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Chong Hyun Suh, Ho Sung Kim, Seung Chai Jung, Choong Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim
Background: Noninvasive and accurate modality to predict Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant glioma may have great potential in routine clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for prediction of IDH mutant glioma and provide an optimal cut-off value for 2HG. Methods: A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed to identify original articles investigating the diagnostic performance of 2HG MRS up to March 20, 2018...
July 18, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Alexander P Benz, Mate Vamos, Julia W Erath, Stefan H Hohnloser
Aims: Cephalic vein cutdown (CVC) and subclavian puncture (SP) are widely used techniques for lead insertion of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Whether one technique is superior to the other, is still being debated. The purpose of this study was to compare CVC vs. SP for lead implantation in CIEDs with respect to the incidence of pneumothorax, lead failure, and bleeding. Methods and results: We performed a systematic search of the pertinent literature on lead implantation in CIEDs via PubMed and Cochrane databases published over the last 25 years...
July 17, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Elvis Temfack, Jean Joel Bigna, Henry N Luma, Rene Spijker, Graeme Meintjes, Joseph N Jarvis, Françoise Dromer, Thomas Harrison, Jérémie F Cohen, Olivier Lortholary
Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening and targeted pre-emptive fluconazole in antiretroviral naive HIV-infected adults with less than 100 CD4 cells/μL seems promising to reduce the burden of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science and used random-effect meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of blood CrAg-positivity (31 studies; 35,644 participants) and asymptomatic CM in CrAg-positives, incidence of CM and all-cause mortality in screened participants. Pooled prevalence of blood CrAg-positivity was 6% (95%CI: 5 - 7) and asymptomatic CM in CrAg-positives was 33% (95%CI: 21 - 45)...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Orjola Shahaj, Diarmuid Denneny, Anna Schwappach, Gemma Pearce, Eleni Epiphaniou, Hannah L Parke, Stephanie J C Taylor, Hilary Pinnock
OBJECTIVES: Globally, healthcare policy promotes supported self-management as a strategy for people with long-term conditions. This meta-review aimed to explore how people with hypertension make sense of their condition, to assess the effectiveness of supported self-management in hypertension, and to identify effective components of support. METHODS: From a search of eight databases (January 1993-October 2012; update June 2017) we included systematic syntheses of qualitative studies of patients' experiences, and systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of supported self-management on blood pressure and medication adherence...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Philip A Kalra, Alexandru Burlacu, Charles J Ferro, Adrian Covic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation is common in patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) and historically patients have been treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA). However, these agents have questionable efficacy and are associated with increased bleeding risk. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have advantages over VKA in early stage CKD. In this review, we sought to establish evidence for best practice in patients with severe CKD (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min including dialysis patients) and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Christopher Vannabouathong, Mohit Bhandari, Asheesh Bedi, Vickas Khanna, Patrick Yung, Vijay Shetty, Moin Khan
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommending various nonoperative treatments for patients with knee osteoarthritis remain inconsistent. Much of this controversy relates to what constitutes a clinically important effect. The purposes of the present study were to compare treatment effect sizes from recent meta-analyses evaluating pharmacological or medical device interventions for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis and to further assess the clinical impact that the intra-articular placebo effect may have on intra-articular injection therapies...
July 17, 2018: JBJS Reviews
Fuyuan Liao, Ruopeng An, Fang Pu, Stephanie Burns, Sa Shen, Yih-Kuen Jan
The objectives of this study were to examine the effectiveness of different types of exercise on risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers, including glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and diabetic peripheral neuropathy, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and CINAHL were searched from inception to January 2018 for relevant articles. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined effects of exercise on the selected risk factors...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Daisuke Ueshima, Luca Nai Fovino, Marco Mojoli, Massimo Napodano, Chiara Fraccaro, Giuseppe Tarantini
BACKGROUND: Previous implantation of a permanent pacemaker (PPM) is common among patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Moreover, onset of conduction disturbances needing new PPM implantation after TAVI is frequent. The interplay of pre-existing and new-PPM on mortality after TAVI remains controversial. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and study-level meta-analysis on the influence of PPM on mortality after TAVI. Patients were divided into 3 groups: pre-existing PPM, new-PPM (implantation within 30 days after TAVI) and no-PPM (without PPM up to 30 days after TAVI)...
July 18, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Nicole Martin, Charlene Bridges, Julii S Brainard, Xia Wang, Tracey J Brown, Sarah Hanson, Oluseyi F Jimoh, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Katherine Ho Deane, Fujian Song, Lee Hooper
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the health effects of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is equivocal. Fish oils are rich in omega-3 PUFA and plant oils in omega-6 PUFA. Evidence suggests that increasing PUFA-rich foods, supplements or supplemented foods can reduce serum cholesterol, but may increase body weight, so overall cardiovascular effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing total PUFA intake on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, lipids and adiposity in adults...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Tracey J Brown, Julii S Brainard, Priti Biswas, Gabrielle C Thorpe, Helen J Moore, Katherine Ho Deane, Fai K AlAbdulghafoor, Carolyn D Summerbell, Helen V Worthington, Fujian Song, Lee Hooper
BACKGROUND: Researchers have suggested that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from oily fish (long-chain omega-3 (LCn3), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), as well as from plants (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) benefit cardiovascular health. Guidelines recommend increasing omega-3-rich foods, and sometimes supplementation, but recent trials have not confirmed this. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increased intake of fish- and plant-based omega-3 for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CVD) events, adiposity and lipids...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lee Hooper, Lena Al-Khudairy, Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Karen Rees, Julii S Brainard, Tracey J Brown, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Alex T O'Brien, Lauren E Winstanley, Daisy H Donaldson, Fujian Song, Katherine Ho Deane
BACKGROUND: Omega-6 fats are polyunsaturated fats vital for many physiological functions, but their effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is debated. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing omega-6 fats (linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)) on CVD and all-cause mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to May 2017 and clinicaltrials...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nicholas Karlow, Charles H Schlaepfer, Carolyn R T Stoll, Michelle Doering, Christopher R Carpenter, Graham A Colditz, Sergey Motov, Joshua Miller, Evan S Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Opioids are commonly prescribed in the emergency department (ED) for the treatment of acute pain. Analgesic alternatives are being explored in response to an epidemic of opioid misuse. Low-dose ketamine (LDK) is one opioid alternative for the treatment of acute pain in the ED. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to quantify whether LDK is an effective and safe opioid alternative for acute pain reduction in adults in the ED setting...
July 17, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Chen Li, Huiru Yin, Jinping Zhao, Binghan Shang, Mingyue Hu, Ping Zhang, Li Chen
AIMS: To systematically examine the efficacy of interventions aimed at improving nursing students' mental health and to identify which form of interventions was effective. BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated mental disorders in common among nursing students and may lead to adverse consequences like low self-efficacy and poor academic performance. DESIGN: According to the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Georgia I Vagropoulou, Georgia L Klifopoulou, Stefania G Vlahou, Hiroshi Hirayama, Konstantinos Michalakis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify if different types of indirect restorations used for single teeth had different biological and technical complications, as well as survival rates. METHOD: An electronic search was performed in various electronic databases to identify articles, published between 1980 and 2017. The search terms were categorized into four groups: inlay, onlay, inlay/onlay and crown. Manual searches of published full-text articles and related reviews were also performed...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Isabel Yorke, Pippa White, Amelia Weston, Monica Rafla, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff
The original version of this article contains additional supplementary material which was omitted during the initial submission and it was not published. These are graphical representations of the studies and effect sizes in each meta-analysis. Please note that there is no change to the main body of the article, data entered, or conclusions drawn from the meta-analyses.
July 18, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Juan Zhang, Yaxuan Meng, Jinbo He, Yutao Xiang, Chenggang Wu, Shibin Wang, Zhen Yuan
By synthesizing existing behavioural studies through a meta-analytic approach, the current study compared the performances of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing groups in audiovisual speech integration and investigated potential moderators that might contribute to the heterogeneity of the existing findings. In total, nine studies were included in the current study, and the pooled overall difference between the two groups was significant, g = - 0.835 (p < 0.001; 95% CI - 1.155 to - 0...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Pelvic exenteration is potentially curative for locally advanced and recurrent pelvic cancers. Evolving technology has facilitated the use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques in selected cases. We aimed to compare outcomes between open and MIS pelvic exenteration. METHODS: A review of comparative studies was performed. Firstly, we evaluated the differences in surgical techniques with respect to operative time, blood loss, and margin status...
July 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Natasha Ironside, Daniel Brenner, Eric Heyer, Ching-Jen Chen, Trae Robison, Brandon Christophe, Edward Sander Connolly
BACKGROUND: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is associated with perioperative stroke and mortality in a minority of cases. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of pre-operative statins on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing CEA for internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. Studies were included which reported perioperative stroke and/or survival outcomes following CEA for ICA stenosis and compared patients who were and were not taking pre-operative statins...
July 18, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Chiara Robba, Gregorio Santori, Marek Czosnyka, Francesco Corradi, Nicola Bragazzi, Llewellyn Padayachy, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Giuseppe Citerio
PURPOSE: Although invasive intracranial devices (IIDs) are the gold standard for intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement, ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) has been suggested as a potential non-invasive ICP estimator. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sonographic ONSD measurement for assessment of intracranial hypertension (IH) in adult patients. METHODS: We searched on electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed® , Scopus® , Web of Science® , ScienceDirect® , Cochrane Library® ) until 31 May 2018 for comparative studies that evaluated the efficacy of sonographic ONSD vs...
July 17, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
R L Nelson, A Kravets, R Khateeb, M Raza, M Siddiqui, I Taha, A Tummala, R Epple, S Huang, M Wen
BACKGROUND: Among the techniques investigated to reduce the risk of surgical wound infection or surgical space infection (SSI) in patients having colorectal surgery are topical application of antimicrobials (antibiotics and antiseptics) to the open wound or immediately after closure. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on those treatments, with the exception of antibiotic ointments applied to closed skin, which are adequately assessed elsewhere, and a meta-analysis...
July 17, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
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