-fold and P<0...
March 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117794/organ-culture-and-whole-mount-immunofluorescence-staining-of-mouse-wolffian-ducts
#20
Manish Kumar, Pradeep Tanwar
Tubal morphogenesis is a fundamental requirement for the development of most mammalian organs, including the male reproductive system. The epididymis, an integral part of the male reproductive tract, is responsible for sperm storage, maturation, and transport. The adult epididymis is a highly coiled tube that develops from a simple and straight embryonic precursor known as Wolffian duct (WD). Proper coiling of the epididymis is essential for male fertility, as sperm in the testis are unable to fertilize an oocyte...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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