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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431857/modeling-human-infertility-with-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Di Chen, Joanna J Gell, Yu Tao, Enrique Sosa, Amander T Clark
Human fertility is dependent upon the correct establishment and differentiation of the germline. This is because no other cell type in the body is capable of passing a genome and epigenome from parent to child. Terminally differentiated germline cells in the adult testis and ovary are called gametes. However, the initial specification of germline cells occurs in the embryo around the time of gastrulation. Most of our knowledge regarding the cell and molecular events that govern human germline specification involves extrapolating scientific principles from model organisms, most notably the mouse...
April 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430907/food-intake-affects-sperm-egg-fusion-through-the-gip-psg17-axis-in-mice
#2
Tatsunori Shimizu, Takehiro Sato, Katsushi Tsukiyama, Hiroki Fujita, Shunsuke Kato, Manabu Hoizumi, Hiromitsu Shirasawa, Takuma Narita, Yukihiro Terada, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada
In addition to overeating, starvation also reduces fecundity in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking food intake to fertility, especially in males. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the action of incretin and has several extra-pancreatic effects. Here, we identified GIP receptor (Gipr) expression in mouse spermatids. Microarray analysis revealed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 (Psg17), a potential CD9-binding partner, was significantly decreased in GIP receptor-knockout (Gipr-/-) testes...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424461/a-lack-of-coordination-between-sister-chromatids-segregation-and-cytokinesis-in-the-oocytes-of-b6-y-tir-xy-sex-reversed-female-mice
#3
Jia-Qiao Zhu, Seang Lin Tan, Teruko Taketo
The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defective in their cytoplasm, resulting in a failure in the second meiotic division after activation or fertilization in vitro. However, the mechanism of meiotic failure or the cause of infertility remained to be clarified. In the present study, we obtained mature oocytes from XY females by superovulation and confirmed that these oocytes also fail in zygotic development...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414073/metabolic-and-affective-consequences-of-fatherhood-in-male-california-mice
#4
Meng Zhao, Theodore Garland, Mark A Chappell, Jacob R Andrew, Wendy Saltzman
Physiological and affective condition can be modulated by the social environment and parental state in mammals. However, in species in which males assist with rearing offspring, the metabolic and affective effects of pair bonding and fatherhood on males have rarely been explored. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fathers, like mothers, experience energetic costs as well as behavioral and affective changes (e.g., depression, anxiety) associated with parenthood. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)...
April 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412171/gender-specific-amelioration-of-sma-phenotype-upon-disruption-of-a-deep-intronic-structure-by-an-oligonucleotide
#5
Matthew D Howell, Eric W Ottesen, Natalia N Singh, Rachel L Anderson, Ravindra N Singh
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic disease of children, is caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Here, we employ A15/283, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting a deep intronic sequence/structure, to examine the impact of restoration of SMN in a mild SMA mouse model. We show gender-specific amelioration of tail necrosis upon subcutaneous administrations of A15/283 into SMA mice at postnatal days 1 and 3. We also demonstrate that a modest increase in SMN due to early administrations of A15/283 dramatically improves testicular development and spermatogenesis...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402059/molecular-markers-of-putative-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-the-domestic-cat
#6
S J Bedford-Guaus, S Kim, L Mulero, J M Vaquero, C Morera, R Adan-Milanès, A Veiga, Á Raya
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are an important tool for fertility preservation and species conservation. The ability to expand SSCs by in vitro culture is a crucial premise for their use in assisted reproduction. Because SSCs represent a small proportion of the germ cells in the adult testis, culture success is aided by pre-enrichment through sorting techniques based on cell surface-specific markers. Given the importance of the domestic cat as a model for conservation of endangered wild felids, herein we sought to examine culture conditions as well as molecular markers for cat SSCs...
April 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398669/evaluation-of-culture-time-and-media-in-an-in-vitro-testis-organ-culture-system
#7
Noriko Nakamura, Gwenn E Merry, Amy L Inselman, Daniel T Sloper, Pedro L Del Valle, Takuya Sato, Takehiko Ogawa, Deborah K Hansen
BACKGROUND: The complexity of spermatogenesis makes development of appropriate in vitro testis models challenging. A novel in vitro mouse testis culture system has been reported but not yet evaluated as an alternative model for male reproductive toxicity testing. We assessed the effects of media composition on sperm differentiation and testis morphology of cultured mouse testis fragments. METHODS: Testes from postnatal day 5 B6:CBA-Tg(Acrv1-EGFP)2727Redd/J male mice were cultured in knockout serum replacement (KSR) or Albumax I (Albumax) medium...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395574/naringenin-a-bioflavonoid-impairs-the-reproductive-potential-of-male-mice
#8
Pavitra Ranawat, Nikita Bakshi
Present study analyzed the effect of naringenin, a bioflavonoid, on male reproductive function in adult mouse, after intraperitoneal treatment with varying concentrations of naringenin (2, 8 and 20 mg/kg b.wt.) for two weeks. Naringenin increased the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the testis with concomitant decrease in sperm count and motility in a dose-dependent manner. Activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and levels of reduced glutathione were found to be decreased in a dose-dependent manner...
April 10, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395340/testicular-adenosine-to-inosine-rna-editing-in-the-mouse-is-mediated-by-adarb1%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#9
Elizabeth M Snyder, Konstantin Licht, Robert E Braun
Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing occurs in a wide range of tissues and cell types and can be catalyzed by one of the two adenosine deaminase acting on double-stranded RNA enzymes, ADAR and ADARB1. Editing can impact both coding and noncoding regions of RNA, and in higher organisms has been proposed to function in adaptive evolution. Neither the prevalence of A-to-I editing nor the role of either ADAR or ADARB1 has been examined in the context of germ cell development in mammals. Computational analysis of whole testis and cell-type specific RNA-sequencing data followed by molecular confirmation demonstrated that A-to-I RNA editing occurs in both the germ line and in somatic Sertoli cells in two targets, Cog3 and Rpa1...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395324/adeno-associated-virus-mediated-delivery-of-genes-to-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells%C3%A2
#10
Satoshi Watanabe, Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Narumi Ogonuki, Shogo Matoba, Atsuo Ogura, Takashi Shinohara
Spermatogenesis is a complicated process that originates from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which have self-renewal activity. Because SSCs are the only stem cells in the body that transmit genetic information to the next generation, they are an attractive target for germline modification. Although several virus vectors have been successfully used to transduce SSCs, cell toxicity or insertional mutagenesis of the transgene has limited their usage. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is unique among virus vectors because of its target specificity and low toxicity in somatic cells, and clinical trials have shown that it has promise for gene therapy...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390185/the-non-peptide-vasopressin-v1b-receptor-antagonist-ssr149415-ameliorates-spermatogenesis-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-social-defeat-stress
#11
Bin Wang, Jian Zhou, Yan-Yan Zhuang, Liang-Liang Wang, Jin-Xian Pu, Yu-Hua Huang, Fei Xia, Jin-Xing Lv
To determine the effects of SSR149415 on testis and spermatogenesis in male mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress, C57BL/6 male mice were divided into 2 groups: Control and Stress. Then Stress group was subdivided into 4 subgroups administered water, SSR149415 (1 mg/kg/day), SSR149415 (10 mg/kg/day), SSR149415 (30 mg/kg/day), respectively. The behavioral alterations revealed by social interaction test and open field test were measured. The physical indices, including body weight and gonad weight (testis and epididymis) as well as testis/body weight and cauda epididymis/body weight were detected...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389751/heat-shock-protein-a2-hspa2-regulatory-roles-in-germ-cell-development-and-sperm-function
#12
Brett Nixon, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Jinwei Cui, Geoffry N De Iuliis
Among the numerous families of heat shock protein (HSP) that have been implicated in the regulation of reproductive system development and function, those belonging to the 70 kDa HSP family have emerged as being indispensable for male fertility. In particular, the testis-enriched heat shock 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2) has been shown to be critical for the progression of germ cell differentiation during spermatogenesis in the mouse model. Beyond this developmentally important window, mounting evidence has also implicated HSPA2 in the functional transformation of the human sperm cell during their ascent of the female reproductive tract...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388629/a-tubulin-alpha-8-mouse-knockout-model-indicates-a-likely-role-in-spermatogenesis-but-not-in-brain-development
#13
Christine P Diggle, Isabel Martinez-Garay, Zoltan Molnar, Martin H Brinkworth, Ed White, Ewan Fowler, Ruth Hughes, Bruce E Hayward, Ian M Carr, Christopher M Watson, Laura Crinnion, Aruna Asipu, Ben Woodman, P Louise Coletta, Alexander F Markham, T Neil Dear, David T Bonthron, Michelle Peckham, Ewan E Morrison, Eamonn Sheridan
Tubulin alpha 8 (Tuba8) is the most divergent member of the highly conserved alpha tubulin family, and uniquely lacks two key post-translational modification sites. It is abundantly expressed in testis and muscle, with lower levels in the brain. We previously identified homozygous hypomorphic TUBA8 mutations in human subjects with a polymicrogyria (PMG) syndrome, suggesting its involvement in development of the cerebral cortex. We have now generated and characterized a Tuba8 knockout mouse model. Homozygous mice were confirmed to lack Tuba8 protein in the testis, but did not display PMG and appeared to be neurologically normal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387711/descriptive-analysis-of-lap1-distribution-and-that-of-associated-proteins-throughout-spermatogenesis
#14
Joana B Serrano, Filipa Martins, João C Sousa, Cátia D Pereira, Ans M M van Pelt, Sandra Rebelo, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Spermatogenesis comprises highly complex differentiation processes. Nuclear envelope (NE) proteins have been associated with these processes, including lamins, lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2 and the lamin B-receptor. LAP1 is an important NE protein whose function has not been fully elucidated, but several binding partners allow predicting putative LAP1 functions. To date, LAP1 had not been associated with spermatogenesis. In this study, LAP1 expression and cellular/subcellular localization during spermatogenesis in human and mouse testes is established for the first time...
April 7, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379539/foxa3-is-expressed-in-multiple-cell-lineages-in-the-mouse-testis-and-regulates-pdgfra-expression-in-leydig-cells
#15
Gabriel Garon, Francis Bergeron, Catherine Brousseau, Nicholas M Robert, Jacques J Tremblay
The three FOXA transcription factors are mainly known for their roles in the liver. However, Foxa3-deficient mice become progressively sub/infertile due to germ cell. Since no data was available regarding the localization of the FOXA3 protein in the testis, immunohistochemistry was performed on mouse testis sections. In the fetal testis, a weak but consistent staining for FOXA3 is detected in the nucleus of Sertoli cells. In prepubertal and adult life, FOXA3 remains present in Sertoli cells of some but not all seminiferous tubules...
April 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373495/spermatogonial-stem-cell-transplantation-to-the-testis
#16
Shaun Goodyear, Ralph Brinster
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are located in the basal region of the seminiferous tubules and provide a self-renewing reservoir from which progenitor spermatogonia arise and transiently amplify in number before transition to a differentiating state. SSC transplantation involves grafting mouse testicular cells into the seminiferous tubules of an aspermic recipient testis that is generated either by chemical (e.g., busulfan) treatment or genetic mutations.
April 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369535/the-production-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-by-human-sertoli-cells-is-substantially-reduced-in-sertoli-cell-only-testes
#17
D Singh, D A Paduch, P N Schlegel, K E Orwig, A Mielnik, A Bolyakov, W W Wright
STUDY QUESTION: Do human Sertoli cells in testes that exhibit the Sertoli cell-only (SCO) phenotype produce substantially less glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) than Sertoli cells in normal testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: In human SCO testes, both the amounts of GDNF mRNA per testis and the concentration of GDNF protein per Sertoli cell are markedly reduced as compared to normal testes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vivo, GDNF is required to sustain the numbers and function of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and their immediate progeny, transit-amplifying progenitor spermatogonia...
May 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364521/rna-immunoprecipitation-identifies-novel-targets-of-dazl-in-human-foetal-ovary
#18
Roseanne Rosario, Richard W P Smith, Ian R Adams, Richard A Anderson
Study question: Can novel meiotic RNA targets of DAZL (deleted in azoospermia-like) be identified in the human foetal ovary? Summary answer: SYCP1 (synaptonemal complex protein-1), TEX11 (testis expressed 11) and SMC1B (structural maintenance of chromosomes 1B) are novel DAZL targets in the human foetal ovary, thus DAZL may have previously unrecognised roles in the translational regulation of RNAs involved in chromosome cohesion and DNA recombination in the oocyte from the time of initiation of meiosis...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355598/two-novel-tex15-mutations-in-a-family-with-nonobstructive-azoospermia
#19
Roberto Colombo, Alessandro Pontoglio, Maurizio Bini
AIM: Genetic investigations explain only a small percentage of cases of nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), a condition that affects up to 2% of infertile couples. This study aimed to identify further genomic variants that are associated with primary spermatogenic failure within the testis. METHODS: One family with 2 infertile siblings affected by NOA was genotyped by whole-exome sequencing. DNA variants were filtered based on quality score, allele frequency, and functional roles of genes in spermatogenesis...
March 30, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349399/imaging-of-chromosome-dynamics-in-mouse-testis-tissue-by-immuno-fish
#20
Harry Scherthan
The mouse (Mus musculus) represents the central mammalian genetic model system for biomedical and developmental research. Mutant mouse models have provided important insights into chromosome dynamics during the complex meiotic differentiation program that compensates for the genome doubling at fertilization. Homologous chromosomes (homologues) undergo dynamic pairing and recombine during first meiotic prophase before they become partitioned into four haploid sets by two consecutive meiotic divisions that lack an intervening S-phase...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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